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PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF RURAL HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

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The Project File Details

  • Name: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF RURAL HOUSING DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [154 KB]
  • Length: [65] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Housing is one of the basic needs of any society.  It is a component of men’s environmental interactions which is expected to serve important functions, like biological, Psychological, socio-cultural and economic needs of individual facilities and/or communities. Biological, man needs an environment within which he can take shelter and protection against external forces. Psychologically man needs housing so as to satisfy his personal needs such as privacy and self-fulfillment. Socio-culturally, housing is a symbol that reflects the status of an individual family or community. It also reflects the economic value of a society. Therefore, there is a need for a study of rural housing problems which are deemed enormous and complex, so as to find solutions on how to improve the rural housing and also the living condition of rural dwellers. The study centered on issues related to the development of rural housing in the study area. Data analyzed from questionnaires distributed shows that housing in the study area is basically local. Also, residents opined that development of agriculture would automatically lead to development of housing in the area.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page…………………………………………………………………………….i

Certification…………………………………………………………………….ii

Dedication ……………………………………………….…………………….iii

Acknowledgement………………………………………………..……………….iv

Abstract…………………………………………………………….……..….. vi

Table of Contents………………………………………………………………..vii

List of Tables…………………..……………………………………………………xi

List of Figures…………………………………………………………………..…xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study …………………………………………………………………… 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………………..5

1.3 Research Questions ………………………………………………………………………………6

1.4 Aims and Objective………………………………………………….7

1.5 Scope of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………7

1.6 Significance of the study ……………………………………………..…….7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Concept of Rural Housing…………….. …………………………………………….8

2.2 Types of Rural Housing…………………………………………………………………..10

2.3 Rural Housing Facilities……………………………………………………………….12

2.4 Concept of Rural Housing Development……………………………………………..13

2.5 Rural Housing olicies and programmes in Nigeria…………………..……….16

2.6 Factors affecting Rural Housing Quality………………………..…….………..20

2.7 Problems affecting Rural Housing Development in Nigeria…………………..24

2.8 Rural Housing and Social Development…………………………………………..27

2.9 Impact of Rural Housing policy on Social Development…….………..28

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………29

3.1 Sources of Data Collection……………………………………………………..29

3.2 Target Population………………………………………………………………………30

3.3 Sample Frame……….. ……………………………………………………………………..30

3.4 Sampling Size………… ………………………………………………………………….30

3.5 Sampling Procedure……………………………………………………………….30

3.6 Method of Data Analysis……….. ……………………………………………………31

3.7 The Study Area…………………………………………………………………………3

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE: FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1     Background of the Study

Housing as unit of environment has a profound influence on man’s health, education, social behaviour, and employment, and productivity, awareness on development opportunities, safety, crime and general well being (Onibokun, 1985). Housing nowadays is not considered merely as an exercise in brick and mortar or providing roof over ones head (dwelling unit), rather, as it connotes a symbol of relationship between man and his environment. A shelter should have some basic infrastructural facilities such as clean water, drainage and sanitary facilities, electricity, access road and basic service, besides dwelling unit (Chike-OBI, 2013 and Sekar, 1991).

Therefore, the importance of providing shelter with basic utilities and services in any society cannot be over emphasized. As a matter of fact, housing reflects the level of economic development of a society (Onibokun, 1985 and Abd Aziz et al, (2011). In general, it provides the physical framework and the environment in which the economic, social and cultural values of a society are reflected.

In addition to these housing importance, Gyuse (2009) stated that rural housing serves as an abode or place of habitation as it accommodates most rural small-scale industries like pottery, dyeing, among others. It stimulates employment in the rural areas (Popoola, 1988). It also serves as a place for storage, keeping domesticated animals and foster cohesion sense of belonging among rural dwellers.

Rural housing is more complex than urban housing as it usually has to cope not only with human being but with livestock as well. Usually, there are also need for covered space for all sorts of occupation, weaving, basket making, rope making, nets and fishing, food drying and processing etc. The open space surrounding the house is as important as the house itself and very much used for cooking, storing, animals, poultry etc. Present conditions are not happy for proving all this needs and thus affect the rural housing condition.

Rural housing has been marginalized both in wider policy discussions as well as within the debate on rural issues because rural housing needs are generally subordinated to urban housing needs in policy priority. Yet, housing is essential for the wellbeing and social security of rural household. Compared to urban areas, rural areas differs more from the concentration of deprivation. With income generally lower than the urban areas and seasonal unemployment rampant, many households find it difficult to gain ownership of homes. This has implications for social sustainability of rural communities and is causing increased polarization, as younger ones migrate to the urban areas in search of jobs leaving behind their old folks and children resulting negative impact on rural enterprise and economic viability.

Housing represents a critical component in the social and economic structures and constitutes one of the basic human needs of all nations (Kabir and Bustani, 2008). Akinluyi et. al (2013) stated that, housing in all ramifications is of more important than mere shelter since it embraces all the social services and utilities that go to make a community livable environment. All governments in Nigeria since independence highlighted housing as a major priority. (Akinluyi & Adeleye, 2013).The problem of affordable housing has been recognized as ‘infrastructure needs’. These needs have been elaborated in the following way: ‘The changing face of population has immediate implications for every aspect of education, transport and infrastructure. (Housing Essay, 2003; London housing Authority, 2006: Akinluyi and Adeleye, 2013). These facts call for this kind of study. It should be noted that, monitoring urban development is mainly to find the type, amount and the location of land conversion for future planning (Shekhar, 2001). Urban planners need to understand the role played by the urban structure on the journey to work, in order to mitigate the negative aspects of mobility (Giuliano and Small, 1993).

The early years of Nigeria’s independence witnessed colossal concentration of development efforts on the modern sector of the economy to the exclusion of investment in the rural economic base. Therefore, the problem has been how to make rural development sustainable. Towards this end, a number of development approaches have been pursued by the various governments in Nigeria. These consist mainly in the establishment of projects, programmes, and capacity-building institutions. One shortcoming of these efforts is the limited local community participation in problem identification, project prioritization, design, preparation and implementation.

The rural sector is still largely characterized by absence of basic human needs and underdevelopment in agricultural and non-agricultural activities (Williams, 1994). In line with the fore-going, Diejomaoh in Ayichi (1995) asserted that rural development is a process of not only increasing the level of per capita income in the rural areas but also the standard of living of the rural population measured by food and nutrition level, health, education, housing, recreation and security. It is therefore the process of rural modernization and the monetization of the rural society leading to its transition from traditional isolation to integration with the national economy.

Rural Development is part of general development that embraces a large segment of those in great need in the rural sector. Hunter (1964) was among the earliest to use the expression Rural Development which he considered as the “starting point of development” characterized by subsistence. World Bank in Ekpo and Olaniyi (1995) defined rural development as a process through which rural poverty is alleviated by sustained increases in the productivity and incomes of low-income rural dwellers and households. This definition is defective as it dwelt majorly on the economic growth, which is just an aspect of development. Taking into cognizance, the economic growth and social upliftment as aspects of development, Ijere (1990) regarded rural development, as the process of increasing the per capita income and the quality of life of the rural dweller to enable him become prime mover of his own destiny. Obinne in Ogidefa (2010) perceived rural development to involve creating and widening opportunities for (rural) individuals to realize full potential through education and share in decision and action which affect their lives. He also viewed it as efforts to increase rural output and create employment opportunities and root out fundamental (or extreme) cases of poverty, diseases and ignorance.

1.2     Statement of the problem

Despite the importance of housing, rural housing in Nigeria is still far from adequate (Aliyu et al, 2011). In Nigeria, the major problem of rural housing is not that of over-crowding or the aggregate demand as has been reported in the study carried out by Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, Ibadan (NISER, 2010) in collaboration with University of Ife in southern Nigeria. This study shows that only 15 per cent of rural household live in a single room. An average of 1.2 persons per room is required as against 72.5 per cent of a Lagos household who live in a single room with an average of 3.8 persons per room. 69.1 per cent of Kano household lives in a room with an average of 2.4 persons per room and 63.9 per cent of Kaduna households live in a room with an average of 2.1 persons per room (Folurunso et al, 2012 and Onibokun, 1985). This indicates that rural people lie in reasonably low densities.

Majority of rural people in rural areas depend on locally available and cheap building materials for their indigenous housing construction. The materials are not only economical, but also tend to be easy to handle by Iocal builders and traditional technology. However, these building materials are transient in nature and are susceptible to erosion agents and fire disaster (Heyer, 1981, Noda, 1990 and Reddy, 1993). Due to their non durability, they require high level of maintenance to sustain their usability and to ensure the structures durability; local labour and traditional technology are also major innate in rural housing construction (Zakari, 1990).

Provision of facilities, services and utilities improve rural housing development as well as the living condition of rural dwellers (Reddy, 1991). However, provision of such utilities, facilities and services in the rural areas of Nigeria are grossly inadequate especially in Ijan Ekiti. Poor drainage and sanitary facilities make the rural environment filthy which in turn results in to poor state of rural housing in the study area.

Therefore, there is a need for a study of rural housing development so as to find solutions on how to improve the rural housing and also the living condition of rural dwellers. The study will be centered on issues related to the development of rural housing in the study area.

1.3     Research questions

The following questions were posed for the research;

  1. What problems are currently faced by people in the study area?
  2. What are the mode of housing construction and housing facilities available in the study area?
  • What are the factors militating against rural housing development?
  1. What are the solutions to lack of rural housing development?

 

1.4     Aim and objectives

The aim of this paper is to identify problems associated with rural areas and prospects of development of housing in rural areas. It is goverened by the following objectives. To:

  1. identify problems currently faced by rural people with regard to housing.
  2. examine mode of housing construction and rural housing facilities available.
  • examine factors militating against rural housing development.
  1. profer solutions to lack of rural housing development.

1.5     Scope of the study

The research is limited to examination of problems and prospects of rural housing development in Ijan-Ekiti which has experienced little or no development over the years. There is hardly any form of modern housing construction and solution to this doesn’t seem in sight as modern construction of houses are deemed too expensive in rural areas. Attempt is therefore made to focus on with problems encountered by dwellers in the study area with emphasis placed on housing as well as the prospects of rural housing development.

1.6     Significance of the study

This research would be of high importance to private developers who are categories into private individual developers and corporate developers as it would help them in aiding development of rural areas.

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