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Original Author (Copyright Owner): BILKISU AHMAD

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  • Name: PRODUCTS MADE FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS: A STUDY OF PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS AND WILLINGNESS TO BUY IN YOLA-JIMETA, NORTHEASTERN NIGERIA
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [2.28 MB]
  • Length: [59] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Products that are made from recycled materials or are sustainably produced are becoming more common and popular globally as people become more environmentally aware. However, these products are often expensive or not widely available. In developing countries, additional obstacles to adoption of such products are lack of awareness and affordability. In this study, I investigated public perceptions of, and willingness to buy, products made from recycled materials in Yola-Jimeta, northeastern Nigeria. Using a structured questionnaire, I interviewed 175 adult shoppers. Using cross-tabulations and logistic regression modeling, I evaluated the influence of demographic factors and level of environmental concern on how willing shoppers were to buy and pay more for three products (bag, basket, and mat) made from plastic bag waste. I also evaluated the role of an educational flyer in affecting public willingness to buy or pay more for these products. Household income was the only significant predictor of customers’ willingness to buy. People from wealthier households were more likely to buy environmentally friendly products even if they cost more. The flyer had a positive impact on
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respondents’ willingness to buy. This outcome supported my hypothesis that increased environmental awareness increases shoppers’ willingness to buy environmentally friendly products. However, only 49% of respondents in this study were willing to pay more; therefore, such increased awareness may not be enough to overcome financial obstacles. I recommend the sellers of the products carefully consider price and the socioeconomics of the region where the products are sold, as well as incorporate educational materials or programs into their marketing schemes.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION………………………………………………………………………………………….ii
READER’S APPROVAL……………………………………………………………………………….iii
DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………………………………iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……………………………………………………………………………..v
ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………………………….vi
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………….……….x
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………….…..xi
CHAPTER 1…………………………………………………………………………………………………..1
INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………..1
Waste Management Practices and Health Implications……………………………………….2
Recycling ………………………………………………………………………………………………6
Consumer preferences toward green products……………………………………………………8
Environmental attitudes and behaviors…………………………………………………………….10
Factors that affect purchase decision………………………………………………..11
Consumers & green products in developing countries and Nigeria…………………13
HYPOTHESES……………………………………………………………………………………………..16
AIMS & OBJECTIVES …………………………………………………………………………………16
CHAPTER 2 …………………………………………………………………………………………………17
MATERIALS & METHODS…………………………………………………………………………..17
Study Site………………………………………………………………………………………………………17
Sampling ………………………………………………………………………………………………………17
Data Collection………………………………………………………………………19
Data Analysis………………………………………………………………………..20
Ethical Guideline…………………………………………………………………….21
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CHAPTER 3…………………………………………………………………………22
RESULTS……………………………………………………………………………22
Description of Respondents…………………………………………………………22
Environmental Concern and Awareness………………………………………………….22
Factors influencing buying preferences of environmentally friendly products……..23
Consumer Preferences……………………………………………………………….25
Effect of educational information……………………………………………………27
CHAPTER 4…………………………………………………………………………30
DISCUSSION……………………………………………………………………….30
Limitation and challenges…………………………………………………………………………….33
Recommendations to AUN’s sustainability program……………………………….34
CHAPTER 5…………………………………………………………….…………..36
CONCLUSION………………………………………………………….………….36
APPENDIX I……………………………………………………………….……….37
APPENDIX II……………………………………………………………….……….42
APPENDIX III……………………………………………………………….………43
APPENDIX IV……………………………………………………………….………44
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………….……..45

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Waste production has been an inevitable problem in the history of mankind. As human populations continue to grow, so does the production of waste. Waste production increases faster than the rate of urbanization. Every year, 1.3 billion tons of solid waste is produced globally (Hoornweg & Bhada-Tata, 2012). Waste production is predicted to increase to 2.2 billion tons by 2025 and more than double in low-income countries in the next 20 years (Hoornweg & Bhada-Tata, 2012). In the United States alone, about 250 million tons of trash is produced every year (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2010).
Waste production increases with a rise in a country’s standard of living. As the economic wealth of a country increases, the country’s consumption also increases, which results in the potential increase in the amount of waste produced (Achankeng, 2003). For example, a research conducted in India showed an increase of 49% in the country’s population resulted in an increase of 67% waste production (UNEP, 2001). There are substantial variations in the amount of waste generated between and within countries. More waste is produced in North America, particularly in the United States than in any other region (Figure 1). Waste generation is lower in rural areas than urban areas (Hoornweg & Bhada-Tata, 2012). This may be due to lower densities of people living in rural areas. More than half of the world’s population today live in cities, where waste generation is high.
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By 2050, the population of people living in the cities will be as large as the entire human population in 2000. This population will eventually produce a large amount of waste. (Hoornweg & Bhada-Tata, 2012).
Waste Management Practices and Health Implications
The increase in the amount of waste produced will result in the need for a proper waste management technique. In the past, there were no standard waste management practices until the occurrence of some serious pollution incidents due to of improper waste management. As a result governments had to enforce regulatory frameworks that deal with the management of waste. The main waste disposal technique for some countries are landfilling and incineration (Giusti, 2009).
Figure Figure Figure Figure 1. Waste generation by region Waste generation by region Waste generation by region Waste generation by regionWaste generation by regionWaste generation by region Waste generation by region Waste generation by regionWaste generation by region showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the showing most of the waste production in the waste production in the waste production in the waste production in the waste production in the waste production in the waste production in the waste production in the waste production in the waste production in the developed countries.developed countries. developed countries. developed countries.developed countries.developed countries. developed countries.developed countries.developed countries.developed countries. developed countries.
Landfilling involves the burying of waste in landfills, while incineration deals with burning of waste materials. Other waste management practices are composting of waste, reusing and recycling (Figure 2). As of 2014, about 136 million tons of the total 258 million tons of waste produced in the United States are landfilled. Some 89 million tons are recycled and composted while the remaining 33 million tons are incinerated (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2014).
With the advent of science and technology, management of waste became more organized and focused (Giusti, 2009). Nevertheless, poor waste management led to serious environmental and health issues. Specifically, mismanagement of waste leads to water, air and land contamination, which eventually affect public health (Giusti, 2009). Environmental problems include water and air pollution. Water is
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contaminated by leachate, which comes as a result of water percolation through the waste deposit. Air is contaminated through burning of waste particles. Also, solid waste particles that are not properly disposed of serve as breeding sites for insects, promoting air and water-borne diseases (Alam, Chowdhury, Hasan, Karanjit, & Shrestha, 2008).
Diseases such as cholera are contracted as a result of contamination of water by some pathogens (Giusti, 2009). Pathogens are disease-causing agents. Health issues are connected to the practices of handling and disposal of waste. This involves recycling activities and exposure to emissions caused by incineration and the odor from landfills. Exposure to emissions from incinerators is mostly due to inhalation and in case of water, it occurs as a result of consumption of water that is contaminated by leachate (Giusti, 2009). In developing countries, waste is mostly dumped in lowland areas, and there are no imposed regulations for waste disposal. Solid waste may not be separated from infectious and toxic wastes that are harmful to waste scavengers and the environment (Alam et al., 2008).
Specifically, landfills affect human health by causing congenital malformations. Incineration on the other hand increases the risk of developing a group of blood cancer that evolved from lymphocytes known as non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and sarcomas. It also leads to poor air quality and can cause acid rainfall. Composting of waste as a waste management practice exposed workers to respiratory diseases (Giusti, 2009). None of these methods, though, helped reduce the amount of waste humans keep producing. This led people to think about how to manage waste and if
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there was any other way to treat or use waste. This is how the recycling and reuse of waste started (Skinner, 1993).
There are several factors that affect waste management practice. According to (Guerrero, Maas, & Hogland, 2013), there are several factors that affect waste production, separation and management in developing countries. Some of these factors include; lack of knowledge on technologies to use for waste management, lack of equipment, and absence of decision makers. Also, public awareness influences individual behavior towards waste management practices. Knowing the consequences of waste mismanagement to the environment and individual health influence people’s practice of proper waste management (Guerrero et al., 2013). The more environmentally aware an individual is, the more likely he is to properly dispose of household waste, separate toxic from solid waste, avoid littering, and pay for waste management services (Imam, Mohammed, Wilson, & Cheeseman, 2008). Educating people about the importance and significance of waste management increases their level of participation in waste management programs (Nnorom, Ohakwe, & Osibanjo, 2009).
Generally, the condition of waste management practice in developing countries is very critical because it is not considered a priority. Water quality, lack of food, poor education, widespread of diseases are major problems in developing countries that make waste management not a major priority (Giusti, 2009). In contrast, several U.S. cities have already banned the use of packaging materials, particularly plastic bags, as have some countries in Africa, such as Kenya recently in 2017, Morocco in 2016, and Rwanda in 2008. Kenya has severe penalties for violators (BBC, 2017). This is done in order to reduce the amount of waste generated. Plastic bags are believed to contribute heavily to waste production (Skinner, 1993).
The problem with some of the waste management techniques is not just limited to public health consequences but other financial constraints. Landfilling as a technique needs to be operated on a large scale. This requires financial input mostly from the government. Also, the cost of completely cleaning up a dumpsite is a burden on a nation’s economy. Even though cleaning of dumpsite provides business opportunities between countries, there is a need to identify the environmental consequences and costs of waste management system. The more productive technique to consider for waste management is recycling (Skinner, 1993). It is more reliable than the aforementioned techniques because it involves converting what is considered useless into useful and valuable items (Cooper, 2008).
Recycling
Recycling is the environmental reprocessing of disposed waste. Recycling is more than just a way to transform waste to raw materials, but also a way of reusing old materials into new forms through maintenance and repair. Recycling is not just limited to plastic bags and plastic containers. Paper, metals and glass can also be recycled. Recycling is done as a means of reusing items through extending their lives in another useful form. It is considered an easy way to maintain already existing things (Werrett, 2013). Globally, recycling is not done on a large scale. From the 250 million tons of trash that is produced in the United States, only 65 million tons is recycled (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2010).

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