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  • Name: PUBLIC AWARENESS OF THE HEALTH EFFECT OF RADIATION EMITTED FROM TELECOMMUNICATION MAST – (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ENUGU STATE)
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ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine the level of awareness of the health effect of radiation emitted from telecommunication mast among inhabitants of Enugu south local government area residing around a telecommunication masts.

Method: A cross sectional prospective study of people residing 50 meters within the circumference of a telecommunication mast. Participants were adults comprising of 127 (62.9%) males and 75 (37.1%) females with mean age of 32 + 12.22 years. Six telecommunication mast and 219 respondents were randomly and conveniently selected respectively. A16-item self-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The study lasted for a period of three months.

Result: Two hundred and nineteen respondents were studied, the result of the study reveals that 122 (60.4%) respondents were able to properly identify a telecommunication mast,114(56.4%) respondents were  aware that a telecommunication mast emits electromagnetic radiation, 94(46.5%) respondents were able to correctly identify various radiation health related hazards, 93(46.0%) are aware that living close to a telecommunication mast is harmful to one’s health while 109(54.0%) are unaware of this, there is no significant difference between the mean population of people who are aware that living close to a telecommunication mast is harmful to health and the mean population of people who are unaware that living close to a telecommunication mast is harmful to health (P > 0.05).

Conclusion:  This study unveils the awareness level of the health effect of radiation emitted from telecommunication mast in Enugu south local government area which will assist policy makers, legislators and government officials who often have to deal with demands for public health safety and need to make difficult decision based on reliable information on health aspect of radiofrequency field.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page:     =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          i

Dedication:   =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          ii

Acknowledgement:  =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          iii

List of Table: =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          iv

Abstract:        =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          v

Table of Content:     =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 

1.1       Background of the Study:   =          =          =          =          =          =          1

1.2       Statement of Problem:         =          =          =          =          =          =          4

1.3       General Purpose of Study:  =          =          =          =          =          =          5

1.4       Specific Purpose of Study: =          =          =          =          =          =          5

1.5       Research Question:  =          =          =          =          =          =          =          5

1.6       Significance of Study:         =          =          =          =          =          =          6

1.7       Scope of Study:        =          =          =          =          =          =          =          6

1.8       Hypothesis:   =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          7

1.9       Definition of Terms:            =          =          =          =          =          =          =          7

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 

2.1       Review of Related Literature:        =          =          =          =          =          9

2.2       Theoretical Bases of the Study:     =          =          =          =          =          15

2.2.1   Radiation:     =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          15

2.2.2.  The Electromagnetic Spectrum:     =          =          =          =          =          17

2.2.2.1 Microwave:  =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          18

2.2.2.2 Radio Waves:          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          18

2.2.3 Radiation Dose:          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          19

2.2.4 Telecommunication Antennas:        =          =          =          =          =          20

2.2.4.1 Radiation Pattern:   =          =          =          =          =          =          =          21

2.2.5   Biological Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency (RF) Radiation:   =          21

2.2.5.1 Effect of Pulsed RF Radiation on Cell Membrane CA2+           =          22

2.2.5.2 Effect of Pulsed RF Radiation on DNA:  =          =          =          =          24

2.2.5.3 Effect of Pulsed RF on Sperm Cell:          =          =          =          =          25

2.2.5.4 Autism:         =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          26

2.2.5.5 Effect of Pulsed RF Radiation on Electromagnetic Property of Human         Cell:    =          =            =          =          =          =          =          =          =          27

2.2.6 Defense Mechanisms:           =          =          =          =          =          =          30

2.2.6.1 Calcium Expulsion:            =          =          =          =          =          =          =          30

2.2.6.2 Ornithine Decarbozylase (ODC): =          =          =          =          =          31

2.2.6.3 Heat-Shock Proteins:          =          =          =          =          =          =          31

2.2.7   Why we are not all Affected:        =          =          =          =          =          32

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY    

3.1       Research Method:    =          =          =          =          =          =          =          34

3.2       Sample Size: =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          34

3.2.1 Participants:    =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          36

3.3       Selection Criteria:    =          =          =          =          =          =          =          36

3.3.1   Inclusion Criteria:    =          =          =          =          =          =          =          36

3.3.2 Exclusion Criteria:     =          =          =          =          =          =          =          37

3.4       Source of Data:         =          =          =          =          =          =          =          37

3.5       Methods:       =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          37

3.5.1 Research Design:        =          =          =          =          =          =          =          37

3.5.2 Location of the Study:           =          =          =          =          =          =          37

3.5.3   Target Population:  =          =          =          =          =          =          =          37

3.6       Sample Technique:  =          =          =          =          =          =          =          38

3.7       Subject Description:            =          =          =          =          =          =          =          39

3.8       Procedures for Data Collection:    =          =          =          =          =          39

3.9       Materials:      =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          40

3.10    Data Analysis:          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          41

CHAPTER FOUR: TABLE AND RESULT

4.1       Result:            =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          42

4.1.1   Demographic Profile of Participants:       =          =          =          =          42

4.1.2 Analysis of Objective One:  =          =          =          =          =          =          44

4.1.3 Analysis of Objective Two:  =          =          =          =          =          =          45

4.1.4  Analysis of Objective Three:          =          =          =          =          =          46

4.1.5   Analysis of Objective Four:          =          =          =          =          =          47

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Discussion:   =          =          =          =          =          =          =          =          50

5.1.1   Demographic Findings:       =          =          =          =          =          =          50

5.1.2   Objective One: To Access the Public’s Ability in Identifying             Telecommunication Masts: =          =          =          =          =          =          50

5.1.3 Objective Two: To know whether they Respondents are             Aware the Telecommunication Masts Emits Electromagnetic Radiation:      =          =          =            =          =          =          =          =          51

5.1.4   Objective Three: To Determine the Masses Awareness of Radiation            Effect on Biological Matter:    =          =          =          =          =          52

5.1.5   Objective Four: To find out the Level of Awareness of            the Masses on           the Health Hazards of Living Close to a          Telecommunication Mast:  =          =          =          =          =          =            =          =          =          =          =          53

5.2       Conclusion:   =          =          =          =          ==       =          =          =          55

5.3       Recommendation:    =          =          =          =          =          =          55

5.4       Limitation of the Study:      =          =          =          =          =          54

Reference

Appendix

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Telecommunication masts or towers are tall structures designed to support antennas or aerials responsible for the transmission of telecommunication signal. These masts make use of electromagnetic radiation (a form of energy which have both electric and magnetic component and is propagated through space) in transmission of this signal (1).

Every day there are more cellular telecommunication antennas being erected close to or even upon schools, daycares, retirement homes and residential buildings that are affecting the health and wellbeing of everyone(2). The erection of these antennas has created lots of problem between families and friends, tenants and landlords due to the huge amount of money accrued to leasing or selling of land to telecommunication companies for the purpose of installation of telecommunication mast at the detriment of their health and the needed luxury of space for proper ventilation due to them.  It has been mentioned that we are now virtually living within a microwave oven!!!(1) Although the effects of the radiation that cell phone towers emit are harmful and above all it has not been proved safe by the telecommunication companies, there are more and more towers being approved by the municipal governments(3). Scientifically, evidence shows that the electromagnetic radiation caused by cellular telecommunications, has now become the worst man-made hazard for all life and the environment (1). Moreover, the negative effects of this radiation have being shown by scientists. Studies like the one conducted by Dr. George Carlo and published in his book “Cell phones invisible hazards in the wireless age”, demonstrated the unwillingness of the cell phone companies to admit in public the results and to be responsible for the impacts this technology has in the human body. The biggest immediate concern is that the cellular telecommunications companies are targeting the younger generation, the teenagers and children of tomorrow who are more sensitive towards radiation because their skulls do not block as much radiation and are affected by these rays much more than adults(1).These particular groups of people have: Thinner skulls which do not block as much radiation as an adult’s skull does, a more sensitive nervous system, not such a strong immune system, an increased rate of cell division, which is the reason why cell damages spread faster.

Living closer to a cell phone antenna, can cause in children more than in any other group of people; cancer, loss of memory, attention and concentration disorders, sleep disorders, mental disorders and hyperactivity among others(2).

In Valladolid, Spain, a cellular telecommunications antenna had to be removed after 11 children have been diagnosed with cancer within a short period of time(2). In New Zealand, cell phone towers are prohibited close to schools due to possible health hazards such learning disabilities and brain tumors(2). Furthermore, studies by Prof. Roger Santini, France and Prof. A. Enrique Navarro, Spain and others, proved the symptoms of illness found within a radius of between 300-400 meters from mobile telephone transmitters as the so-called microwave syndrome. This includes sleep disturbances, headaches, exhaustion, headaches, impaired concentration, tinnitus, heat sensations on the ears and many other effects. Prof Kundi from the Environmental Hygiene Institute in University of Vienna has proven that a higher incidence of circulatory illnesses, hypertension, heart attacks, and strokes occurs in the proximity of mobile phone base stations.

This study proposes to research the awareness of the public on the health effect of radiation emitted from telecommunication mast. Since the major effect of this radiation emitted from telecommunication mast is stochastic on living cell, more attention will be paid on mast located in residential and school premises where children and youth are predominant.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

  • With the increasing number of wave transmitting devices like mobile phones, there has been a corresponding increase in the number of telecommunication mast especially in residential areas, school and hospitals in order to boost the signal strength of these devices.
  • It has been discovered that electromagnetic radiation from telecommunication mast can make one feel sick and also cause some other chronic ill health conditions(3). Most people are unaware of this and continue to suffer ill health which they have no explanation for. They probably might not know that sometimes ill health is related to accumulated exposure to low dose of radiation from telecommunication mast.
  • They people are probably unaware that telecommunication masts emits electromagnetic radiation as they transmit signals and that living close to these masts pose great danger to their health.

1.3       GENERAL PURPOSE OF STUDY

The main aim of this work is determine the level of awareness of the public on the health effect of radiation emitted from telecommunication mast.

 

1.4       SPECIFIC PURPOSE OF STUDY

  • To access the public’s ability in identifying telecommunication masts.
  • To know whether they respondents are aware that telecommunication masts emits electromagnetic radiation.
  • To determine the respondents awareness of radiation effect on biological matter.
  • To find out the level of awareness of the respondent on the health hazards of living close to a telecommunication mast.

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTION

  • Can they respondents recognize a telecommunication mast?
  • How well do they know that telecommunication mast emits radiation during transmission of signal?
  • Do they respondents know that there can be health hazards from telecommunication mast?

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

  • The work will provide information that will incite government to organize lectures, seminars and public awareness campaign so as to educate the masses on telecommunication mast and the side effect of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from these mast.
  • The work will assist policy makers, legislators and government officials who often have to deal with demands for public health safety and need to make difficult decision based on reliable information on health aspect of radiofrequency field used in telecommunication of all sorts.

 

1.7       SCOPE OF STUDY

  • This is a cross sectional prospective study
  • AREA OF STUDY: the study will be carried out in Enugu south local government area.
  • POPULATION: the targeted population for this study will be adults residing 50 meters within the circumference of a telecommunication mast.
  • INSTRUMENT OF DATA COLLECTION: the instrument for data collection for this work will be questionnaire.
  • DATA ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES: The data gotten from the study will be analyzed using table.

1.8       HYPOTHESIS

Ho:      There is no significant difference between the mean population of people who are aware that living close to a telecommunication mast is harmful to health and the mean population of people who are unaware that living close to a telecommunication mast is harmful to health.

Ha:         There is significant difference between the mean population of people who are aware that living close to a telecommunication mast is harmful to health and the mean population of people who are unaware that living close to a telecommunication mast is harmful to health.

 

1.9       DEFINATI0N OF TERMS

Radiation:-This is a process where energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium.

Health effect:- Refers to the changes in health resulting from exposure to a source.

Telecommunication Mast:- this is a tall structure designed to support antennas(also known as aerials), which are used for receiving and transmitting of telecommunication signals in the form of electromagnetic wave

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