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ABSTRACT

This work is based on performance Analysis of DES and RSA suitability for different system
applications. The rationale behind the work was to find out how suitable DES (Data
Encryption Standard) and RSA (Rivest, Shamir and Adlemen) are for different application
systems under different systems requirements. In order to achieve these objectives, an
application that implements DES and RSA was developed using object oriented analysis and
design (OOAD) approach, and was implemented in java programming language. The
application was used to encrypt and decrypt different file sizes for DES and RSA. The
Encryption Execution Time (EET) and Decryption Execution Time (DET) were taken, and
throughput was calculated. Also, other parameters like security strength and memory
consumption of the two algorithms were gotten from the works reviewed. The work went
further to make a comparison based on EET and DET of DES and RSA using generated data.
Also, power consumption, memory usage, and security strength of the two algorithms were
compared. The result of the analysis shows that DES is faster than RSA, consumes low
power than RSA, takes less memory than RSA but weaker in security. While RSA is stronger
in security than DES, slower compare to DES, and consumes more power and memory than
DES. Therefore DES was judged suitable for applications where speed takes higher priority
than security and other requirement while RSA is more suitable for applications where
system security takes higher priority than other requirements.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification Page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page – – – – – – – – — – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – – – — – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – – – – – vi
List of figures – – – – – – – – – – – – – – ix
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – – – – – x
Abstract — – – – – – – – — — – – – – xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study – – – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Problem- – – – – – – – – – 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study — – – – – – – 2
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 3
1.5 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – – – 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Analysis of Algorithm – – – – – – – – – 8
2.2 Performance and suitability of an algorithm for a particular system Design 8
2.3 What is Security? – – – – – – – – – 9
2. 3. 1 Computer Security – – – – – – – 10
2. 3. 2 Network Security – – – – – – – – 10
2. 3.2.1 Issues of Networks – – – – – – – 10
2.3.3 Internet Security – – – – – – – — 11
2. 4 Cryptography Defined – – – – – – — — 12
2.4.1 Cryptography Goals – – – – – – — 12
2. 5 Types of Cryptography – – – – — —– 13
2.5.1 Symmetric Cryptography – – – – – —- – ——– 13
2.5. 2 Asymmetric Cryptography- – – – — — —– 14
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2. 6 Overview of Data Encryption Standard (DES) — – – – 15
2.7 Overview of RonRivest, Adi Shamir & Len Aldeman (RSA) – – 16
2.8 Cryptographic algorithms – – – – – – – 17
2.8.1 Data Encryption Standard (DES) – – – – – 17
2.8.2 Double DES – – – – – – – – – 18
2.8.3 Triple DES – – – – – – – – – 19
2.8.4 RSA- – – – – – – – – 20
2.8.5 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) – – – – – 21
CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
3.1 Analysis of the existing system – – – – – – – 23
3.1.1 Problems inherent in existing – – – – – – 29
3.2 Analysis of the proposed system – – – – – – 29
3.3 Object-Oriented Analysis of the proposed System – – – – 30
3.3.1 The Use Case Diagram of the system — – – – – – – 31
3.4 Object-Oriented Design of the System – – – – – 32
3.4.1 Class Diagram of the System – – – – – – 32
3.4.2 Sequence Diagram of the System – – – – – 34
3.5 Architecture of the system – – – – – – – – – 37
CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION
4.1 Choice of programming Language – – – – – – – 38
4.2 System specification- – – – – – – – – 38
4.2.1 Hardware Requirements – – – – – – – – 38
4.2.2 Software Requirements – — – – – – – – – 39
4.3. Development Platform — – – – – – – – 39
4.4 Module implementation – – – – – – – – – 39
4.4.1 Main menu implementation – – – – – — – 40
4.4.2 Submenu implementation – – – – – – – – 40
4.4.3 Screen Shots of the Software Demos – – – – – – 41
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CHAPTER FIVE: PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
5.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – 45
5.1 Evaluation Parameters – – – – – – – – 45
5.1.1 File Size – – – – – – – – – 45
5.1.2 Encryption computation Time – – – – – – – 46
5.1.3 Decryption Computation Time – – – – – – – – 46
5.1.4 Throughput – — – – – – – – – – – 46
5.2 Experimental Design – – – – – – – – – – 46
5.3 Performance Analysis – – – – – – – – – – 47
5.3.1 Analysis of Encryption Execution Time – – – – – – – – 47
5.3.2 Encryption Throughput – – – – – – – – – – – 48
5.3.3 Analysis of Decryption Execution Time – – – – – – – – 48
5.3.4 Decryption Throughput – – – – – – – – – – – – – 49
5.4 Discussion of Result – – – – – – – – – – – – 50
5.5 Summary of Performance of DES and RSA – – – – – – – – – 51
CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
6.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – – 53
6.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – 54
6.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – – – 54
REFERENCE – – – – – – – – – — – 56
APPENDIX
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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study
In our society today, we depend on Information Technology (IT) and this dependency
is continuously growing. Further existence and successful development of society without
computerized infrastructure is not feasible. On the other hand, due to the use of advanced
information technologies, the society has become more and more vulnerable. The failure or
misuse of information technology can negatively influence not only a single organization, but
can afflict a large number of people too. Therefore, information security has emerged as one
of the most important requirements or preconditions of the information age. When a message
is sent across an insecure network, it is most likely to pass through a number of machines on
the way [1]. Any of these machines is capable of reading and recording the message for
further use, and this do not portray privacy [2]. In reality, people would prefer to have their
message(s) concealed, so that they will be able to send a message that should be read only by
the intended recipient.
The quest for privacy has motivated researchers and system developers to adopt the
techniques of cryptography and intensive study of these two mostly used cryptographic
algorithms: Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA),
nevertheless, these algorithms have their strength and weakness which them suitable or not to
a particular information exchange.
For every system, there are basic priorities or requirements that the developer wants the
system to satisfy; it might be speed of processing, security of the data, small memory
consumption or others. And these priorities will affect the choice of the cryptographic
algorithm. Exchange of information like real-time communication requires high speed of data
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transfer, the user of the encryption algorithm therefore need very good knowledge of the
performance of DES and RSA under different circumstances of large volume of data, attacks,
system resource, etc in order to achieve the objective of the system.
According to [3], cryptography is the art and science of protecting information from
undesirable individuals by converting it into a form not understood by un-authorized persons
while it is stored and transmitted. The main goal of cryptography is keeping data secure from
unauthorized persons. This work examines the two most commonly used cryptographic
techniques: Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA), discusses
their similarities, differences, advantages and disadvantages as well as evaluating the
performance of each of the algorithm and also showing which one of the algorithm outperforms
the other.
1.2 Statement of Problem
An attempt to answer the following questions and many others constitutes the
problem statements for this study:
1. How can one determine which of the two security techniques: DES and RSA is better
for a particular information exchange?
2. How can one differentiate between DES and RSA?
3. How can one develop a piece of software for implementing security technique?
4. How can one assess the performance of a security technique?
5. How can one compare the performances of DES and RSA based on EET and DET
metrics?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main aim of the project work is comparative analysis of two cryptographic algorithms;
DES and RSA. The specific objectives include to:
(i) Examine each of the most commonly used security techniques: DES and RSA;
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(ii) Develop software for encrypting and decrypting DES and RSA.
(iii) Assess the performance of each based on some metrics.
(iv) Compare their performances using Microsoft Excel.
1.4 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study covers implementation of DES and RSA in java programming
language and majorly checking the speed at which DES and RSA encrypt and decrypt
different file sizes.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Cryptographic algorithms and protocols are necessary to keep a system secured, particularly
when communicating through an open network like the Internet. This has been of much
concern to the society. The society at large needs security and those that are into e-business
are not left out, for instance, the banking sector are involved in various transactions and their
private files that contain these transactions ought to be secured in order to avoid unauthorized
attackers invading other peoples’ accounts and hacking into the bank’s system. Also the
telecommunication firms operating in Nigeria namely, MTN, Glo, Etisalat, etc. have need of
high security in order to keep their networks safe. The society is not complete if the
government is not mentioned, the government agencies require security to protect their
confidential information/data from unauthorized attackers. This research shall aid the system
analyst or the system developer to be able to make a decision on the cryptographic algorithm
to use when designing a particular system and this decision will be base on the particular
function the system will be performing.
1.6 Definition of Terms
Security: Security is a system of safeguards designed to protect something from deliberate or
accidental damage or access by unauthorized persons [4].
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Computer Security: According to [5], Computer Security is the process of preventing and
detecting unauthorized use of your computer.
Computer Network: A network is a group of interconnected systems sharing services and
interacting by means of a shared communications link [6].
Internet: Internet is a network of thousands of computer networks that allow computers to
communicate with each other [7]. Internet is also known as the information superhighway.
The information superhighway or the internet is one of the most important developments in
the history of information systems [8].
Network Security: Internet security involves securing data transmissions as well as
protecting the site from intrusions [9]. A system is secure if it adequately protects information
that it processes against unauthorized disclosure, unauthorized modification, and authorized
withholding (also called denial of service) [10].
System Security: System Security involves the security of the operating system of a
computer.
Communication Security: Communication security involves the preserving of
data/information as they are being sent across networks to guarantee privacy. How secure are
the communications channels to transmit our data? Some form of encryption mechanism to
keep the information private may be necessary.
Data Security: Having established a secure communication channel to transmit data, the
next issue is how secure are the data on the other end on the network? The operating system
should be able to provide protective mechanisms to secure the data, but for sensitive data,
some form of encryption mechanisms may be necessary mostly when the data is stored on a
disk.
xvi
Authentication and authorization: Authentication is a way of asking “who are you?” The
use of passwords has become popular methods of authenticating users to computer systems.
Authorization is a way of asking “what are you allowed to do?”
Threats: Threats are attacks that may occur as a result of communications over open
insecure network. The client and application may be attacked. Possible attacks include:
Content Alteration, Data Contamination, Substitution Attack, Authentication Attack,
Eavesdropping, Theft and Fraud, Service Interruption, Cryptanalysis and Masquerading.
Cryptosystems: Cryptosystems is considered to be the collection of encryption and
decryption systems, the key generator, as well as the protocols for key transmission [11]. The
term cryptosystems is used to describe cryptographic algorithms and their characteristics.
Cryptographic Protocols: The term cryptographic protocols, is used to describe the
composition and application of cryptographic algorithms with regards to securing of a
communication’s channel or information in a database. A protocol is a series of steps taken to
accomplish a task. In fact that is also the definition of an algorithm but we use algorithm to
refer to the attainment of internal, mathematical results like encrypting a block, and protocol
to refer to the attainment of user-visible results such as secret communication and digital
signatures [12].
Key Management: The term key management is used to refer to the fundamental problems
of creating, distributing, and storing keys.
Cipher: A cipher is a character-for-character or bit-for-bit manipulation irrespective of the
language structure of the message/data. In other words, a cipher is an algorithm for executing
encryption and decryption.
Encryption: Encryption or enciphering is the scrambling of data/messages in some way to
make it unreadable.
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Decryption: Decryption or deciphering is the unscrambling of data/messages in some way
to make it readable. Decryption or deciphering is possible with keys that are related. A
message read/sent across a network or communication channel is referred to as the plaintext
whereas the encrypted message is the ciphertext.
Cryptographic Algorithms: A cryptographic algorithm is defined to be the mathematical
description of the enciphering and deciphering processes together with the interrelation
between their keys. Cryptographic algorithm is more software oriented [11].
Symmetric Cryptosystems: In a symmetric cryptosystem the message or plaintext is
encrypted using a key. The resulting ciphertext is sent to the recipient, who decrypts the
message using the same key. Note: that the same key must be known to both parties.
Asymmetric Cryptosystems: Asymmetric cryptosystems involves two keys – a private key
and a public key that are mathematically related. A message encrypted with one key can be
decrypted only with the other. It is extremely difficult to determine the value of one key by
examining the other. In an asymmetric cryptosystem, the encryption key is different from the
decryption key. The public key is often called the encryption key.
Privacy: Privacy is a secret message whose contents are known only by the sender and
receiver. The recipient public key is used to encrypt the message and with the secret key in
his possession, he can decrypt the message.
Authentication: Authentication arises when the receiver knows who sent the message and
its genuineness and the sender knows that the message shall get to the intended recipient. The
recipient has the ability to authenticate the sender of the message by simply verifying a
digital signature.
Secret Communication: Secret communication is a situation whereby a message is made
secret and only the sender and intended recipient knows the content of the message.
xviii
Digital Signatures: A digital signature scheme is a public key algorithm that allows one to
authenticate a message by means of a piece of information called the signature. The
generation of the signature requires the knowledge of the signer’s private key, while for the
verification of the signature, only the knowledge of the corresponding public key is
necessary. If the public key is publicly accessible, then everybody can verify the signature,
while only the signer, who knows the private key, is able to sign.

 

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