WeCreativez WhatsApp Support
Welcome to Projects Ng Support
if you need help simply reply to this message, we are online and ready to help.

Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

RAHEENA ADERONKE ADELEKE

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: PERCEPTION OF FARMERS IN RURAL NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA ON A NEWLY INTRODUCED SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE TECHNIQUE
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [1.31 MB]
  • Length: [36] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

The world is at the verge of having a global crisis, with environmental degradation and malnourishment being two points of focus. Industrial agriculture, otherwise referred to as conventional agriculture, has led to ecological degradation globally. The use of heavy machinery, chemical fertilizers, heavy irrigation, and intensive tillage have had negative impacts on the environment and future generations. A solution in form of sustainable agriculture and its methods have the potential to replace conventional agriculture. Sustainable agriculture attempts to produce food in the same quantity as industrial agriculture, but while ensuring environmental, social, and economic factors are at equilibrium. The willingness of farmers to adopt such techniques, however, remains unclear. This study examined farmers’ perceptions and personal adoption of a newly introduced sustainable agriculture technique, permaculture, in a rural, semi-arid region of northeastern Nigeria. All respondents participated in a training program in permaculture in 2015. Perceptions were measured based on increase in crop yields and social benefits. Questionnaires (n = 34) were used to obtain data from respondents. Using descriptive statistics, multinomial logistic regression analyses, and crosstabulations, I found that 33 of the 34 respondents experienced an increase in their crop yields. While most respondents experienced social benefits, these benefits were more commonly reported among women. My findings suggest that rural farmers have a positive disposition toward sustainable agriculture and permaculture in particular.
Keywords: Conventional agriculture, crop yield, Nigeria, perceptions, permaculture, social benefit, sustainable agriculture

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………… ii
READERS’ APPROVAL ………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………. iv
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………………………. viii
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………………………………. ix
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
HYPOTHESES, AIMS, & OBJECTIVES ……………………………………………………………… 10
CHAPTER 2 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
METHODS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11
Study Site ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 11
Data Collection & Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
Ethical Guidelines ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
CHAPTER 3 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 15
RESULTS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15
Demographic Characteristics…………………………………………………………………………………… 15
Occupation and Crop Yield……………………………………………………………………………………… .16
Social Aspect……………………………………………………………………………………………………………17
CHAPTER 4 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19
DISCUSSION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………19
CHAPTER 5 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
CONCLUSION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
APPENDIX I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
REFERENCES…………………………………………..…………………………………26

 

CHAPTER ONE

The word sustain originated from the Latin word sustinere, which means to maintain or to keep in existence (Gold, 2015). Sustainability is based on the philosophy that we are obligated to meet the needs of the present generation without compromising that of the future. A historical definition of agriculture states that it is a science which educates us on what crops are to be planted on a particular type of soil and what processes are involved in order to achieve high yields. Understanding the definition of these two terms results in a concept known as sustainable agriculture, it is an essential motion that is important for the future of farming and may protect the world’s food and crop system from degenerating. Sustainable agriculture can simply be elucidated as a process of producing crops in such a way that the economic, environmental and social aspects of farming are at equilibrium (Kopali 2013). It can also be defined as a philosophy based on human achievements and understanding the future impacts of our activities on the environment and other living organisms.
Various researchers have described sustainable agriculture, each description depends on the location and is different from one zone to the other, there is yet to be a finalized definition of sustainable agriculture (Kotile, 1998). Sustainable agriculture is often referred to as alternative farming, organic farming, ecological farming or regenerative farming (Lockeretz, 1988). Sustainable agriculture is the solution to problems that come along with farming in an ecological way (Lal, 2008). Unlike conventional agriculture which is driven by profit and productivity, sustainable agriculture is more concerned with the use of physical, ecological, chemical, economic and social aspects of agriculture to develop new farming methods that are
2
safe and have no negative effect on the environment (Lichtfouse, 2009). It aims to maintain soil fertility, elude pollution, use of crop rotation and use of animals such as cows instead of machines (Trewaves, 2001). Malnourished children in underdeveloped nations, overweight children in developed nations, global warming, worldwide chemical pollutions which often result to dead zones, desertification and much more are obvious reasons that conventional agriculture is, in fact, detrimental to the Earth (Lal, 2008). Sustainable agriculture puts into consideration the medium and long term effects of agricultural practices on the agroecosystem. It endeavors to attain great yield and at the same time achieving ecological equilibrium to gain soil fertility and environmental hygiene. It takes a proactive approach instead of solving problems as they occur (FAO, 2016). A research on 17 states in the United States of America deduced that sustainable farmers mostly made use of cover crops, minimum tillage, crop rotation, and mowing as the major practices for weed control (Hanson, 1995).
There are many benefits of sustainable agriculture some of which might include:
Increase in soil quality via soil building techniques such as cover crops, crop rotation, minimum or no tillage and use of organic manure such as compost. These practices improve soil structure and function which encourage soil’s fauna and flora. The soil has a better capacity to retain nutrients and water; energy and nutrient cycles are also increased. These practices also helps to control soil erosion by protecting it from erosive forces. Soil biodiversity increases and the loss of nutrients are reduced. Good soil tends to have an effect on, harvest, it increases yields and also creates healthier crops. Due to chemical fertilizers and pesticides, agricultural areas tend to pollute groundwater. Fertilizers used for conventional farming are made with
3
phosphorus and nitrogen that eventually find their way into rivers, lakes, and other water bodies, this results in the excess nutrition of microorganisms such as phytoplankton found in the water (Mushtaq, 2015). The microorganisms then begin to deplete the oxygen, suffocating aquatic animals and finally resulting in dead zones. The use of these chemical fertilizers will have a long-term effect on the sustainability of farming, consumer’s health and the health of the farmer’s themselves. Replacing these synthetic products with more organic manure such as animal compost and hay, enhances soil structure and water infiltration decreases the risk of water pollution.
Sustainable agriculture decreases the need for non-renewable resources by decreasing agrochemical demands. Carbon found in the soil can be sequestered by using sustainable techniques, this process mitigates the greenhouse effect and global warming (Gold, 2015). As more organic carbon is retained in the soil, the potential of mitigating climate change also increases. Nevertheless, there is need for more research in this field. There is little or no ecological data on soil organic carbon for developing countries, with a lack of comparison between farm systems in Africa and Latin America (Lal, 2008).
Sustainable agriculture also helps support biodiversity at all levels of organization. At the gene level, indigenous and adapted seeds and breeds are more suitable as they are able to resist infections and can handle climatic stress compared to any hybrid variety. At the species level, variation of plants, soil microorganisms, and animals enhance the nutrient and energy cycle for agricultural production (Hanson, 1995). At the ecosystem level, the conservation of natural environment around the organic
4
farms and lack of chemical use create appropriate habitats for wildlife. The use of neglected species such as loquat, longan, and cashew, often for crop rotation, helps decrease erosion of agrobiodiversity, in the process creating a healthier gene pool (FAO, 2016). Although there are various sustainable techniques as it relates to agriculture, this study is going to discuss about the permaculture technique.
The word permaculture is a combination of the words permanent and agriculture, it is a different approach to sustainable agriculture. It proves that it is possible to design the ecosystem to serve the human population without degrading the environment (Rhodes, 2015). It integrates animals, human, landscapes and plants into a single functioning system. Permaculture began in Australia in 1978 and was introduced by Bill Mollison and David Holmgren, it has now developed into an international movement with demonstration sites and farm models around the world (Simmons, 2006). Research has proven it successful in every climate including the tropics, mountains, shores and deserts (Holmgren, 2002). It does not require a lot of materials, energy or human labor for, maintenance; it is powered by the recycling of waste products. It decreases pollution and also increases yield by the use of high-yielding species.
Permaculture is a system of design that aims to imitate nature by thoroughly observing the natural cycles, energies, and resources on a farm site. By creating patterns such as the ones shown in figure two that harmonize with patterns of the earth permaculture assists with energy flow and water runoff in farm lands (Bell, 2005). Permaculture makes use of manure which is basically made of animal waste and hay, manure is composed of most elements needed for the growth of plants. It
5
helps improve the soil structure, subsequently improving water infiltration leading to decrease in crop water stress and erosion (Holmgren, 2002).
The population of the world is expected to reach 9.2 billion people by the year 2050, this is 34% higher than it is today. With this dramatic change, it is expected that food
Figure 2Figure 2 Figure 2Figure 2Figure 2 : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. : Compost manure used for permaculture in Bole community. Credit:Credit:Credit: Credit:Credit: Ogundijo Rotimi Ogundijo RotimiOgundijo RotimiOgundijo RotimiOgundijo Rotimi Ogundijo RotimiOgundijo RotimiOgundijo RotimiOgundijo Rotimi
Figure 1: Figure 1:Figure 1: Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole Permaculture pattern done on the farm model in Bole community. community. community. community. community. community. Credit: Ogundijo, RotimiCredit: Ogundijo, RotimiCredit: Ogundijo, Rotimi Credit: Ogundijo, Rotimi Credit: Ogundijo, Rotimi Credit: Ogundijo, RotimiCredit: Ogundijo, RotimiCredit: Ogundijo, RotimiCredit: Ogundijo, Rotimi Credit: Ogundijo, RotimiCredit: Ogundijo, RotimiCredit: Ogundijo, RotimiCredit: Ogundijo, RotimiCredit: Ogundijo, Rotimi
6
production will also have to increase to accommodate the entire population. The ability of African farmers to handle this drastic change is a course for concern, especially with the fact that African’s are already facing harsh factors such as: Food security, climate uncertainty, malnutrition and economic pressure. Countries such as South-Africa and Kenya have begun to find sustainable solutions to this problem. The World Wildlife Fund have made efforts to promote sustainable agriculture in South Africa and minimize the adverse effects of farming on the environment (WWF-SA, 2014). The Kenya Sustainable Agriculture Land Management Project has helped small-holder farmers build smart agriculture skills. It has implemented Agroforestry, on approximately 45,000 hectares in Kenya’s Nyanza and Western provinces (The World Bank, 2015).
Agriculture in Nigeria has over the past decade continued to deteriorate. Up until the 1970’s, agriculture in Nigeria was its major source of income; but due to the discovery of oils just before independence and the adverse effect of the civil war in the 1960’s, agricultural development has not been much of a success (Manyong, 2005). Since independence in 1960, decisions taken by the government has left agriculture in second place to oil produce. Coffee, rubber and palm oil plantations in the East and Mid-West were deserted, same for the cocoa plantations in the West and the groundnut pyramids in the North (Adedeji, 2010). Agriculture in Nigeria used to provide 85% of its foreign exchange making food very cheap (Adedeji, 2010). Nigeria’s overdependence on oil has put its economy in a downward spiral. The government and nation at large have come to this realization and various programs have been brought up with the purpose of ushering the population back into agriculture. Unfortunately very little has been achieved, some of these programs
7
include National Land Development Authority (NALDA), Operation Feed the Nation (OFN), National Food Acceleration Protection Program (NAFPP) and many more. There have also been policies put in place such as the policy of self-sufficiency in food and raw material production, rural development, self-employment, privatization of public enterprises and increased export promotion which are all under the structural adjustment program (Titilola, 1987). The trend of green revolution and organic agriculture originated from already developed countries like the United States of America. These programs are thought to have failed in Nigeria due to factors like:
 Lack of investigation and monitoring of already established programs, to evaluate their success or failure rate leading to abandonment. (reason why this research is a necessity as it investigates the already established sustainable program by AUN for farmers in the Bole Community)
 Lack of properly functioning agricultural policies in Nigeria that do not support sustainable farming
 The stereotypic belief that agriculture is for the poor, this leads to negative attitudes towards farming
 Lack of knowledge on new ideas and developments in the agricultural sector
 Economic constraints (Adeola, 2015)
Sustainable Agriculture in Nigeria is still at a very young stage, to achieve the goal of sustainability, it is essential for the farmers to gain a better understanding of the system. Nevertheless, it is important to know that no agriculture is sustainable except it is profitable and is able to maintain farming families, in the sense that it provides
8
very good income and good quality of life. Knowledge is a part of human behavior, hence placing emphasis on the importance of examining farmer’s perception of the idea of SAP.
Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest level of produce, observed; Nigeria is located there and is characterized by rain-fed agriculture, lack of food and management practices (Adeola, 2015). This research is designed to investigate the perception of farmers with regards to different practices of sustainable agriculture.
The American University of Nigeria (AUN) received a grant of twenty six thousand, six hundred and sixty three dollars from the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) to train IDP farmers and provide them with start-up equipment and seeds. The Office of Sustainability at AUN took up that project; they delivered and distributed seeds and farm implements to 100 farmers. In addition, they conducted a two-day training for one hundred farmers in June 2016. These farmers were taught the principles and techniques of sustainable agriculture, specifically permaculture.
The type of agriculture used by most of these farmers before SAP was conventional agriculture, which is based on the use of industrial chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other synthetic products for farming. Initially, this was accepted by farmers worldwide, harvests came in multiples, more than farmers had seen before. There was little or no degeneration of the soil and the pests had not adapted to pesticides (Mushtaq, 2015). With time, pesticides have become a household need; the common use of these products has caused havoc in our soil and water.

GET THE FULL WORK

DISCLAIMER:
All project works, files and documents posted on this website, projects.ng are the property/copyright of their respective owners. They are for research reference/guidance purposes only and the works are crowd-sourced. Please don’t submit someone’s work as your own to avoid plagiarism and its consequences. Use it as a guidance purpose only and not copy the work word for word (verbatim). Projects.ng is a repository of research works just like academia.edu, researchgate.net, scribd.com, docsity.com, coursehero and many other platforms where users upload works. The paid subscription on projects.ng is a means by which the website is maintained to support Open Education. If you see your work posted here, and you want it to be removed/credited, please call us on +2348159154070 or send us a mail together with the web address link to the work, to [email protected] We will reply to and honor every request. Please notice it may take up to 24 - 48 hours to process your request.