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ABSTRACT

 

The study investigated personality, family conflict and age in marriage as predictors of postpartum
distress. Two hundred and seven (207) women in their postpartum period participated in the study and
were purposefully drawn from Federal Medical Center and Specialist Hospital Lokoja. Three hypotheses
were tested: Personality will not significantly related to postpartum distress. Family conflict will not
significantly related to postpartum distress. Age in marriage will not significantly related to postpartum
distress. Three instruments: Big five personality inventory, Symptoms distress checklist (SCL90) and
Family Environment Scale were used for data collection. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze
the data. The results showed a significant relationship between family conflict and somatization (β= .20,
t= 2.98, P < .005) and age in marriage (β= .16, t= 2.44, P < .05). The result also shows significant
relationship between family conflict and obsessive compulsion (β = .20, t= 2.90, P <.005) and age in
marriage (β= .13, t= 2.03, P < .05). The result also indicates a significant relationship between
extraversion and hostility (β= .18, t= 2.62, P < .05), Agreeableness and hostility (β= .23, t= 2.31, P < .05),
Openness and hostility (β= .26, t= 3.37, P < .005) and family conflict and hostility (β= .24, t= 3.68, P <
.005). It also showed a significant relationship between family conflict and phobic anxiety (β = .33,
t=5.04, P <.001) and age in marriage and phobic anxiety (β= .23, t= 3.53, P < .005). The implication and
limitations were discussed and suggestions were made for further study.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgments iv
Abstract v
Table of contents vi
List of tables vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Introduction 1
Statement of the problem 17
Purpose of the study 17
Operational definition of terms 18
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Theoretical Review 20
Empirical Review 34
Summary of literature Review 42
Hypotheses 44
CHAPTER THREE: METHOD
Participants 45
Instruments 45
Procedure 51
Design/Statistics 51
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 52
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION 65
Implication of the findings 68
Limitation of the study 70
Recommendations 70
Summaryand conclusion 71
REFERENCES 72
APPENDIXES

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
The birth of a child in several cultures is heralded with happiness; and feasts are
held to celebrate it. The period that follows child birth is termed postpartum period. It is
however a period that is known to be associated with events that can cause both
physiological and psychological changes in the life of the woman. It could be regarded as
a significant life event. Prominent risks to life have been associated with pregnancy, child
birth and postpartum. Life threatening events in pregnancy include hemorrhage,
infections, unsafe abortion, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and minor symptoms
ranging from vomiting, nausea and marked hypertension (MacArthur, 1991; MacArthur,
Lewis & Knox, 1991; Thorpe, Greenwood & Goodenough, 1995). Other changes occur
in biological secretions, immune systems and responses. Psychological symptoms include
anxiety, insomnia, and loss of socio-economic status, depression, eating disorders and
pains (Fisher, CabraldeMello & Izutsu, 2003). These may be a source of distress to the
mother during postpartum. A collection of symptoms that affects psychological or mental
health of women after child birth is termed postpartum distress including postpartum
blues, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis. The term postpartum and
postnatal can be used interchangeably.
In most parts of the world, attention is being given to the processes of alleviating
or treatment of physical or biological factors towards preventing maternal and infant
mortality and/or morbidity. As pregnancy, child birth and postpartum stages get safer,
with subsequent reduction in infant and maternal death from septic and infectious
procedures made possible by advanced methods in medicine. Much less attention has
been given to mental health as a contributing factor to maternal and infant wellbeing
(Affonsso & Mayberry, 1990). Violence is seen as contributing factor in maternal
mortality (Frausetchi, Ceralli, & Maine, 1994). Considering an integration of
psychological or mental health status of women during pregnancy, child birth and
postpartum are necessary. This is because during this period women often relinquish their
autonomy, personal liberty, occupation, identity, capacity to generate income and social
relation for caring and nurturing of the infant (Thorpe & Elliott, 1998). The rate and
determinants of suicide either in pregnancy or after child birth have proved difficult to
determine because of the extent to which the problem is under- estimated or obscured in
recording of the causes of death or due to unavailable systematic data.
Brockington (1998) opined that child birth should be seen as a general stressor
that can cause illness across the whole spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Postpartum or
postnatal period is a period of increased risk for development of mood/affective
disorders. There are three forms of postpartum affective illnesses: The blues (baby blues)
and maternal blues, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis. These differ in
their clinical presentation and management (Robertson, Calasum & Stewarts, 2008).
Maternal stress and mental illness seen to have a profound impact in less
developed parts of the world. A mother experiencing mental disorder in a low income
setting is at risk of providing sub-optimal care for her offspring, which have grave
consequences on the health of the woman. Poverty, overcrowding, poor sanitation,
malnutrition, tropical diseases, lack of appropriate medical and psychological services
may have impact on development of postpartum distress (Patel, DeSouza & Rodrigues,
2003; Rahman, Lovel, Bunn, Iqbal & Harrington, 2004).
The most common postpartum distress is the postpartum depression. It is a
clinical and research construct used to describe an episode of major or minor depression
arising from child birth (Cox, 1994; Epperson, 1999; Paykel, 2002). Postpartum
depression usually begins within the first month to twelve months after child birth. The
term is used to describe a non-psychotic depressive episode that begins in postpartum
period (Cox, Murray & Chapman, 1993). The period that starts from the moment the
placenta is expelled to six weeks is termed as early postpartum. After this period is
considered late postpartum period.
Maternal blues is a mild symptom occurring within the first ten days of child birth
(Pitt, 1973; Kenerly & Gath, 1986; Austrialia National Infancy Network, 2011). It is
characterized by a range of symptoms such as anxiety, crying, disturbance of sleep
(Wilkie & Shapiro, 1992) irritability, liability of mood between euphoria and misery,
heighten sensitivities, tearfulness without associated sadness, restless and poor
concentration (Yalom, 1968; Stein, 1982). Those symptoms may persist for hours up to
several days. However, the symptoms may remit in few days or weeks even without
experts’ interventions (O’Hara, Neunaber & Zekoski, 1984). In some women, postpartum
blues simply continues and becomes severe that expert attention is needed. In some cases,
there is a period of wellness after child birth which is followed by gradual onset of
depression. The pattern of symptoms in women with postpartum depression is similar to
those with clinical depression that are not related to child birth (Wisner, Parry & Piontek,
2002). The clinical presentation of postpartum depression is characterized by tearfulness,
despondency, emotional liability, feelings of guilt, loss of appetite and sleep disturbances;
other symptoms are feeling of inadequacy, unable to cope with infant care, poor
concentration and memory loss, fatigue and irritability (Robinson & Stewart, 2001). The
authors further state that women may worry excessively about baby’s health, feeding
habit and perceive themselves as “bad” inadequate or unloving mother.
Screening for postpartum mood disturbances can be difficult due to the fact that
numbers of somatic symptoms typically associated with having a new baby are also
symptoms of major depression (Nonacs & Cohen, 1998). Differentiating between
depressive episode and the supposed “normal” sequelae of child birth such as changes in
weight, sleep, libido and energy challenges complicate clinical diagnosis (Hostetter &
Stowe, 2002). International Classification of Diseases tenth edition ICD-10 (World
Health Organization, 1992) does not have a specific diagnostic category for postpartum
depression, it classifies postpartum depression as a depressive episode of mild (four
symptom) moderate (five symptoms) and severe (at least five symptoms with agitations,
feeling of worthlessness or guilt, suicidal thought or act). The Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition text revised (DSM-IV-TR) (American
Psychiatry Association, 2000) recognizes an onset within one month after giving birth as
postpartum depressive episode. However, Cramer (1993), Paykel (2002) argued that the
nosology did not differentiate postpartum depression from other depressive episode.
Postpartum depression differs from general depression in the perspective of time scale
(Evans, Heron, Francomb, Oke & Golding, 2001) and in the context of role transition, the
loss of familiarity, loss of control and the need to feel normal (Scandis, 2005).
Postpartum psychosis develops as an acute psychotic presentation within the first
month of postpartum. Postpartum psychoses have been associated with prim parity,
personal or family history of affective psychosis, unmarried status and prenatal death or
still birth. This is the most severe psychiatric illness associated with child birth (Kumar,
1994). Brockington (1996) described the symptoms of postpartum psychosis as odd affect
withdrawn, distracted by auditory hallucinations, incompetent, confused, catatonic or
alternatively elated labile, rambling in speech, agitated or excessively active. Clinical
characteristics of postpartum psychosis include acute onset and extreme affective
variation with manic and elation as well as sadness, thought disorders, delusion,
hallucination, disturbed behavior and confusion (Mark, 1992; Pfuhlmann, Stoeber &
Beckmann, 2002). Wisner, Peindl and Hanusa (1994) reported that women with child
bearing related onset of psychosis frequently experience cognitive disorganization and
unusual psychotic symptoms, most of which are often mood incongruent delusions of
reference, persecution, jealousy and grandiosity, along with visual, tactile or olfactory
hallucination that suggests chronic organic syndrome. Postpartum psychosis are mostly
described as cycloid affective illness since the rate of schizophrenic psychotic episodes
are not elevated post-natally (Brockington, Winokur & Dean, 1982; Brockington, 1992;
Kendell, Chalmers & Platz, 1987; Kumar,1994; Pfuhlmann, Stoeber & Beckmann, 2002).
The DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatry Association, 2000) allowed classification
of postpartum psychosis as a severe form of major depression as the onset/recurrent of a
primary psychotic disorder such as schizophrenia as preponderance of data suggest that
postpartum psychosis is an overt presentation of bipolar disorder following delivery of a
child (Yonkers, Wesner & Stowe, 2004). Among child bearing women who develop
postpartum psychosis 72-88% has bipolar illness or schizoaffective disorder, whereas
only 12% have schizophrenia psychopathology as factor that only predispose individual
to postpartum distress (Brockington, 1996; Wisner, Peindlf & Hanusa, 1995). However it
is not confirmed that premorbid psychopathology is a factor that only predispose
individual to postpartum distress. The way and manner people react to stress differ as
Mefoh (2007) rightly puts it that what one count as stressful may be an excitement to
others. This individual differences attribute of people occur as a result of personality,
which explains why people do not react to similar stimuli in the same way, including
reaction to distress of child birth.
Personality is described variously as that disposition to act in a particular way;
Gordon Allport (1937) proposed a definition that is accepted across board. He viewed
personality as dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical
systems that determine his/her characteristic behaviour and thought. The definition sees
personality as changing, structured traits involving the mind and the body, learned from
the past and predisposition to see person’s future actions that makes an individual unique
in his or her actions in the society. They identified four major categories of personality
traits those include sociable, aggressive, fearful and anxious. Allport and Odbert (1936)
define personality as general and personalized determinant or tendencies that is consistent
with mode of an individual adjustment to his/her environment. This classification is
elaborated to include biophysical and social roles that are enduring internal and physical
states of an individual. Eysenck (1970) define personality as a more or less stable and
enduring organization of a person’s character, temperament, intellect, and physique
which determine his unique adjustment to environment. He traced the differences
between extraversion and introversion to the level of cortical arousal and differences
between emotional stability and neuroticism to the level of visceral brain activities. He
stated that introversion and extroversion are related to arousal thresholds in the ascending
reticular activating system of the brain and that most emotional stability traits are related
to differences in visceral brain activation. He further postulate three traits important to
uniqueness of an individual, those are extraversion, neuroticism and psychotics.
Cattell (1943) used Allport and Odbert’s list as a starting point for his
multidimensional model of personality structures. He began with 4,500 traits items, using
factor analytic method, those traits were summarized into super structure which brought
them into relatively short variable. To make a short variable from Cattell’s 16 pf Coast
and McCrae developed the NEO Personality inventory with three broad measures of
Neuroticism, Extraversion and Openness to experience. However scales on agreeableness
and conscientiousness were later added to demonstrate that their five factor model
converge with adjective based measures of the Big Five, although their conceptions of
openness seems broader than intellect or imagination factor emerging from the lexical
analysis (Saucier & Goldberg, 1996).
The super trait of the big five model were developed by John and Srivastava
(1991) Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Consciousness scales.
Neuroticism high scorers exhibits anxiety, anger, hostility, depression, selfconsciousness,
impulsiveness and vulnerability. However those with low score on
neuroticism scale, according to Lynam, Caspi, Moffitt (2005), have the following
characteristics: lack of appropriate concern for potential dangers in health or social
adjustment; and exhibit emotional blandness. Extraversion traits is exhibited by warmth,
gregariousness, assertiveness, activity excitement seeking and positive emotions whereas
those with how scores on extroversion exhibit social isolation, interpersonal detachment
and lack the support of networks; flattened affect; lack of joy and vest for-life, reluctance
to assert self or assume leadership role, even when qualified, social inhibition and
shyness are common among them.
Openness denotes individuals with fantasy, aesthetic feelings, of actions, ideas,
values, and great understanding. Those who scores low on the domain exhibit difficulty
adapting to social or personal change; low tolerance or understanding of different points
of view or lifestyle; emotional blandness and inability to understand and verbalize own
feelings; alexithymia; constricted range of interests; insensitivity to art and beauty;
excessive conformity to authority. Agreeableness denotes trust, straightforwardness,
altruism, compliance modesty, and tender-mindedness. Those with low scorers shows
cynicism and paranoid thinking; inability to trust even friends or family;
quarrelsomeness; ready to pick fights, expletive and manipulative, lying; rude and
inconsiderate manner, alienate friends, limits social support; lack of respect for social
conventions which can lead to trouble with the law; inflated and grandiose sense of self,
and arrogance. Consciousness implies competence, order, dutifulness achievement
striving, self-discipline and deliberation, those who score low on the domain are
characterized by academic performance relative to ability; disregard of rules and
responsibilities can lead to trouble with law; unable to discipline self even when required
for medical reasons; personal and occupational aimlessness. Individual differences as
shown in this facet display a similar character as they react to all stimulus differently
including postpartum distress.
The individual attributes of a person and were she/he lives and socializes need to
be conducive, clear of clashes and disagreements. This unit of socialization and custodian
of one’s culture can significantly interfere with so many aspects of human behaviour.
Most environmentally acquired behaviours are learnt, maintained, and reinforced from
the family which is usually the first port of entry into the stress fill world. Family is a
unique social system that its membership is based on combinations of biological, legal,
affection, geographical and historical ties. Voss and Massatti, (2008) posit that healthy
family environment is characterized by members comfortably experiencing their feelings
and exhibiting low interpersonal conflict. They also identified a healthy family
environment as critical in the development of individual resiliency and a powerful
protection for association with emotional and physical health among family members.
Zaberiskie and Freeman (2004) identify healthy families as family were members
are able to attentively listen to one another, express thoughts and feelings, show
supportiveness and loyalty, share leadership, negotiates and rely on one another. Entry
into family systems is through birth, adoption, fostering or marriage and members can
leave only by death (Carr, 2006). It is possible to get a divorce and separation but
severing all connections is never possible except among couples that are childless, even
at these emotional ties remains forever. Family unites individual through bond of kinship;
it is present in all societies. However, with increase spade of single parenthood, divorce
and separations and remarriages, a narrow and traditional definition of family is no longer
useful (Parke, 2004; Walsh, 2003). Therefore, family could be a network of individual’s
immediate psychosocial field. They may include household members and others who;
while not members of household, play a significant role in the individual life. It provides
companionship, socialization, nurturing, instructs and guide the individual into social and
moral values, it is the basic unit of social organization; it protects its members from harm
and allow the development of emotional bound between them. (Witt,1987). Family
allowed us to participate in a number of different kinds of relationships simultaneously.
Family has been conceptualized as a system, a dynamic whole that is greater than
the sum of its parts (Kerig, Ludlow, & Wenar, 2012). Within this great sum there are
naturally occurring subsystems that join the family together as one entity. However, those
subsystems must be allowed to function independently, the only voluntary subsystem is
the marital subsystem which is based on complimentary role of husband and wife. Thus
this subsystem needs romantic fulfillment, task of raising children and functions as a
leader for other sub systems. Other subsystem includes parent-child and siblings
subsystems. However with the spate of separations such as divorce, incarcerations, single
parenthoods, and African extended family systems, grandparent systems should be
considered.
The subsystems function effectively because there are boundaries that separate
them; these differentiate them from other forms of social organization or systems. The
boundaries define role of individuals and allow family members the opportunity to meet
and achieve their emotional and physical needs. The boundaries also allow permeation
and adaptation; that promote emotional contacts and independence (Minuchin, Lee &
Simon, 2006). The absence of boundaries leads to enmeshment with the result that family
members do not differentiate between one another thereby losing individual freedom.
Any attempt by any member to individuate will be perceived as a threat to harmony of
the family systems which may arouse resistance or anxiety.
Family conflict is clashes, arguments, verbal disagreement, criticism and act of
physical aggression that occur among family members (Davis, 1997). Interpersonal
tension or struggle among two or more persons whose opinions, values, needs, or
expectations are opposing or incompatible (Kramer, Boelk & Auer, 2006). Davis (1997)
also defined family conflict as recurrent, stressful differences and disagreements, or overt
interpersonal disagreement and a strong feeling of resentment toward a relative.
Strawbridge and Wallhagen (1991) saw family conflict as an interpersonal tension or
struggle experienced by families in conflict may be exemplified in overt behaviors, such
as arguments, disagreements, name calling or yelling, and/or covert feelings of
resentment or anger among family members. Family conflict could lead to failure of a
mother to carry out her primary task of nurturing and teachings of moral and social value
to her children. Family conflicts are facilitated by cognitive appraisals of the effects of
the roles and expectations from member(s) of sub system within the family system. As
earlier stated, boundaries in the family signify the roles and obligations of each
subsystem within the family system. The moment the family environment does not
permit performances of those roles, it breeds confusion and conflict. Family conflict has
consequences on the physical and emotional health on entire family system because of
permeability of its boundaries (Carr, 2006). Family conflict is different from marital
discord or conflict, these occur between husband and wife who are members of the
family system.
According to Lazarus and Folkman (1984) cognitive appraisal is the process of
deciding whether an experience is positive, stressful, or irrelevant with regard to wellbeing
of each family member and may serve as a source of conflict. A stressful appraisal
occurs when individuals perceive that the demands of the environment exceed their
resources, thereby endangering their well-being. Thus, family conflict and facilitation
derive from assessing the relative demands and resources associated with family roles.
This view of conflict and facilitation focuses on perceptions rather than objective
characteristics that may operate outside the individual’s awareness because such
perceptions generally mediate the effects of more objective characteristics on outcomes
(Edwards & Rothbard, 2005). Exposures to high levels of unresolved interpersonal and
family conflict mediate the process of pathology. Family conflicts that are so intense are
avoided through the hard pill of divorce and other forms of separation due to
unmanageable conflict between the husband and wife who are the only voluntary
members of the family system. This also affects the physical and psychological wellbeing
of other subsystems Many families may survive the period of stress and conflict with a
great cost on their physical and/or psychological health, many husbands’ ulcers, wife’s
headaches and children’s or child’s nervous tics are traceable to domestic tension and
warfare (Blood, 1960).
Nigerian economy makes each family responsible for providing for its members,
ranging from the care of the young to the welfare of the old. Such care includes;
provision of basic physiological needs, and serving as a reference point for directing and
supporting its members towards actualization of potentials and advancing family identity.
Most of these provisions come from the marital subsystem which serves as the bread
winner of the family systems.
Forwarding the battleground models Parker (1985) and Trivers (1974)
demonstrates that relatedness can be treated as the probability that two individuals share
the same allele at any given locus by common descent. Relatedness can be defined more
generally (and rigorously) as the genetic similarity between two individuals, relative to
the average genetic difference in randomly chosen member of the population (Grafen,
1985). This can be used to characterize the ecological factors that increase (or decrease)
the extent of Parent Offspring’s Conflicts. To determine the conflict battleground,
however, it is crucial to distinguish two forms of competition between families. Intrabrood
and inter-brood competitions; Intra-brood competition occurs between multiple
young that are dependent at the same parental investment on a fixed amount that has to be
distributed among siblings. In this case, the extent of conflict is expected to depend on
the availability of resources for the number of offspring competing for those resources
and equitable distribution of the resources. Relatedness between siblings, that is, siblings
of same parents may minimize the level of conflicts. However, multiple paternity due to
polygamy, reduce average relatedness up to the point where all of one’s siblings can be
expected or refers to half-siblings which maximizes conflict (Schlomer, Guidice & Ellis,
2011). Family conflict is an important variable in depression, the level of family conflict
are elevated in families in which one parent is depressed (Downey & Coyne, 1990).
The root of the family system is marriage; marriage is the start off of family in
many societies, though it’s difficult to define due to lots of cultural variation and
diversity in human society. Marital patterns are variously defined by social and economic
events, as well as by changes in cultural attitudes and behaviours. Changes in the
marriage pattern also affect the family life and other forms of interactions. However,
marriage could be seen as a group approved mating arrangement usually marked by ritual
(wedding) of a sort to indicate the couple’s new public status. It is the socially recognized
and approved union between individuals who are committed to one another with
expectation of stable and lasting intimate relationship. Hence, marriage is legally
recognized relationship, established by a civil or religious ceremony between two people
who intend to live together as sexual and domestic partners.
The birth of a child may adversely affect spouse’s adaptation and reduce marital
satisfaction and psychological wellbeing. McMahon, Boivin, Gibson, Hammarberg,
Wynter, Saunders and Fisher (2011) reported the role of psychosocial factors in addition
to the impact of biological risk for the older mothers though; this assertion is yet to be
empirically validated. However, few studies to have examined association between
maturity and maternal age, studies are yet to expose whether psychological maturity
influences the relationship between age and pregnancy adjustment.
Statement of the problem
Improvement in safety in pregnancy and child birth has shifted emphasis from factors
affecting survival to those concerned with the psychological aspects of the experience. In
Nigeria, little attention has been given to the mental health problems experienced by
women in reproductive age or prenatal period. Even with the evidence that individual
differences have influence on how one reacts to stressful life event like child birth and
psychological contributions to wellbeing of women both at child bearing age and
menopausal stage. It is therefore the interest of this study to find answer to the following
problems:
1. Will personality significantly related to postpartum distress?
2. Will family conflict significantly related to postpartum distress?
3. Will age in marriage significantly related to postpartum distress?
Purpose of the Study
The millennium development goals of Federal Government on health contains
section on maternal and child death reduction, subsequently modality to attain such a goal
was set and recruitment of Nurses, Midwives and other categories of health services
provider were carried out and posted to various communities in the country with non
inclusion of (clinical) psychologists in the attainment of the goals on maternal and child
mortality reduction, therefore this study examined:
1. Whether Personality will significantly related to postpartum distress;
2. Whether Family conflict will significantly related to postpartum distress; and
3. Whether Age in marriage will significantly related to postpartum distress.
Operational Definition of Terms
Personality, in this study, refers to unique ways of individuals adaptation in terms of
how they reacts to stressful stimulus as will be measured using five dimensions of
personality (John et.al, 1992)
Family conflict, in this study, refers the degree of disagreements, fights and loss of
temper that occurs within a family as measured by Family conflict sub scale of Family
Environment scale (Moss & Moss, 1986).
Age in marriage, in this study, refers to the numbers of years spent in the union of
husband and a wife or cohabiting of man and woman. Those who have spent 3 or fewer
years would be termed low and those within 4-7 middle and those with 8 years and above
are termed high.
Postpartum distress, in this study, refers to psychological distress that follows child
birth from the moment the placental is expel to six weeks, as measured by Symptom
Distress Checklist (SCL90) (Derogatis, Lipman & Covi, 1977).

 

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