Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

EMIJU DAVID DELE

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: PRODUCTION OF A DIGITAL TOPOGRAPHICAL PLAN OF THE METHODIST HIGH SCHOOL, OWO, ONDO STATE
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [2,161 KB]
  • Length: [75] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This project was aimed at producing a digital topographical plan of
the Methodist High School, Owo in Ondo State. The first chapter of the
project covers the introductory aspects. Literature review was discussed
in chapter two, and chapter three talked about the methodology.
Hence, reconnaissance surveys both field and office were carried
out in order to be familiar with the nature of the terrain and the
requisition and assembling together of viable information from both
primary and secondary sources of data respectively. The spatial data
were acquired through the use of total station. The processes of
traversing, leveling, spot heighting and detailing were simultaneous
carried out with the use of the digital equipment (i.e total station), in the
determination of the spatial coordinates (Northings, Eastings and
Heights) of the boundary stations proposed for future developments (spot
heighting). In the database design, creation and management stage,
Arcview GIS 3.2A was used to design the spatial database.
Spatial analysis and presentation were discussed in chapter four.
The topographical plan of the area of study was produced in soft copy at
a scale of 1,5000. The interpretation of this plan support decision
making policy needed by Environmental-oriented professionals (such as
Estate Surveyors, Engineers, urban and regional planners, Architects
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and even land surveyors) to plan, design and execute vital infrastructural
projects. Conclusively, chapter five contained the summary, conclusions
and recommendations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – ix
List of Figures – – – – – – – – – x
Appendices – – – – – – – – – xi
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – xii
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.1 Background of Study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Problem – – – – – – – 3
1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study – – – – – – 5
1.3.1 Aim – – – – – – – – – – 5
1.3.2 The Objectives of Study – – – – – – 5
1.4 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 5
1.5 Scope of the Project – – – – – – – 6
1.6 Personnel – – – – – – – – – 7
1.7 Study Area – – – – – – – – – 7
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – – 8
vii
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology – – – – – – – – 21
3.1 Data Sources – – – – – – – – 21
3.2 Data Acquisition – – – – – – – – 21
3.3 Reconnaissance – – – – – – – – 22
3.3.1 Office Reconnaissance – – – – – – – 22
3.3.2 Field Reconnaissance – – – – – – – 23
3.4 Equipment Used/System Selection – – – – 25
3.4.1 System Selection – – – – – – – 25
3.4.2 Test of Instrument – – – – – – – 26
3.4.3 Control Check – – – – – – – – 27
3.5 Geometric Data Acquisition – – – – – – 29
3.5.1 Attribute Data Acquisition – – – – – – 30
3.6 Data Processing – – – – – – – – 31
3.6.1 Downloading and Editing of Data – – – – – 31
3.6.2 Back Computation – – – – – – – 31
3.6.3 Area Computation – – – – – – – 31
3.6.4 Linear Accuracy – – – – – – – – 31
3.7 Preliminary Plotting/Steps in Data Processing – – 33
3.8 Database Design and Use – – – – – – 37
3.8.1 Reality – – – – – – – – – 38
3.8.2 View of Reality – – – – – – – – 39
3.8.3 Conceptual Design Phase – – – – – – 40
3.8.4 Logical Design Phase – – – – – – – 43
3.8.5 Physical Design Phase – – – – – – 44
3.8.6 Database Implementation – – – – – – 46
3.8.7 Database Management System – – – – – 47
3.8.8 Data Security and Data Integrity – – – – – 47
viii
3.8.9 Database Maintenance – – – – – – 48
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Analysis and Presentation – – – – – – 49
4.1 Spatial Analysis – – – – – – – – 49
4.2 Testing of Database – – – – – – – 50
4.3 Query and Presentation of Analysis – – – – 50
4.4 Topographic Analysis/Operation – – – – – 51
4.5 Result Analysis – – – – – – – – 56
4.6 Application of Products – – – – – – 56
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Summary and Conclusion – – – – – – 59
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 59
5.2 Problems Encountered – – – – – – 60
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – 60
5.4 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 61
References – – – – – – – – – – 62
Appendices – – – – – – – – – 64

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Topographical survey constitute of a very important tool,
enabling the platform upon which the design, and implementation
of most physical and infrastructural development on the surface of
the earth were based.
The production of topographical plans as a type of
geographical document is characterized by small or large scaled
detailed and qualitative representation of relief using contour line.
Hence both man-made and natural feature can be properly and
adequately depicted in a topographical plan.
The increased advancement in digital surveying technology
based on the use of modern sophisticated computers and digital
survey equipments and the availability of new tools had
transformed topographical map production from the traditional and
conventional techniques into digital techniques. Currently, the
availability of fast computer and digital data acquisition technology
and digital data processing along with information presentation
technology have brought a revolution into map making through the
GIS application. And these make decision making easy and faster.
2
The invent of GIS database (which is flexible and versatile) is
necessary to meet the need of the fast growing economic situation
that demand more effective and efficient decision making in land
use and general urban planning system. Hence in achieving such
an accurate and versatile database of any information system, its
design (model) and implementation must be handled with proper
care and high integrity, in order to provide the user with refined,
accurate and adequate information. Queries can be formulated by
the users such as queries of the information system that answers
to his or her questions, provided by the information has to be
presented to him or her either graphically or in alpha numeric
format.
Topographic survey technique systematically and analytically
provide coordinate values of relevant features such as buildings,
roads electric poles, bore holes in horizontal and vertical dimension
including points on the ground surface in addition to spot heights
value of the area from which contours are drawn. Structuring the
data which are obtained by surveying technique and finally by
using high speed digital electronic computer with appropriate
programme (software) to design and create database for relevant
features and to interpolate elevation at any place. Therefore
3
information generated and analysed could be used for various
designs of engineering project and environmental based
applications such as roads, drainages, bridges, large structures
and structural buildings.
The major sources of data for topographic information system
include the following:
1) Field surveying method using GPS, total station
2) Manual digitizing using digitizer
3) Scanning by using scanners
4) Aerial images
5) Satellite images
This project deals with the production of digital topographic
plan of Methodist High School, Owo in Ondo State. The data were
acquired with the use of total station. Also, with the use of
automated hardware and software, the data could then be further
processed.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Environmental development is on an increase rate, where by
new structures are erected on daily basis and changes are caused
to the physical earth surface which need rapid and regular
updating of various developmental projects within the environment.
4
The use of analogue equipment has always been a problem
especially in the human stress and updating of different changes
cause to the environs. It is difficult to accurately and timely update
topographic map with the use of the old analogue survey
instrument.
The introduction of sophisticated computers, modern
technology and methods for digital topographic map production,
had really help to overcome the prevailing problems, associated
with analogue method of topographic plan production. Information
got from the previous analogue method of plan production had
effect on planning and construction of necessary amenities such as
roads pipeline, construction, buildings, electricity and water
network system needed in the institution for easy planning and
further development. But with the new modern digital equipment
digital production of topographic plan of Methodist High School,
Owo in Ondo State could be achieved and used for effective
decision making policy.
Morealso, to achieve an orderly and sustainable development,
the creation of a viable spatial database including its associated
graphic information for the project site is also very needed.

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1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.3.1 Aim
The aim of the project is to produce a digital topographic map
of Methodist High School, Owo in Ondo State with the application
of digital survey equipments including geographic information
system (GIS) techniques. Hence, with this new techniques the cost
of updating, manipulating and analyzing spatial geographic
information could be reduced to a minimum level.
1.3.2 Objectives
In achieving the above state aim, the following objectives
below includes:
1) Spatial and attribute data of Methodist High School, Owo
were acquired
2) The processing of the data using Surfer 8 and CAD software.
3) Spatial queries and analysis were also adequately performed
using Arc view
4) Adequate presentation of information and data management
using Arc view software
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The production of digital topographic plan will enhance
adequate, timely and easy access to topographic information and
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accurate update of the topographic plan. This will ensure currency
of topographic information for diverse infrastructural development
within the environment.
With the aid of the available sophisticated hardware and
software, digital terrain model that can be used to view the features
could be created. Within the project area, terrain analysis and
generation of a variety of products with its software can be
performed effectively.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
The scope of the project consists in:
1) Data acquisition: The geometric (spatial) and attribute data
were captured through the use of total station, including oral
interviews and renew of manuals further attribute data
collection
2) Data processing: This involves the conversion of the acquired
data from the field into different functions using appropriate
software. In this project the X, Y, Z coordinates of station
points were obtained, store downloaded in the computer
system and processed in order to achieve the desirable result.
The application of database management system was also
very vital for proper query and analysis of the spatial data
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3) Analysis and Information presentation: The final result
obtained from the processed data were presented both in the
soft copy and hard copy format. Auto card 2002 and Arc view
softwares were used extensively for the digital map
production comprising the graphic information and the
attribute data.
1.6 PERSONNEL
The following personnel were involved in the execution of the
project with their various levels of participation.
1) Emiju Dele – Author
2) Henry Bassey – Survey Assistant
3) Victor Okoro – Survey Assistant
4) Tuned Olumide – Target man
5) Mike Ogunde – Labour
6) Andrew Femi – Labour
7) Gbenga Peter – Labour
1.7 STUDY AREA
The study for the project was Methodist High School, Owo at
Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. The
geographical location of the site was between latitude () with
longitude (). It covers approximately 15.540 hectares of land.

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