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Original Author (Copyright Owner): AISHATU MANU SORO

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  • Name: PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF WATER QUALITY OF THE KIRI RESERVOIR, ADAMAWA STATE, NORTHEASTERN NIGERIA
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [2.16 MB]
  • Length: [47] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Both water pollution and water scarcity are increasing global problems and particularly serious challenges for Africa. According to the World Health Organization, more people lack access to safe water in Africa than anywhere else in the world. To meet the growing demand for water worldwide, dams and irrigation systems are often built, particularly to provide water for agricultural needs. However, dams, especially large dams, may promote the spread of water-associated diseases. Completed in 1982, the Kiri Dam reservoir in Adamawa State, northeastern Nigeria, supports the water needs, which at times includes drinking, for many people living around the reservoir. To assess overall water quality and presence of disease indicators in the Kiri reservoir, and to establish baseline data for future monitoring, I collected water samples (near-shore and open-water sites) in October 2016. I evaluated the samples for physico-chemical and biological characteristics and compared some values to national and international standards for drinking water. I found microorganisms that indicate contamination, such as Escherichia coli, in all near-shore samples and eggs of parasitic worms, including Schistosoma hematobium and most likely Echinococcus granulosus, in most near-shore samples. Aside from average turbidity (727.4 NTU), most of the physico-chemical parameters I measured did not exceed international standards. Overall, I found that the Kiri reservoir is not heavily polluted; however, some important parameters were not measured in this study, including heavy metals, nitrates, and pesticides. Future research should concentrate on these parameters, indicator bacteria, and helminths, and a monitoring program should be established.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………………………………………..ii
READERS’ APPROVAL……………………………………………………………………………….iii
DEDICATION……………………………………………………………………………………………….iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………………………v
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………………………vii
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………………….x
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………………………………..xi
CHAPTER 1…………………………………………………………………………………………………1
INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Diseases & Water Quality …………………………………………………………………………… 5
Dams, Reservoirs, & Disease ……………………………………………………………………. …8
Case of Nigeria ……………………………………………………………………………………….. .10
HYPOTHESES ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 16
AIMS & OBJECTIVES ……………………………………………………………………………. 16
CHAPTER 2 ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
MATERIALS & METHODS …………………………………………………………………….. 17
Study Site ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17
Sampling …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19
CHAPTER 3 ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 24
RESULTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 24
CHAPTER 4 ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
CHAPTER 5 ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………………………. 32
REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Essential for all life on Earth, water is under threat globally. Both the quantity and quality of water are of serious concern to global leaders, government officials, urban planners, and rural communities, among others. Water is a topic of special concern to public health professionals, who observe, study, and attempt to resolve water quality and scarcity issues affecting millions of people on the planet. Water quality and scarcity present an increasingly complex challenge given the effects of climate change. For example, in the future some regions may experience increased or decreased precipitation and higher temperatures – leading to increased flooding or droughts. These conditions can further degrade water quality and worsen water pollution (Bates et al., 2008).
In Africa, as human populations rapidly expand, the demand for water increases; however, water sources are becoming scarcer. Approximately 40% of Africans live in dry sub-humid, semi-arid, and arid regions. The amount of water accessible per individual in Africa is far beneath the global average and is declining; annual per-capital availability of water is 4,000 cubic meters compared to a global average of 6,500 cubic meters (UNEP, 2010).
One example is the near-disappearance of Lake Chad, which borders four countries: Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon, and Chad. Lake Chad is the biggest lake in the Chad Basin and one of the giant water bodies in Africa. Due to high demand for water for agriculture, demand from growing human populations, and the effects of climate change, the lake has contracted dramatically. Between 1963 and 2001, the surface area of Lake Chad declined from 25,000 km2 to less than 1,350km2 (Coe & Foley, 2001) (Fig. 1).
In addition to increasing water scarcity in Africa and globally, water quality is a growing public health and environmental problem, especially given the role of water in human health, agriculture, industry, etc. Impacts of water quality are most significant in low- to middle-income countries. Many people live in countries that are ill equipped to cope with public health and environmental crises related to water. A large number (35%) of health-care facilities in low- and middle-income countries have no water supply or soap for hand washing, and only 19% of these facilities have improved sanitation (WHO, 2015).

Diarrhea remains a major contributor to childhood mortality and morbidity, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (Bates et al., 2008). According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2015), diarrhea caused by lack of access to safe drinking water, poor sanitation, or poor hygiene habits kills more than 840,000 people annually. This does not account for deaths due to such water-borne diseases as cholera, dysentery, and typhoid. Additionally, fecal matter contaminates water sources on which at least 1.8 billion people rely for drinking (WHO, 2015).
Regarding access to clean water, there has been progress, however. In 2010, the Millennium Development Goal related to drinking water (MDG 7) was achieved – the proportion of people globally without sustainable access to safe water was cut in half (WHO, 2015). Nevertheless, many African populations still lack access to improved water sources (Fig. 2A), and millions of people around the world have access only to severely polluted or contaminated drinking water sources. This problem is especially potent in Africa, where more than 50% of the total population in many countries lacks access to sanitation (Fig. 2B).
In Africa, even where boreholes and water sanitation facilities are available, they may not be properly maintained or managed. Due to the high demand for water, these water sources may become polluted and may not be tested as often as necessary. Poverty and lack of alternative water sources often force people to use or drink water even when it is contaminated. When water is scarce, people tend to use whatever source is available, even if the quality is poor. For example, Okoro et al. (2015) reported that residents from a town in the semi-arid region of northeastern Nigeria buy water from water vendors, collect water from unsafe/unimproved sources, or rely on free water sources such as reservoirs and unprotected wells. In the Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in Countries with populations that have access to improved water sources, in percentage (%) of total population in 2004. percentage (%) of total population in 2004. percentage (%) of total population in 2004. percentage (%) of total population in 2004. percentage (%) of total population in 2004. percentage (%) of total population in 2004. percentage (%) of total population in 2004.

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sources, or rely on free water sources such as reservoirs and unprotected wells. In the region, lack of access to improved drinking water sources has notably affected peoples’ health, economic productivity, and quality of life (Okoro et al., 2015).
Diseases & Water Quality
Lack of or poor sanitation or other environmental factors may lead to contaminated water sources. When testing for water quality, particularly for drinking water, public health officials focus on bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. Regarding bacterial contamination in water, microorganisms such as coliform bacteria are often looked at as indicators of water quality. Coliform bacteria are Gram-negative, rod-shape bacteria found in the environment, human feces, and warm-blooded animals. Total coliform count is the most common test used for bacterial contamination; it gives a general indication of the sanitary condition of water sources (Bartram & Pedley, 1996).
Presence of coliform bacteria in water indicates possible presence of pathogenic microorganisms. The group (coliform) consists of thermo-tolerant/fecal coliforms and bacteria of fecal origin (such as E. coli). Thermo-tolerant/fecal coliform are facultative anaerobic bacteria that grow at 44–44.50C. Presence of this sub-category of coliform bacteria in water indicates fecal contamination. This is because almost all thermo-tolerant bacteria are found in the gut or digestive tract of warm-blooded animals, including humans. The presence of thermo-tolerant bacteria such as E. coli is considered a solid evidence of fecal contamination in water (Bartram & Pedley, 1996).

Diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths are the most common health risks that are linked to drinking water. In 1986, 28 billion cases of disease episodes were due to 10 major water-borne diseases, and these diseases were caused by bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. People at risk of disease caused by these microorganisms are usually children who play in contaminated water and people living in unhygienic or water-scarce regions. All these microorganisms have high or moderate health impacts, with various levels of persistence in water. However, it is unknown or unclear how persistent some strains of viruses are in water bodies. Bacteria, on the other hand, easily multiply in water (Gadgil, 1998).
Helminths are parasitic worms, several of which commonly contaminate water. Two notable water-associated helminths are Schistosoma parasites, which cause schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and Onchocerca volvulus, which causes onchocerciasis or river blindness (Table 1). A third helminth, Dracunculus medinensis, has been all but eliminated globally (WHO, 2016; Table 1). Particularly problematic for Africa is schistosomiasis. Nigeria, the most populous African country, has the highest number of cases worldwide (Dawaki et al., 2015).
Almost 85% of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in sub-Saharan Africa are caused by helminths (parasitic worms) (Table 1). Hookworm infection has been the most prevalent neglected tropical disease, affecting nearly 50 million schoolchildren. This infection results in anemia for 7 million pregnant women worldwide. After hookworm, schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent disease caused by helminths. An estimated 192 million people are reportedly infected with schistosomiasis

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