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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF BILLBOARD ADVERTISING DURING THE 2015 GENERAL ELECTIOM CAMPIAGN PERIOD A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH METROPOLIES
The Project File Details
- Name: PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF BILLBOARD ADVERTISING DURING THE 2015 GENERAL ELECTIOM CAMPIAGN PERIOD A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH METROPOLIES
- Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
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The aim of the study was to asertain the level of relavence attached to billboard as means of political infromation. The review of study was to find out the benefit billborad advertisment was on the public the theorical freawork used was individual diference theory and social relationship. Survey reserch method was adopted as the reserch design. While questionnair were the instrumnet used in fithering data. My population was Enugu North Metropolis. Jusgemnetal sampling technique was used to test the sampling size. Findings also shows that public perception of billborad did not affect candiate choice based on the conclsuion the resercher proved that respondents saw the electional process as credible but thar perception of process did not affect the judgmnetal of billboard.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Certification page ii
Approval page iii
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problems 4
Objectives of the study 5
Research questions 6
Significance of the study 6
Scope of the study 7
Definition of terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Review of concepts 9
2.3 Review of related studies 14
2.4 Theoretical Framework 14
2.4 Summary of Literature review 16
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 17
3.2 Research design 17
3.3 Population of study 18
3.4 Sampling technique/sample 18
3.5 Sampling Techniques 19
3.6 Description and Research Instrument 21
3.7 Reliability/validity of data Generating Instrument 21
3.8 Method of data collection 21
3.9 Method of data analysis 22
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.0 Introduction 23
4.1 Data Presentation 23
4.2 Data Analysis 23
4.3 Discussion of findings 33
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Findings 36
5.2 Conclusion 37
5.3 Recommendations 38
Background of the study
Billboard as a method of advertising is one of the most significant media in developing countries. Billboard is a type of outdoor Advertising other forms of outdoor advertising include, banness, flyers, posters placed on auspicious and strategic places to catch the audience attention. It consists of black panels with a standardized size and border anchored on the ground and many are fixed on the walls or roofs. The advertised messages are usually printed on large pieces of paper and firmly mounted by hand on the top.
In our contemporary society, the colourful way billboards are used and the fact that they adorn every traffic passage way makes one wonder the impressions they create on people especially with regard to communication effectiveness. It is only one who did not step out of a room in a day that would not come across billboards which are every where outdoors. Their messages are colourful, competing, dramatic, bold and ambitious promissory notes.
The use of billboards has been around for many centuries. Prior to the advent of motor ‘vehicles, primitive examples of billboards were some times used to alert people travelling on foot, on horse back or by carriage that an inn could be found within a distance up the road. Along with naming the inn and providing an approximation of the distance of the establishment, the billboard would sometimes list some of the amenities such as clean beds, food and presence of facilities to house the carriage or stable the horse (Stanton 2008).
Stanton (2012) notes that billboards are often used for customer goods and has a considerable influence on the purchasing habits of urban dwellers. Orji (2002) agreed too, that billboards catch the attention of Urban dwellers due to their fine and colourful prints and imperative, ubiguitous nature. But just how do these Urban dwellers perceive candidates political advertising on billboards. Flan fan (2012) argues that billboards can deliver teenagers or old ones, noble or Ignoble, literates and illiterates, rich or poor. Billboards he said, “Can reach all of – their o language.
Apart from being cost effective, billboards also transcend the barriers of technical hitches that affect access to other print media as well as broadcast media. They strike the eyes because of sheer size. Those who have no power supply to power radio and television can be exposed to political advertising through billboards. Even those who have no time, those in transit are invaded by audaciousness, of political messages on billboards, it is a visual medium and their colourful method of advertising is one of the many reasons politicians make utmost use of billboards in reaching prospective voters across towns and cities. Bell observes that the impact of advertising on the consumer is to stimulate wants, to make people work harder and to earn more. It brings style, manners, morals, taste and standard of environment.
Baker billboards accommodate a short copy story to ensure that messages are conveyed quietly. Billboard adverts offer geographical flexiblity as a single site could be used to cover a wide range of audience if placed in a strategic position for example, in Enugu State, the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) billboard in Toscana junction, Mpkokiti junction, Ogyi Junction service some key urban area within Enugu Nortl3 LGA. Measurement of the effectiveness of the outdoor displays will reveal whether voters surveyed had not only noticed such principal theme as “votes Hon Ifeanyi Ugwuanyi, but were able to recall and use them during the actual voting after the campaign.
In Nigeria politics, particularly in Enugu State, the posters from a major portion of political campaign materials and voters get attracted to a well coloured poster showing a clear and large picture of a candidate with a short message carrying a theme, Akpan and Edewor (2005).
The above factors have led to the increase in billboards as means of political advertising. Therefore, the increase in billboards advertising underscores the effectiveness of billboard promotion.
Interestingly, the 2015 elections were widely adjudged free, fair and credible by Nigerians and International observers alike, while it- is speculated that the credibility of the elections came from the manner of their conduct, it remains to be seen if political billboards were helpful in pre-conditioning voters towards being a crucial part of this elections of 2015.
It is thus necessary to public perception to billboards. If you ask a lay man about billboard, he’s likely answer will be we only see billboards and posters on the streets”. The question is: after seeing the billboard, what else? The answer will be the real perception of the billboards and that is the key quest of this study.
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Anyone who passes a major road in Enugu Urban must come across political billboards, but may not be sure of how people receive them. One may not be sure of the impression they create on their target audience, especially with regard to political communication and 2015 elections in particular.
In addition, political billboards do not only bear colourful messages, their messages are persuasive and they say a lot about what aspirants would do for people if elected as a medium of political communication has such power to arrest the attention of its target audience and influence their voting decision. We do not know if residents of Enugu Urban during 2015 political advertisements on billboards respond to these messages positional election days.
One would wonder whether they see, billboards as influential. Hence this study investigates peoples perception of billboard during in 2015 presidential election companying in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Generally this study aimed at measuring public perception of billboard advertisement’s influence on voter’s attitudes during the 2015 general elections and campaign in Enugu North Metropolis. To achieve this aim the following specific objectives are kept in view:
- To ascertain the level of relevance attached to billboards as means of political information during the period under investigation.
- To ascertain whether if residents of Enugu believe political messages on billboards.
- To ascertain if voters in Enugu North Metropolis were actually influenced by billboard messages during 2015 general election campaigns.
1.4 Research Questions
- What level of relevance did people in Enugu Urban attach to bill boards as means of political information during the period under views?
- Did residents of Enugu State believe the messages portyed on billboards.
- How did voter’s perception of billboard political messages affect their actual voting during 2015 general elections?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings or result of this project will be relevant to politicians in order to know the reaction of the public’s towards the impression they want to create among the people.
Furthermore, this will benefits the media practitioners and us as future journalist because with the findings, we will know the relevance of billboards during political campaign.
Also the whole members of the society are considered the beneficiaries of the findings of this study. This is so because no matter unimportant the findings of this study can be to one it call still be important to those around him/her ie, his/her friends, relative, colleagues at office, classmates etc. the information could be applied in future endeavors such as 2019 general elections
1.7 Scope of Study
The scope study centers in Enugu the study focuses on Enugu North LGA It is to see how residents of the already stated region perceive billboard advertisement during the 2015 general election.
1.8 Definition of terms Billboard
Outside of a building on the side of the road, used for putting advertisement on.
It is a structure composed of metal paper or a variety of other durable materials, situated outdoors along roads, in public places and on roof-tops of building for political advertisements.
Operational: A place where different class of people from different cultures lives in.
Operational: The understanding and view of the public about the media performance on disseminating information to the public on billboards performance.
- d. Public:
Operational: Knowledge and responsible members.
Operational: A time people vote in order to choose some one for a political post or position.
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