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Download the complete Microbiology project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF WATERMELON BARK (ENDOCARP OR RIND ON S. THPHI, E. COLI AND S. AUREUS here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

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Download the complete Microbiology project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF WATERMELON BARK (ENDOCARP OR RIND ON S. THPHI, E. COLI AND S. AUREUS here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

The Project File Details

  • Name: PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF WATERMELON BARK (ENDOCARP OR RIND ON S. THPHI, E. COLI AND S. AUREUS
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [38.8 KB]
  • Length: [58] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

In a research conducted to ascertain the antimicrobial activity of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) bark on organisms such as Escherichia coli, Slamonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus using the ethanol and auqous extracts of the watermelon bark applying agar-well and pour-plate sensitivity technique.   It was observed that the ethanoic extract (dry) of watermelon bark on agar well showed a high inhibitory activity of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and shows a moderate inhibition on Salmonella.  While on pour-plate method the aqueous extract (dry) showed a high inhibitory act on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and none on Salmonella.

Keywords:  Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) bark, extract, antimicrobial activities, E.coli, S.typhi, S. aureus.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Content

List of Tables

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

Objective

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review

Plant Taxonomy

The plant description

Health benefits of watermelon

Use of watermelon

Varieties

Chemical constituent

Staphylococcus

Staphylococcus aureus

Eschericha

Escherichia coli

Salomella

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials

Method

Sterilization of Water

Test Organism

Inoculation of the Test Organism

Preparation of Media

Nutrient Broth

Preparation of Extract

Antimicrobial susceptibility test

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT OF ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITIES

Result of the Activities of the Extract against

Staphylococcus aureus using pour plate and agar-well method

Result of the activities of the extracts against

Escherichia coli using pour plate and agar-well method

Result of the activities of the extracts against

Salmonella typhi using pour plate and agar-well method

DISCUSSION

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION

RECOMMENDATION

REFRENCES

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

Citrullus lanatus is among the genera in the family Cucurbitanceae.  Its plant is slender, sprawling, slightly hairy monoecius annual plant.  The stems or runners may extend 0.3 to 10m.  in its natural environment, it grows in grassland or bushland, often along watercourses at altitude of 50 to 1400m.  it grows in well-drained soil and can withstand drought better than other melons.  It is widely distributed in Africa and Asia but originate from Southern Africa.

Citrullus lanatus fruit is popularly consumed in different part of the world.  The juice quenches the thirst of water.  It concentrates powerful antioxidants such as lycopene and carotenoid which travels through the body neutralizing free radicals that can lead to stroke or heart attacks, the juice can also be probioticated using different strains of lactobacilli against Salmonella typhimurium (Fazeli et al., 2007).  The rind can be used in jam, jelly, pickle and wine production.  The seed can be used in oil production (Taiwo et al., 2008).  The leaf extract of Citrullus lanatus with different solvent viz, benzene, petroleum either and methanol were tested and have shown larvicidal, ovicidal, repellent and insect growth regulatory activities against Anophele stephensi (Diptera culicidea) and malaria vectors (Mullai et al., 2008.  The fresh fruit contains Cucurbitacins, common secondary plant compound of the cucurbitacea, are feeding stimulants for several species of beetles in the corn rootworm complex (DeMilo et al., 2000).  Cucurbitacin can also be added to bait containing an insecticide thereby reducing the levels of other insecticides treatment needed to control pests.

Staphylococcus aureus are spherical cocci about 0.8 – 1.0µm in diameter.  They are characteristically in grape-like clusters.  They are non motile, non sporing and with the exception of rare strains are non capsulated.  They are gram-positive aerobes and facultative anaerobes.  Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen in that it causes infection most commonly in sights of lowered host resistance (Arora, 2003).

Escherichia coli is a gram negative bacterium, it is non capsulated, aerobe and facultative anaerobe commonly found in the lower intestine of warm blooded organisms.  It measures 1 – 3µm x 0.4 – 0.7µm in size.  The harmless strain are part of the normal flora of the gut and can benefit their host by producing Vit. K2 or preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine (Brooks et al., 2007).

Salmonella – it consist of facultative anaerobic gram-negative, non-sporing, non acid fast, non capsulated bacilli that parasites the intestines of a large number of vertebrate specie.  Most strains are non motile by means of peritrichous flagella.  It causes diease such as enteric-fever, speticaemia and food poisoning (Dampster 1992).

This present study examines the antimicrobial activities of the extracts of the bark of Citrullus lanatus against Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi.

 

OBJECTIVES

To prepare extracts from Citrullus lanatus

To determine the antimicrobial/antibacterial potency of Citrullus lanatus extract against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococccus aureus.

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