PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE VEGETABLE OIL USING EGGSHELL BASED CATALYST

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  • Name: PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM WASTE VEGETABLE OIL USING EGGSHELL BASED CATALYST
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ABSTRACT

The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using eggshell based catalyst was studied. Eggshell was investigated to utilize the composition of calcium carbonate as a heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production. The objective of the experiment is to utilize the calcium carbonate obtained from the calcination-hydration-dehydration method of the eggshell waste as solid catalyst for biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil by the variation of temperature, catalyst weight and reaction time. Catalyst form the waste raw eggshell was prepared by firstly, washing the eggshell to remove impurities, it was dried in hot air oven at 120 0C under static condition for 6hrs. Calcination was carried out at 900 0C for 3hr, after which it was washed, dried and recalcined at 600 0C for 3hr. Waste vegetable oil was filtered in order to remove impurities and food bits, after which qualitative analysis was carried out to determine the physiochemical properties such as viscosity, pH, free fatty acid and density. Transesterification reaction was performed by methanol to oil ratio of 6:1 and varying reaction temperature (60 °C, 65 °C, and 70 °C), reaction time (1hr, 2hr, and 3hr), catalyst weight (1%wt, 3%wt, 5%wt, 7%wt, 9%wt). The highest biodiesel yield was found to be 76.889% by using methanol oil ratio of 6:1, temperature of 60 0C reaction time for 2 hr.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE……………………………………………………………………………….i
CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………………………ii
ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………….iii
ACKNOWLEGDEMENT…………………………………………………………………iv
DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………………..v
CONTENT ………………………………………………………………………………..vi
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………..ix
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………x
CHAPTER ONE …………………………………………………………………………..1
1.0 INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………………………1
1.1 Background……………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Project statement………………………………………………………………………..2
1.3 Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………….2
1.4 Justification of study…………………………………………………………………….3
1.5 Scope of study……………………………………………………………………………4
CHAPTER TWO……………………………………………………………………………5
2.0 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND ……………………………………………………5
2.1 Biodiesel…………………………………………………………………………………5
2.1.1 Economic Advantages of Biodiesel…………………………………………..6
2.2 Transesterification Process………………………………………………………………8
2.2.1 Catalysts in Transesterification Process……………………………………….8
2.2.2 Homogeneous Catalyst………………………………………………………..9
2.2.3 Heterogeneous Catalyst………………………………………………………..9
2.2.4 Eggshell as Heterogeneous Catalyst…………………………………………..10
2.3 Feedstock for Biodiesel Production……………………………………………………..12
vii
2.3.1 Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats………………………………………………13
2.3.2 Waste Cooking Oil……………………………………………………………13
2.3.1 Alcohol………………………………………………………………………..14
2.4 Variables Affecting the Transesterification Process…………………………………….15
2.4.1 Moisture and Free Fatty Acids Contents………………………………………            15
2.4.2 Molar Ratio of Alcohol to Oil and Type of Alcohol ………………………….        15
2.4.3 Type and Amount of Catalyst…………………………………………………                  16
2.5 Characterization of FAME………………………………………………………………              16
2.5.1 Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer ……………………………….        16
2.5.2 Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry………………………………………            17
2.5.3 X-Ray fluorescence…………………………………………………………….                        17
2.5.4 Scanning Electron Microscope…………………………………………………                  17
CHAPTER THREE…………………………………………………………………………                        18
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY………………………………………………..                18
3.1 Materials and Reagents………………………………………………………………….               18
3.2 Equipment used………………………………………………………………………….                   18
3.3 Waste Vegetable Oil Treatment………………………………………………………….            18
3.4 Catalyst Preparation……………………………………………………………………..                  19
3.5 Catalyst Characterization…………………………………………………………………               20
3.6 Transesterification of Waste Vegetable Oil………………………………………………       21
3.7 Characterization of Waste Vegetable Oil and Methyl Ester…………………………….22
CHAPTER FOUR…………………………………………………………………………..                          23
4.0 RESULT and DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………                    23
4.1 Waste Vegetable Oil Characterization…………………………………………………..          23
4.2 Catalyst Characterization………………………………………………………………..                23
4.2.1 X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis………………………………………………….                      23
4.2.2 Scanning Electron Microscope Analysis………………………………………                24
4.3 Fame Characterization…………………………………………………………………..                 26
viii
4.3.1 Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer Analysis……………………      26
4.3.2 Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Analysis…………………………….         28
4.4 Determination of Biodiesel Yield ………………………………………………………           30
4.4.1 Effect of Catalyst Concentration on Biodiesel Yield…………………………          30
4.4.2 Effect of Temperature on Biodiesel Yield…………………………………….               31
4.4.3 Effect of Reaction Time on Biodiesel Yield………………………………….               32
CHAPTER FIVE……………………………………………………………………………                         33
5.0 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………………                      33
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………………..                         34

 

CHAPTER ONE

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