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Download the complete Biochemistry project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII  here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII

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  • Name: PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND THE ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF DICHLOROMETHANE FRACTION OF METHHANOL EXTRACT OF CRATEVA ADANSONII
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
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ABSTRACT

Inflammation is a complex biological response of
vascular tissue to harmful stimuli such as pathogen,
damage cells or irritants (Ryan & Majno, 1983). The
urgency generated by increased rate of stroke,
atherosclerosis attribute due to prolonged use of
cyclooxygenase-1 and Cyclooxygenase- 2 inhibitors
have accelerated anti-inflammatory drug research over
the last decade while synthetic pharmaceutical agents
continued to dominate research (Ryan & Majno, 1983).
Attention increasingly has been directed to natural
products. These are often more affordable and available
and sometimes are perceived as more effective than
conventional anti- inflammatory drugs.
Anti-inflammation was carried out using 12 rats
which was divided into three groups of 4 rats each.
Group 1 and 2 served as the negative and positive
control respectively. Group 3 received 25mg/kg b.w. of
the dichloromethane fraction of methanol extract of
6

Crateva adansonii showed significance anti-inflammatory
activity when compared with the standard difference
used.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page…………………………………………………………………
i
Certification…………………………………………………………….
ii
Dedication……………………………………………………………….
iii
Acknowledgement………………………………………………….
iv
Abstract………………………………………………………………….
v
Table of Content……………………………………………………
vi
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction …………………………………………………
1
7

1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant..…………………….
4
1.3 Research aim and objectives………………………
7
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Definition of Inflammation……………………..
8
2.1 Characteristics of Inflammation……………….
8
2.2 Classes of Inflammation…………………………
9
2.3 Types of Inflammation…………………………….
10
2.4 Chemical mediators of Inflammation…………
13
2.4.0 Properties of Mediators………………………..
16
8

2.4.1 Histamine…………………………………………
18
2.4.2 Serotonin (5- Hydroxy tryptamine)…………
21
2.4.3 Cytokines…………………………………………………..
24
2.4.4 Arachidonic acid ………………………………………
30
2.4.5 Platelet Activating Factor (PAF)………………
34
2.4.6 Free Radicals…………………………………….
36
2.4.6.1 Nitric Oxide (NO)………………………………
37
2.4.6.2 Oxygen-derived free radicals……………….
40
2.4.7.0 Complement system………………………….
41
9

2.4.7.1 The clotting system/Coagulation system.
45
2.4.7.2 The Kinin System…………………………….
48
2.4.7.3 The fibrinolytic system………………………
50
2.5.0 Anti-Inflammatory agents…………………..
53
2.5.1 Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS)
53
2.5.1.0 Mechanism of Action of NSAIDS………….
55
2.5.2 Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs………..
58
CHAPTER THREE
MATERIAL AND METHODS
3.1 Materials………………………………………………
60
10

3.1.1 Equipment/Apparatus used……………………
60
3.1.2 Chemical, Solvents and Reagents……………..
61
3.1.3 Animals…………………………………………………..
62
3.2 Methodology……………………………………………….
63
3.2.1 Collection and preparation of Plant Materials…..
63
3.2.2 Extraction…………………………………………………
63
3.3 Fractionation………………………………………………
64
3.3.1 Gel Column Chromatography……………………….
64
3.4. Identification of Phytochemical groups
in the extract…………………………………………….
65
3.4.1 Preparation of Reagents for phytochemical
11

analysis…………………………………………………….
65
3.4.2 Qualitative phytochemical analysis
of the Extract…………………………………………….
66
3.5 Thin Layer Chromatography………………………… 71 3.6 Anti-inflammatory activity test. …………………… 72 CHAPTER FOUR
Result…………………………………………………………….
75
CHAPTER FIVE
Discussion………………………………………………………
79
Conclusion………………………………………………………
81
References……………………………………………………….
82
Appendixes………………………………………………
87

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AIM AND OBJECTIVES
Inflammation is one of body’s natural ways of protecting
itself. It is also an essential reaction of the body to
infection. Too little of an inflammatory response, and the
body is unable to repel microbial invasions or heal
injuries. Too much of an inflammatory response, and the
immune system begins attacking the body’s own organs
eventually leading to chronic disease (Sears, 2000).
Anti-Inflammatory refers to the property of a
substance or treatment that reduces inflammation.
There are obvious clinical markers of inflammation which
include pain, redness, fever, swelling and loss of
function (Pai et al. 2004). However if inflammation is
allowed to continue unchecked it may results in
neurodegenerative disease or cancer (Pai et al. 2004). A
variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents
are available including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs, corticosteroids.
13

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID are
usually indicated for the treatment of acute and chronic
inflammation. NSAIDS work by reducing the production
of prostaglandins (Bayness & Marek, 2005).
Prostaglandins are chemicals that promote
inflammation, pain and fever. The enzymes that produce
prostaglandins are phospholipaseA2, PGH2synthase and
Cyclooxygenase (Cox). There are two types of COX
enzymes, cyclooxygenase-1 (Cox-1) and
cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2). NSAIDS reduce the
production of prostaglandin by inhibiting COX enzymes
resultant effect is that, therefore, inflammation, pain
and fever are reduced. Some herbs and plants possess
anti-inflammatory and they include:
S/No Common Name
Botanical Name
1 Andiroba oil Carapa guianensis
It is rich in omega-3 fatty acids that promote skin healing from cuts and may slow growth of skin cells in psoriasis and age spots. It relieves pain and swelling
14

2 Alfalfa Medicago sativa L.
It serves as an oxidant in the blood stream. They are staple of salads and contain nutrient, the leaves hold the best healing potential and contain phytoestrogens that could be beneficial in menopausal and breast feeding women. 3 Aloe Vera Gel Aloe vera The leaf juices of the aloe plant have important medicinal uses. It stimulates collagen synthesis and skin regeneration after a burn; it helps heal acne, improve the appearance of wrinkles and hydrate damaged skin. 4 Apple Malus domestica Other names include apple cider vinegar, wine vinegar. The best of the medicinal compounds are contained in the apple peel. It helps in relieving arthritis, apple contains malic and tartaric acids, salts of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iron. Copyright © 2005-2013 Annie’s Remedy (Anniesremedy.com). Crateva adansonii belonging to the family Capparacea
and phylum Magnoliophyta is small tree of forest and
15

savanna woodland, often on river-banks, widely
distributed in Nigeria and across Africa. The leaves are
applied externally to relieve pain in joint, the fresh juice
of leaves is used for the relief of ear-ache, eye infection
and anodyne in toothache. Powder of bark is used in
rheumatism, itch, epilepsy and asthma (Sivarajan &
Balachandran, 1994).
1.2 Crateva adansonii as a plant.
The flowering tree Crateva adansonii is called the
sacred garlic pear and temple plant. The tree is
sometimes called the spider tree because the showy
flowers bear long, spidery stamens. It is native to Japan,
Australia, much of south East Asia and several south
pacific Islands. It grows in forest and savanna woodland,
often on river-banks from Senegal to N Nigeria, and
across Africa to Zaire, Tanganyika and Madagascar. The
plants common name is amakarode in Igbo, In Yoruba,
it is egun-orun and in Hausa, it is ungududu. The tree
16

attains approximately 15m height. The trunk is irregular,
seldom straight, but is worthy of cultivation as an
ornamental for its dense masses of white flowers borne
at the ends of all the shoots. In the bush, owing to grass
burning which it survives and repeated stripping of its
leaves, the tree is often stunted. The wood is soft and
yellow and strong-smelling when cut. The leaves are
however eaten in soups or mixed with cereals. They are
boiled and added to mixture called in Hausa “Kwado”
containing a paste of locust beans, Parkia Spp.
(Leguminosae Mimisoideae). The Yoruba consumes the
leaves as a potherb.
In upper volt they are the ingredient of sauces. To
some people the leaves are taken only in time of dearth
and they are sold in northern markets. The bark is
widely used for stomach-troubles in Nigeria. In Jebel
Marra a bark-paste is used as a poultice on swellings.
Crateva adansonii is a decidious plant with three
palmate leaves. The leaves are arranged opposite one
17

another. They are elliptic with entire margins. The
flowers are pale green. The plants bloom from March to
May. The flowers are arranged in racemes. The fruits are
berries. It can withstand temperatures above 1oc and
2oc (Burkill, 1985).
Taxonomy
Family: Capparaceae
Genus: Crateva
Species: Crateva adansonii DC
Phylum/Division: Magnoliophyta
Sub division: Magnoliophytina
Classes: Rosopsida
Sub class: Dilleniidae
Super order: Violanae
Order: Capparales
The medicinal effect of Crateva adansonii plant bark
is includes general healing, leprosy, stomach troubles.
For the leaf, it is used in eye treatments, liver, for leaf;
a pain-killer, for roots, dropsy, swellings, edema, gout,
18

veneral diseases. Powder of bark is used in rheumatism,
itch, epilepsy and asthma.
1.3 Research Aim and Objectives
Aim:
To study the anti-inflammatory effect of
dichloromethane fraction extracts from Crateva
adansonii on rats.

Objectives:
i) To determine the anti-inflammatory effect of
Crateva adansonii extracts in methanol on rats.
ii) To determine the phytochemicals present in
Crateva adansonii extract in methanol on rats.

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