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This study investigated the influence principal’s gender has on teachers’ work behaviours in secondary schools in Anambra State. Five research questions and three null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study employed a descriptive survey design, using a sample size of 1000 teachers (male and female) selected from schools in Anambra State through multi-stage sampling technique. A 50 item adapted questionnaire was used to elicit information on the teachers’ work behaviours as it relates to; acceptability of responsibilities, commitment to school functions, adherence to school rules and regulations, ensuring discipline in school, and attendance to instructional duties. Mean scores were used to answer the research questions while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses. The findings of the study indicated that 41 items out of the 50 identified items in the questionnaire were accepted by both male and female teachers as their work behaviours. This goes a long way to saying that principal’s gender has no significant influence on teachers’ work behaviours which was also the conclusion of the study based on the three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Although there were few disagreements on male and female teachers’ responses, such disagreements, were minimal, which include that; female teachers are unwilling to assist in carrying out their principal’s personal duties, find it difficult to tolerate individual differences of other colleagues, and can not avoid fighting and quarreling with staff and students; male teachers can not avoid having other businesses for profit making as well as failure to show concern for badly done work especially when under female principal’s administration. Among others, it was recommended that the government should organize teachers’ forum through the Post Primary Schools Service Commission and Nigerian Union of Teachers, where teachers could meet on a regular basis to discuss and learn the right work behaviours and the implications of violating such behaviours. Conclusions and implications of the study were also made, as well as suggestions for further studies to identify the problems of education in Nigeria.


Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 9
Purpose of the Study 11
Significance of the Study 12
Scope of the Study 14
Research Questions 15
Research Hypotheses 16

Conceptual Framework: 18
Gender and other Related Issues, 18
Administration, 29
Leadership, 31
Principalship in School Organization, 34
Teachers’ Work Behaviours and other Related Issues. 36
Theoretical Framework: 46
Theories of Administration, 46
Theories of Leadership, 49
Theories of Gender, 66
Empirical Studies 71
Summary of Literature Review 76
Research Design 79
Area of the Study 80
Population of the Study 81
Sample and Sampling Technique 81
Instrument for Data Collection 83

Validation of the Instrument 84
Reliability of the Instrument 85
Method of Data Collection 85
Method of Data Analysis 86
Discussion of Results 107
Conclusion 118
Implications of the Study 120
Recommendations 122
Limitations of the Study 123
Suggestions for Further Research 124
Summary of the Study 124


Background to the Study
The primary goal of any school organization is to achieve high
academic performance of its students. This cannot be attained
without good rapport between principals and teachers who would
properly and devotedly teach and direct these students. Since the
teacher is the prime implementer of curriculum in the school,
performance of students depend so much on the teachers’ actions
and reactions otherwise known as teachers’ work behaviours.
Teachers’ work behaviours are those actions, activities and
reactions of teachers in a school system while discharging their
duties (Arguris & Schon, 1999). There are expected work
behaviours of teachers in the school system. Such behaviours
among others as identified in Teachers’ Service Manual (1990:16)
 Teachers should teach diligently and resourcefully the subject
in the curriculum, inculcate by precepts and examples good
conduct and behaviour among the students in and out of the

 Teachers should maintain proper order and discipline in the
classroom, on duty and on the play ground under the
direction of the principal.
 Teachers should be in the classroom or on the school premises
at least ten minutes before the time prescribed for the opening
of school and shall remain in the school throughout the official
school hours.
 Teachers should conduct classes in accordance with the
school timetables, which must be accessible to students and
 Teachers should observe duty periods even beyond the
prescribed hours of instruction.
 Teachers should attend all meetings or conferences called by
the principal of the school or any other related authority for
consideration of matters that will promote the advancement of
 Teachers in conjunction with the principals should provide
parents with information in writing on the students’ school
progress attendance and punctuality at least three times in a
school year on an approved report form.

Ukeje (1985:44) described teachers’ work behaviours in terms
of functions and activities related to good teaching. The behaviours
 Ability to explain
 Ability to inform
 Ability to initiate
 Ability to show how
 Ability to direct
 Ability to unify, etc.
To buttress his points, Ukeje (1985) also noted as expected
behaviours of the teachers; Adaptability, attractive-personal
appearance, breathes of interest, carefulness, considerateness, co
operation, and dependability.
Igwe (2004:39) also outlined the following as teachers’ work
 Possession of a good mastering of subject matter
 Ability to communicate, and
 Ability to have a sense of humour
Igwe also made it clear that no single teacher can posses all
the above mentioned qualities and behaviours, but they serve as

indicators or parameters for measuring and evaluating teachers’
work behaviours. It is also worthy of note according to Igwe, that
teachers’ work behaviours are classified into theory in use and
espouse theory. He concluded that teachers should be positively
motivated, knowledgeable, competent, dedicated and disciplined.
Okonkwo (2007) also outlined five major parameters for measuring
teachers’ work behaviours as follows: acceptability of
responsibilities, attendance to meetings, obtaining permission to be
absent from duty, attending to duties, and regularity to school. He
concluded that these five major parameters for measuring teachers’
work behaviours can only be determined under the close
supervision of a principal or leader in the school system.
Principalship has been defined by Vandiver (2003) as the
position held by the chief school leader, who takes decisions for the
school and also influences the teachers to carry out duties that will
lead to the achievement of the decisions taken. Some principals find
it difficult to influence teachers in their duties, in school. According
to Emeghara (2007), some factors that hinder principals from
influencing teachers’ work behaviours include; gender issues,

exposure/experience, leadership style and indiscipline. The re
curing factor that seems to affect principals more is the issue of
An influence, affecting both the study of leadership and the
practice of administration, has been the controversial proposition
that men and women bring systematic differences to their
leadership styles. It has been argued that, because of their early
socialization processes, women have developed values and
characteristics that result in leadership behaviours that are
different from the traditional aggressive, competitive and controlling
leadership behaviours of men (Helgesin, 1999 & Loden, 2004).
These authors also contend that women typically bring to
administrative positions, an approach to leadership that is
consistent with developmental, collaborative and relationship
oriented behaviours. These behaviours are seen as more compatible
than traditional male behaviours with the idealized view of
leadership. Consequently, it is anticipated that women will be more
effective administrator-leaders than men.
Other theorists and researchers believe that there are no
systemtic gender-related differences in the leadership behaviours of

men and women. They argued that, given equivalent level of
responsibility within an organization, women and men exhibit the
same leadership behaviours. Any gender-related differences in
leadership behaviours that might have been found by some
researchers are ascribed either to rater bias (Bass, 1999) or to the
use of gender-biased instrument (Astin & Leland, 2000).
Gender bias between the sexes exists in Nigeria. It has
hindered and continues to hinder development generally. Such
gender differences manifest in the following areas: dissemination,
exclusion from development programmes, legal and customary
barriers to owning properties, systematic violence against women,
poor quota on political appointment and so on. African tradition,
culture, social and even biblical doctrines buttress men’s bossy
behaviours over women. Some of these established order according
to Asoegwu (2006), made men to arrogate to themselves the position
of leadership and use of power in administration. Cantor and
Bernay (1999) concluded from their studies that unconscious
practices and social norms support the notion that power (which is
often associated with force, authority, dominance and violence) is

masculine. This is a universal phenomenon, which is accentuated
by some traditional and cultural norms.
In the African sub-region and Nigeria in particular, there is the
belief that men’s domineering attitude over women even have a
biblical origin. God using a single rib from Adam created Eve.
Christ’s twelve Apostles were men only. God also commanded wives
to be submissive to their husbands. Traditionally, women are not
allowed to break kolanut in Igboland. In Northern Nigeria, married
women remain in purdah and are allowed to come out only at night
with escorts. In Western Nigeria, women are supposed to be on their
knees when greeting or answering questions from their husbands or
other males. Strangely enough, in some parts of the middle belt,
wives and daughters are offered for sex by their husbands/fathers
as hospitality to their male friends/strangers if such a guest is to
pass the night with them (Asoegwu, 2006). Also, young girls are
trafficked for prostitution. The effect of gender cannot be over
emphasized. It hinders development by seizing to permit the women
folk to express their potentials. This height of chauvinism can
suppress whatever good administrative qualities a woman has.

Emeghara (2007), outlining some factors that hinder principals
from influencing teachers’ work behaviours, explained that female
principals find it difficult to influence the behaviours of their
autocratic male vice-principals and teachers especially if such a
principal is a laissez-faire leader, who uses lesser supervision
strategies and allows every one take decisions by themselves..
Female teachers are fast increasing in number and are
ascending to the position of principalship (Nonye, 2007). Based on
the gender issue/effects mentioned above, as highlighted by
Asoegwu (2006), in Nigeria, If the populace is still generally looking
down on women, this poor perception and disregard might as well
be carried into the school system. If such poor perceptions are
noted in the school, it might be an evil wind that would blow no one
any good. This is because, performance of students, which is placed
in the hands of teachers and principals may be affected.
In the recent time, there is this out-cry concerning the
degeneration of educational standards at various levels in Nigeria.
There is also generally an overtly poor performance of students at
the secondary school level in particular. This was revealed in the

result released by WAEC, May/June, 2009. According to Owoyemi
in the Vanguard Newspaper of 16, September, 2009, only 29.5% of
the total population of students who sat for the examination
credited both English and Mathematics. Knowing that the
performance of students depends highly on the teachers’ work
behaviours and that no student can perform better when the
teachers’ work behaviours are not positively influenced by their
principal, the researcher therefore investigated teachers’ work
behaviours with reference to principal’s gender.

Statement of the Problem
In the past, women are constrained by cultural practices and
religious beliefs to be educated or hold public offices in Nigeria.
Today, many women are educated and hold highly rated offices like
Vice Chancellorship, Directors General, Ministerial positions, and
the like. The era, prior to the civil War in Nigeria, marked a period
of teachers’ strong commitment and diligence to duties. That era
appeared to be when principals of secondary schools were mainly
males. Currently things have changed. The number of male and

female principals in Anambra State is almost equal, while most
female teachers are still fast ascending the ladder (See table 1
appendix i). Coincidentally, teachers’ work behaviours appear to
have deviated from what they used to be. Ukeje, Akabogu and Ndu
(1992) indicated that classroom teachers have generally abandoned
their teaching responsibilities for other businesses; when they do
teach, they do so half-heartedly.
In a study commissioned by African Higher Education
Collaborative (AHEC), carried out by the researcher and a research
team at Ogbaru L.G.A of Onitsha zone last year during the rainy
season, the following observations were recorded: among the nine
secondary schools visited, only four were on section. Reasons being
that the schools were flooded with water and that the principals of
the non-functional schools were mainly women. Fortunately, the
four schools functioning all had male principals. During a
discussion section, the principals said, “We have to lead by example
and also force other male teachers as well as male students to join
in channeling the water away from the school, immediately the flood
comes-up”. Meanwhile, most of the teachers present in these

schools were females and would soon climb to the position of
principals. The researcher then wonders how these schools would
fare when such transition takes place. The problem of this study,
therefore are: the status of teachers’ work behaviours at present, its
relationship to gender issues in school leadership, the impact of
female principals’ administration on teachers’ work behaviours, the
impact of male principals’ administration on teachers’ work
behaviours. These above concerns, form the focus of the study.

Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to find out teachers’ work
behaviours, when either under male or female principal’s
administration. Specifically, the researcher intends to investigate;
1. teachers’ work behaviours with reference to acceptability of
responsibilities when under male or female principals’
2. teachers’ work behaviours based on commitment to school
functions when under male or female principals’

3. teachers’ work behaviours based on adherence to school rules
and regulations when under male or female principals’
4. teachers’ work behaviours with reference to ensuring
discipline in school when under male or female principals’
5. teachers’ work behaviours based on attendance to
instructional duties when under male or female principals’

Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will most likely be useful to the Post
Primary Schools Services Commission (PPSSC), the Public, the
Administrators/Educational Planners, Researchers, Principals and
Teachers as well as Students who are mostly considered in the
education of any nation.
This study identified the principal’s gender in relation to
teachers’ work behaviours in Post-Primary Schools in Anambra
State, thus it will expose the strengths or weaknesses (which may

exist) of male and female principals in administration of schools, to
the public as well as Education Planners/Administrators for
necessary action.
This study aimed at bringing to light, the issues of or not,
whether male or female principals’ administration can elicit
improved teachers’ work behaviours. Where either of the principals’
administration is inappropriate or produces low/poor teachers’
work behaviours, the Post Primary Schools Services Commission
(PPSSC) will be able to proffer solution to such a problem. This will
be done by administering either transfer or fresh-posting of a
principal that would improve teachers’ work behaviours in such a
school, bearing in mind the caliber of teachers present in that
The findings of this study will also be most useful to the
principals and teachers of secondary because it will enable them to
understand whether teachers’ work behaviours are influenced by
principal’s gender or not. If teachers’ work behaviours are
influenced by principal’s gender, it will enable these principals and
teachers to promote improved teachers’ work behaviours in schools

so as to achieve high school effectiveness.
The students as the most beneficiaries of education in the
country will also achieve high performance in the school. Based on
the recommendations that seminars and workshop be organized by
the Post Primary Schools Services Commission (PPSSC) for
teachers, the teachers’ work behaviours will improve and in turn
produce effectiveness in schools which will lead to high academic
performance of the students.
The study is also useful to researchers for further studies. It
will enable them to carry out researches on other/related areas,
since this work provides a basis and empirical information/data for
further studies, knowing that gender is one of the contemporary
issues in education.

Scope of the study
This study was delimited to finding out the impact principals’
gender has on teachers’ work behaviours in secondary schools in
Anambra state. The study focused on all public/government owned
secondary schools in the six education zones of the state. The

content of this study is delimited to teachers’ work behaviours when
under male or female principal’s administration based on teachers’;
 acceptability of responsibilities,
 commitment to school functions,
 adherence to school rules and regulations,
 ensuring discipline in school, and
 attendance to instructional duties.

Research Questions
Five research questions were formulated to guide the study.
They are:
1. What are teachers’ work behaviours with reference to
acceptability of responsibilities when under male or female
principal’s administration?
2. What are teachers’ work behaviours based on commitment to
school functions when under male or female principal’s
3. What are teachers’ work behaviours based on adherence to
school rules and regulations when under male or female
principal’s administration?

4. What are teachers’ work behaviours with reference to
ensuring discipline in school when under male or female
principal’s administration?
5. What are teachers’ work behaviours based on attendance to
instructional duties when under male or female principal’s

Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of
1. There is no significant gender difference in teachers’
opinion on their work behaviours under male principal’s
2. There is no significant gender difference in teachers’
opinion on their work behaviours under female principal’s
3. There is no significant difference in teachers’ opinion of
their work behaviours under male principal’s
administration and those under female principal’s


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