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  • Name: PREVALENCE OF TUBERCULOSIS CASES AND INCIDENCES OF REPORTED MORTALITY (CASE STUDY OF POTISKUM LGA YOBE STATE NIGERIA)
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ABSTRACT

The study determined the tuberculosis cases and incidence of reported mortality in Potiskum L.G.A, Yobe State, Nigeria. The specific objectives addressed include: the incidences of tuberculosis in Potiskum L.G.A; the types of tuberculosis cases in the study area; examine the incidences of reported mortality by Tuberculosis in Potiskum L.G.A; identify the factors influencing the spread of Tuberculosis in Potiskum L.G.A of Yobe State; determine the factors associated with increase with increase risk of tuberculosis and determine the reported cases of tuberculosis mortality among the respondents in the study area. Literatures were reviewed base on specific objectives of the study and the And the sample for the study will involve random selection of 384 people from the total of population. The result of the study shows that 69.5% of the respondents are within the age bracket of 20-39 years. 66.7% of the respondents are males and 33.3% of them are females. 70.8% of the respondents are married. The result indicates that 48.1% of the respondent has Secondary school cert. and 41.7 % of them have Diploma. 56.4% of the respondents are of the opinion that think multidrug resistant tuberculosis is common in the area. 55.3% of the respondent said yes extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis is also common in the area. 98.9% of the respondents state that acute tuberculosis infection that leads to sudden death. The study further reveals that 56.1% of the respondents are of the opinion that Tuberculosis Cases in the area are Curable. 58.3% of them respondents states that there is high incidences of reported mortality caused by tuberculosis in the study area. The study shows that 80.3% of the respondents observed that the incidences of Tuberculosis are increasing by the day in the study area. 55% of the respondent indicates responses ranging from 200-1000 cases of mortality caused by tuberculosis that they know in the area while 24.7% of them said between 2000-3000. 66.7% of the respondents suggest that rapid action should be taken to arrest the situation 88.9% of the respondents agreed that Tuberculosis is spread to other person as airborne particles 80.6% of the respondents revealed that overcrowding can spread tuberculosis diseases. 87.2% of the respondents state that Delayed diagnosis can increase the risk of tuberculosis. 99.4% of the respondent said yes Contact with TB patient can increase the risk of contacting TB. 95.6% of the respondents agreed that a tuberculosis case in the area causes death. 94.7% of the respondents state that there many reported case of death in the area that is traced back to tuberculosis as the cause. 50.8% of the respondents disagreed that people die more often as a result of tuberculosis cases in the area Indicates that 99.2% of the respondents think that Government have to intervene in time to avoid more cases of mortality.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – -i
Citification- – -ii
Dedication- – -iii
Acknowledgement – -iv
Table of Content – – -v
List of Table – vii
Abstract –   – viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study- -1
1.2 Statement of the Problem- -4
1.3 Objectives of the Study- -5
1.4 Research Questions- -6
1.5 Significant of the Study- -7
1.6 Scope of the study- -7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction- -9
2.1 Concept of Tuberculosis – -9
2.2 Incidences of Tuberculosis — -11
2.3 Types of Tuberculosis Cases – -15
2.4 The incidences of reported mortality by Tuberculosis- – -16
2.5 Factors Influencing the Spread of Tuberculosis- -19
2.6 Factors Associated with Increased Risk of Tuberculosis- -20
2.7 Reported Mortality caused by Tuberculosis – -24
2.8 Summary of Review- – -28
CHARPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction- -29
2

 

3.1 Research Design – -29
3.2 Population and Sample- -30
3.3 Research Instrument – -30
3.4 Procedure of Data Collection- -31
3.5 Method of Data Analysis- -31
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND DISCUSION
4.1 Demographic Characteristics of Respondents- -33
4.3 The Incidences of Reported Mortality- -33
4.4 Factors Influencing the Spread of Tuberculosis – -38
4.5 Factors Associated with Increase Risk of Tuberculosis- -39
4.6 Reported Cases of Tuberculosis Mortality- -40
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary- -42
5.2 Conclusion- 44
5.3 Recommendation- 45
References- -45
Appendix

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

  • Background of the Study

 

Tuberculosis (TB) is an airborne disease which is very contagious Global Tuberculosis Report (GTR, 2013). The World Health Organization (WHO) (2011) estimates that even though one-third of the world’s population is infected with the bacteria that cause TB. But it transmission essentially can be prevented through adequate ventilation and limited contact with patients (WHO, 2011). Many people who are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and do not get sick or spread the bacteria to others are considered to have TB case known as latent TB. The National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme (NTLCPAR, 2008) observed that Diluting and removing contaminated air by using general ventilation can prevent tuberculosis contamination. In countries where tuberculosis is more common, infants often are vaccinated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine because it can prevent severe tuberculosis in children (Great Britain Medical Research Council) (GBMRC, 1963). The BCG, or bacille Calmette-Guerin, is a vaccine for preventing tuberculosis (TB) disease. BCG vaccine is not recommended for general use among all age categories of people because it is not very effective in adults (GBMRC, 1963). Many foreign-born babies have been BCG-vaccinated. BCG is used in many countries with a high prevalence of TB to prevent childhood tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease (Rao et al. 1999)

TB preventive measures should be based on a careful assessment of risk for transmission of TB in the facility or setting. The goals of effective TB prevention programs are to: detect TB disease early and promptly, Isolate those who have or are suspected of having TB disease (airborne precautions) and Treat people who have or who are suspected of having TB disease. The prevention of tuberculosis transmission in health-care settings requires that all of the following basic approaches be used: prevention of the generation of infectious airborne particles (droplet nuclei) by early identification and treatment of persons with tuberculous infection and active tuberculosis, prevention of the spread of infectious droplet nuclei into the general air circulation by applying source-control methods, reduction of the number of infectious droplet nuclei in air contaminated with them, and surveillance of health-care-facility personnel for tuberculosis and tuberculous infection.

 

The types of TB preventive measures include the following:

 

  • Administrative prevention – institutional policies or measures that aim to reduce the time between the arrival of people with respiratory TB disease at a health care facility, diagnosis of their condition and placement in an airborne infection isolation room (AIIR) (Public Health Agency of Canada 2013).

 

  • Environmental (engineering) preventive measure – environmental measures to reduce the likelihood of exposure of HCWs, other patients and

visitors  to  viable  airborne  M. tuberculosis.  These  include  mechanical ventilation systems (to supply clean air) in patient care areas, use of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) and high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters.

 

  • Personal preventive measure – measures directed to individual HCWs either to prevent infection (such as use of respirators) or to prevent disease if infected (such as detection and treatment of LTBI).

 

According to Menzies, Lewis and Oxlade (2008) People who are in poor health are more susceptible to the TB virus, as their disease resistance is lower than in healthy people. Therefore, as part of TB prevention it is important to; eat a healthy, balanced diet with plenty of fruit, vegetables, whole grains and lean meat. Avoid fatty, sugary and processed foods. Exercise often, at least 3 to 4 times a week. Try to incorporate some good cardiovascular exercise into your workouts, such as running, swimming or rowing. Cut down on alcohol consumption and avoid smoking or taking drugs. Get plenty of good quality sleep, ideally between 7 and 8 hours a night. Maintain good personal hygiene and try to spend as much time as possible outdoors, in the fresh air (Public Health Agency of Canada 2013). According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2011) 8.7 million new cases of active tuberculosis worldwide (13% of which involved co-infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and 1.4 million deaths, including 430,000 deaths among HIV-infected patients representing a slight decrease from peak numbers in the mid-2000s (GTR, 2012). Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of active tuberculosis per capita, driven primarily by the HIV epidemic (GTR,

2012) The absolute number of cases is highest in Asia, with India and China having the greatest burden of the disease globally.

 

Despite the availability of TB treatment vaccine in Nigeria, tuberculosis still accounts for millions of cases of active disease and deaths in the country. This mostly affects the poorest persons who predominantly live in rural areas like Potiskum L.G.A. It is against this background that this study is design to determine Tuberculosis Preventive measures and incidences of reported mortality in Potiskum Local Government Area, Yobe State, Nigeria.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

 

GTR, (2013) and NTLCPAR (2008) reported that tuberculosis infection in Nigeria has been increasing in parallel with a rising rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Information on TB cases has reported an increase from 31,264 in 2002 to 90,307 in 2008. Nigeria now has 1,000,000 new TB cases (NTLCPAR, 2008). Tuberculosis in potiskum is a common problem among low income earners where there is high inter-personal relationship among members and inadequate health care facilities for preventing the spread of the disease. The ideal situation is that tuberculosis is fast becoming one of the major concern by the health care workers in potiskum as it causes a severe respiratory infection which result to high mortality rate especially more common among the poor rural dwellers. This situation intensifies the need for a comprehensive programme to prevent the transmission of TB in the study area. It has been observed by WHO, (2010) that Nigeria was ranked 10th among the 22 high TB burden countries of the world and 4th highest in Africa (after South Africa, Ethi opia and DR Congo). Out of which potiskum recorded the highest number of people infected with TB in Yobe State (Yobe State Ministry of Health, 2009). It is obvious that one of the main health problems afflicting the people of Potiskum is Respiratory tract infections including Tuberculosis (Yobe State Ministry of Health, 2009). Majority of the people in this area use traditional method of treatment, where Herbal medicines and other alternative therapies are increasingly used for TB prevention and control.

 

Several studies have been conducted on TB causes, effects and prevention in Nigeria, they reported that the one major problems that leads to high mortality rate among Nigerians is TB. Due to lack of awareness on TB infection, wrong use of drugs for TB treatments lack of adequate Health care centres, poverty and culture related problems. But there seems to be no empirical studies conducted to determine Tuberculosis preventive measures and reported mortality case in Potiskum. It is for this reason that this research is design to determine Tuberculosis preventive measures and incidences of reported mortality in Potiskum L.G.A of Yobe state, Nigeria

 

  • Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study is to examine TB preventive measures and incidence of reported mortality in Potiskum L.G.A, Yobe State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are to:

 

  • determine the incidences of tuberculosis in Potiskum L.G.A of Yobe State;

 

  • identify the types of tuberculosis cases in the study area

 

  • examine the incidences of reported mortality by Tuberculosis in Potiskum L.G.A of Yobe State;

 

  • identify the factors influencing the spread of Tuberculosis in Potiskum L.G.A of Yobe State; and

 

  • determine the factors associated with increase with increase risk of tuberculosis;

 

  • determine the reported cases of tuberculosis mortality among the respondents in the study area.

 

  • Research Questions

 

  • What are the incidences of tuberculosis in Potiskum L.G.A of Yobe State;

 

  • What he types of tuberculosis cases in the study area

 

  • What the incidences of reported mortality by Tuberculosis in Potiskum L.G.A of Yobe State;

 

  • What the factors influencing the spread of Tuberculosis in Potiskum L.G.A of Yobe State; and

 

 

 

10

 

 

  • What are the factors associated with increase with increase risk of tuberculosis;

 

  • What are the reported cases of tuberculosis mortality among the respondents in the study area.

 

1.5 Significant of the Study

 

The findings of the study will provide useful information to the Government to understand the type of problems faced by health personnel from tuberculosis eradication initiatives programme, so as to take necessary measures to provide solution to the problems, arrest the spread of tuberculosis in the study area. It will be useful to policy makers as it will trigger policy formation that will create awareness through creating a war against tuberculosis campaign programme in the area. It will be useful to all the people of potiskum by providing useful information that will assist Health workers and charity organizations to intervene on behalf of both the elderly adults and youth as leaders of tomorrow for the betterment of the society. It will also be useful to researchers and students for further study, as these findings will add to the academic literature on social learning.

 

1.6 Scope of the study

 

This study will be delimited to Potiskum Local Government Area, Yobe state. The respondent will be the staff of Primary Health care Department in Potiskum L.G.A and the research will mainly focus on Tuberculosis and preventive measures and incidences of reported mortality in potiskum L.G.A. of Yobe state.

 

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