The Project File Details
This part of the work serves as the introductory paragraph, thereby connoting the foundation upon which this work is built. Other aspect to be discussed are as follows; background to the study, statement of problem, research objectives, research hypotheses, significance of the study, limitations of the study and operational definition of terms.
Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria – The entrepreneur plays a vital role in the process of economic growth and development. Iwu Eze (1986) in Olorunshola, (2013) in a paper presented in on entrepreneurship development in Nigeria said that an entrepreneur is a contractor, an organizer of an enterprise for the public, a resourceful person with a dream. Entrepreneurs are bold men and women who have initiative and the ability to lead, manage and take the consequences.
They are men of action, risk takers, missionary, creative and highly respected of their ability to effectively and efficiently concubine the functions of management to achieve the goals. He also noted that during the colonial period, only few of Nigerians could boast of personal or family capital to start off any meaningful business and hence the next place of call for business and financial was bank.
According to Ani (1999) in Olorunshola, (2013) said that entrepreneurship started when people produced more products than they needed and as such, had who also these surpluses with others who also wanted to dispose of their surpluses. For instance, if a black smith produced more hoes then he needed, he exchanged the surplus he had with what he specialisation. This process is known as trade by barter before the advent of any form of money. All these have been made to ensure the sustainance and growth of small and medium scale enterprises in the country.
One of the goals of economic development strategies pursued by successive Nigerian Governments has been the reduction of poverty through job creation. Many government policies over the years for the achievement of that objective have been based on the development of indigenous entrepreneurship. Of course, Nigeria is not along in pursuing this strategic option.
The Reagan administration in the USA also pursued similar policies in the 1980s “Reaganomics” as it was dubbed worked on the supply side of the economy. The concept of government policy has been analysed by Dye (1965) who quoted Jones (1977) as cited in Olorunshola, (2013) as a public decision to achieve a purpose.
However, policy only lays down the general directive rather than detailed instructions or strategies on the line of action to follow to achieve the objective. Basically, government policies are formulated by the three arms of government working in concert.
But, policies can be initiated from various institutional sources and from private persons. Ultimately all government policies in Nigeria derive their legitimacy from the constitution (Uchendu, 1989 in Akanle & Ejiofor, 2014).
Dutz, (2000) simply defines government policy as a guiding principle which governs action especially repetitive actions, it is decision as to what should be done and how, when and where. Entrepreneurship on the other hand refers to the activities of the entrepreneur as the initiator, organiser, innovator and risk bearer in production or business, (Vesper 1982 in Akanle & Ejiofor, 2014).
The entrepreneur is the person whose activities create wealth and employment which can be measured either directly or through economic growth rates. Entrepreneurship development (ED) refers to the process of enhancing entrepreneurial skills and knowledge through structured training and institution-building programmes.
Entrepreneurship development aims to enlarge the base of entrepreneurs in order to hasten the pace at which new ventures are created. Entrepreneurship development focuses on the individual who wishes to start or expand a business. Small and medium enterprise (SME) development, on the other hand, focuses on developing the enterprise, whether or not it employs or is led by individuals who can be considered entrepreneurial.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Nigerian economy has been characterised with a lot of inefficiencies; public sector dominance, over reliance on oil as the major revenue earner and this has typically affected the country’s course of development.
However, since the mid-1980s, Nigeria has introduced some structural economic reforms, abolished polices and structures which prevented entry into certain industries, and opened up its markets to competition from domestic and foreign entrepreneurs.
The government have also introduced and pursued a number of entrepreneurship encouragement policies aimed at reducing the high rates of unemployment and poverty.
Though, Nigeria is still plagued by many development challenges, “preliminary evidence suggests a favourable response by the private sector to the new entrepreneurial opportunities thus created” (Elkan, 1988 in Akanle & Ejiofor, 2014)).
Nigeria is naturally endowed with entrepreneurship opportunities; however the realisation of the full potential of these opportunities has been dampened by the adoption of inappropriate industrialisation policies at different times.
Several policy interventions that were aimed at stimulating entrepreneurship development via small and medium scale enterprises promotion, based on technology transfer strategy, have failed to achieve the desired goals as it led to the most indigenous entrepreneurs becoming distribution agents of imported products as opposed to building in-country entrepreneurial capacity for manufacturing, mechanised agriculture and expert services.
Objectives of the Study
The primary objective of this research work is to examine the effect of government policies on entrepreneurship development.
While the specific objectives of this research work are to:
1.4 Research Questions
The questions that will form the basis of this research work include the following;
iii. What is the extent of relationship between government policy and entrepreneurship
development in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following hypothesis will guide this research work;
Ho1: Government policies have no significance effect on entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
Ha1: Government policies have a significant effect on entrepreneurship in Nigeria.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between government policies and economic growth in Nigeria.
Ha2: There is a significant relationship between government policies and economic growth in Nigeria.
Ho3: There is no long-run relationship between government policies and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
Ha3: There is a long-run relationship between government policies and entrepreneurship development in Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work is aimed at improving government policy through entrepreneurship development. It is also aimed at highlighting the relationship between government policy and entrepreneurship development.
It will also serve as reference document to students, government, and other researchers as an advancement of knowledge in management and other field.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researcher encountered the following constraints in the course of this work, data constraint, financial constraint, limited information due to the type of research work and time constraint.
This research work is also limited to the use of secondary data gotten from secondary sources, as such if there are any errors made by those who generated these data; this research work incorporates such errors.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms:
For easy and concise understanding of this work, it is necessary that vital terms be defined.
Bi- directional: it is the capability of reaching or functioning in two, usually opposite, direction.
Entrepreneur: An entrepreneur means a person who starts, organise a commercial enterprise especially one having financial risk. An entrepreneur as an individual who has the ability to see and evaluate business opportunities gather the necessary resources to take advantage of them and initiate appropriate action to ensure success and he is a risk taker.
Entrepreneurship Development: this is the coming into existence in society of the class of individuals, who are not limited to pace odds.
Government policy: it is a declaration of a government political activities, plan and intention relating to a concrete cause or, at the assumption of office, on entire legislature session.
Goals: is an observance and measurable and results having one or more objectives to be achieved within a more or less fixed time frame.
Indigenization: it is the mass transfer of ownership and control of economic organisation from foreigners to nationals. It is a situation where a deliberate effort is made with a backup of government regulation to transfer proprietary interest of man.
Infrastructure: refers to the fundamental facilities and systems saving a country city, or area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
Management: this is defined as process of combining and utilising of an organisation inputs [men, materials and money] by proper planning organising, directing and controlling for the purpose of producing outputs [good & services] desired by customers to that the organisation economic growth al goals or objective are accomplished.
Planning: planning can be defined as a process in which managers visualize and determine in advance, the objectives of an enterprise or organisation and select future course of action for the accomplishment.
Policies: policies are generally adopted by the board of or senior governance body within the organisation whereas procedure or protocols would be development and adopted by senior executive officers.
Small Scale Business: small scale business are those enterprises that have relatively little capital investment, that produce in small quantities and as a result control a small share of market that employ not more than fifty workers  and in which management marketing and entrepreneurship functions are used in the proprietor.
Source of fund: it means any means of gathering money e.g vulture, capital, donations, grants, savings subsidies and taxes.
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