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Background of the Study
Educational activities are geared towards ensuring that students achieve
mastery of educational objectives. In school , the extent to which these objectives
have been achieved, is determined by their level of peer pressure, time
management as students’ success are reflected in their academic performance.
Peers play a large role in the social and emotional development of adolescents
Allen (2005). Their influence begins at an early age and increases through the
teenage years, it is natural, healthy and important for adolescent to have and rely
on friends as they grow and mature. A peer could be any one you look up to in
behaviour or someone who you would think is equal to your age or ability
(Hardcastle, 2002). On the other hand, the term “pressure” implies the process that
influence people to do something that they might not otherwise choose to do.
According to Hartney, (2011) peer pressure refers to the influences that
peers can have on each other. Peer pressure is emotional or mental forces from
people belonging to the same social group (such as age, grade or status) to act or
behave in a manner similar to themselves (Weinfied 2010).
Jones, (2010) defined peer pressure as the ability of people from the same
social rank or age to influence another of same age, bracket peer pressure is usually
associated with teens although its influence is not confined to teenagers alone.
Mature adults, teens, young adults and children can be seen doing things in order
to be accepted by their peers. Peer pressure is commonly associated with episodes
of adolescent risk taking (such as delinquency, drug abuse, sexual behaviours),
because these behaviour commonly occur in the company of peers. It can also have
positive effects when youth are pressured by the peer toward positive behaviour.
Such as volunteering for charity or excelling in academics (Kellie, 2013).
However, peers can also have a negative influence. They can encourage each
other to skip classes, steal, cheat, use of drugs or alcohol, or become involve in
other risky behaviours. Majority of adolescents with substance abuse problems
began using drug or alcohol as a result of peer pressure. Negative peer pressure
may influence in various ways like joining group who drink alcohol, smoke
cigarette and Indian hemp among others. It may also lead to the decision to have a
boy friend/girl friend, Peer pressure indulges youth into loitering about in the
streets, watching films and attending parties during school hours, taping as
alternative to stealing which may eventually graduate into armed robbery. (Arief,
Peer pressure may be present in the workplace, at school or within the
society, it can affect people of all ages. It may affect people in different ways but
here, the focus is on peer pressure as it influences academic performance of inschool
adolescents. Peer pressure may have a positive influence and help to
challenge or motivate one to do best. Peer pressure may also result in one doing
thing that may not fit with ones sense of what is right or wrong. In other words,
when peer pressure makes one do things that people frown at, it is a negative peer
pressure. Operationally peer pressure is a force exert by people that is influenced
by ideas, values and behaviour either positively or negatively and always
associated with adolescents. Study shown that many popular students who do not
manage their time well make lower grades than less socially accepted adolescent
(Hartney, 1990). This is possibly due to the fact that popular students may spend
more time worrying about their social life rather than studying.
Time management has to do with planning and scheduling activities,
organizing tasks in a prioritized order and allocating time to the tasks according to
their order of importance and helping one achieve desired objectives (Achunine,
1995). Time management is the ability to manage and control time. (Lakein, 2003).
The use of planners, calendars and the like are effective tools in managing time.
Time management is the art of arranging organizing, scheduling and budgeting
one’s time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity.
(Lakein, 2003). Time management is important for everyone, while time
management books and seminars often focus on business leaders and corporations,
time management is also crucial for students, teachers, professionals and home
makers. Time management is mostly about self-management. One may be right to
say that time management is the ability of an individual or group of individuals to
make proper use of their time in order to achieve set goals.
Time management is explained as behaviour that is believed to aid
production and alleviate stress, productivity (Misra, 2000). Implementing time
management strategies helps to organize aspects of one’s life, therefore allowing
one’s time to complete all the tasks necessary to reduce one stress level. In
completing the task on schedule, a student will also enhance his academic
performance. It can be deduced from Misra (2000) view, that an in-school
adolescent who spends his time on irrelevant things instead of concentrating on
studies may end up having poor academic performance. The issue of students
loitering about, holding parties at the expense of their studies tends to suggests that
students in Abia State do not manage their time well. Hence, academic
performance might be affected.
Operationally the researcher defines time management as the art of setting a
goal and following it sequentially in order to achieve the target. Hillary Retting has
identified over-giving of attention to family, friends, and work, volunteerism or
activism, as prime obstacles to managing ones time. This author therefore
recommends solutions to management of time to include being aware of one’s
motives for instance in striving, to be a “hero” or self-sacrificing “saint,” and
avoiding procrastination, setting his motives and working hard to wards achieving
the motive enhance academic performance.
Academic performance refers to how well a student is accomplishing his or
her tasks and studies (Scortt’s, 2012). Grades are certainly the most well-known
indicator of academic performance. Grades are the student’s “score” for their
classes and overall tenure. Grades are most often a tallying or average of
assignment and test scores and may often be affected by factors such as attendance
an instructor opinion of the student as well. Grading systems vary greatly by
county and school; common scales include a percentage form 1-100, lettering
systems from A-F, and grade point averages (GPA) from 0-4.0 or above.
According to Ward, Stocker and Murray-Ward (2006) academic
performance refers to the outcome of education; the extent to which the student,
teacher or institution have achieved their educational goals. Academic performance
is the ability to study and remember facts and being able to communicate one’s
knowledge verbally or written on paper (Answers, 2010). In the context of this
study, academic achievement refers to the extent to which students have achieve
mastery of the objectives of the subjects they are exposed to in school. According
to (Aremu and Sokan 2003) academic achievement has been observed in school
subjects especially mathematic and English language among secondary school
The trend of poor achievement of secondary school students has also been
confirmed by the West African Examination Council (WAEC). The WAEC result
analysis for the years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 revealed the following
statistics of the performance of Nigerian student in secondary schools in public
examination. The percentages of students who passed during the years were report
to be 22, 54, 13.76, 22.54, 24.94, and 25.99 percent respectively. That is, on the
average, less than a quarter (21.94 percent) of the students that sat for the
May/June West African Senior Secondary School Certificate Examinations
obtained credits in five subjects including English and mathematics during the five
years (WAEC, 2007-2011).
According to the West African Examination Council Zonal Co-ordinator,
revealed the statistics of the 2012/2013 WAEC. A total of 324, 998 candidates
registered for the Examination 168,835 are Males: while 141,242 are Females:
candidates who registered for the WAEC examination. Withheld results, the results
of 51,876 candidates, representing 16. 73% of candidates are being withheld by the
WAEC Board, based on various reports, mostly for these candidates alleged
involvement in examination malpractice, while another Statistics shows that a
whooping number of 250,487 candidates representing 80. 78% have 2 credits and
above, while 217,161 candidates, representing 70. 03 of the total 2012 WAEC
candidates, have three credits and above. Several factors have generally been
identified as causes of poor academic performance. Morakinyo (2003) believes that
the falling level of academic performance is attributable to teachers’ non-use of
verbal reinforcement strategy. Welsh (2007) also found that the attitude of some
teachers to their job, poor teaching methods and the like influence students’
The blame for poor academic performance among secondary school students
could be attributable to a variety of factors such as student inability to manage their
time, peers influence, family factors and the likes. Parents, teachers, curriculum,
experts and evaluators have expressed considerable concern over the deteriorating
students’ performance in public examinations.
Therefore, an in-school adolescent should avoid negative pressure such
loitering along the street during school hours holding parties at the expense of their
study, skipping school and drug abuse. That will create room for poor academic
performance. The adolescent should move with people that study their books in
order to have good academic performance.
Adolescence is a developmental period in which an individual changes (over
a varying length of time) from childhood into adulthood. This creates confusion
about the self because society considers them neither children nor adults.
Adolescence is also a period of sexual maturity (of sex organs and the development
of hormones) and the development of sexual urge. The pattern of thinking is that in
which immediate needs tend to have priority over long term ones and because they
lack knowledge and skills to make healthy choices, they tend to go into risky
behavior and tryout experiences which often leads to mistakes and regrets in most
adolescents it marks the beginning of sexual activity Steinberg, (2008) Adolescents
substance use, or antisocial behavior are often considered as “problem”
Adolescent period is a time when many young people take the opportunity
assess themselves as well as begin the process of seeking out their own personal
identities. Part of this process includes questioning previously accepted beliefs and
guidance given in childhood and maintaining a distance from adult influences.
Young ones during this period often, rely on their peer group for support, approval
and behavior models (Aribiyi, 2006). Empirical sources indicated that adolescent’s
involvement in unguarded and discriminate negative peer pressure is on the
increase (Okonofua & Kanfua, 1996; Osarenren, 2000).
Adolescents’ use of time is an issue importance to youth, families and
society as a whole because the amount of time spent in various activities has been
linked to the development of adolescent problem behaviours. Occupying time in
constructive ways by participating in co-curricular activities an doing homework,
for example, is often viewed by parents and community leaders as well a means of
preventing negative peer pressure such as substance abuse ,delinquency and sexual
activity. Adolescent time use in school and peer experiences may also have
profound influences on the development of problem behavior. Some literature
shows high level of family support and cohesion are associated with lower levels
of adolescent substance use, delinquency and other negative outcomes (Barnes and
Farrell (1992); Farrell and Barnes (2000). On the order hand, large exclusive
amount of time spent in unsupervised peer context may reinforce or exacerbate
adolescent substance use and delinquency. Thus, large amount of unsupervised
time spent with peers at parties, “hanging out” at malls, dating and talking on the
phone may contribute to a variety of negative peer pressure in adolescents (Osgood
and Anderson, 2004).
Adolescents are particularly vulnerable to peer pressure, because they are at
a stage of development, when they are separating more from their parents’
influence but have not yet established their own values or understanding about
human relationship or the consequences of their behaviour. They are also typically
striving for social acceptance at this stage and may be willing to engage in
behaviours that will allow them to be accepted but are against their better
judgment. At this stage whether male or female the pattern thinking is that in
which immediate needs tend to have priority over long term ones and because they
lack knowledge and skill to make healthy choices.
Gender may have positive and negative influence on in-school adolescents.
The World Health Organization defines gender as the socially constructed roles,
behaviour, activities and attributes that a particular society considers for men and
women. To Woolfolk (2010) gender usually refers to traits and behaviours that a
particular culture judges to be appropriate for men and women. Cross and Madson
(2007) stated that although the majority of the researcher shows that parent
attachment is stronger in female, female may also be more likely than boys to draw
support from other sources, such as peers, because female may be more active in
the pursuit of relatedness in the context of their peer relations. Hay and Ashman
(2003) concluded that females were more influenced by peer relations than males.
It has also been revealed that girls do better in school, get higher grades and
can graduate from high school at a higher level than boys (Aryana, 2010).
From the on-going, adolescent boys and girls exhibit differences in behavioural
patterns regarding their relationship with their peers, time management and
academic performance. This study will investigate the relationship among peer
pressure, time management and academic performance of in-school adolescents in
Umuahia Education Zone.
Statement of the Problem
Reports have shown that there has been a downward trend in academic
performance of in-school adolescents in Nigerian secondary school in general and
in Umuahia Education Zone, Abia state in particular. Parents, teachers, Curriculum
experts have also expressed considerable concern about this poor performance in
external examination such as West African Examination Council. So also are
teachers and school counselor. These groups of individuals tend to point accusing
fingers on influence of negative peer pressure and poor time management as being
responsible for poor academic performance. These factors are suspected for the
luring of adolescents into engagement in negative habits such as excessive drinking
of alcohol, smoking, of Indian hemp, engagement in unhealthy sexual behaviour,
cultist activities and other maladjustive behaviours that distract them from
academic pursuit. These unhealthy behaviours of adolescents which in turn
impacts poor academic performance make the researcher to ask “why are Nigerian
adolescent not very concern about the current trend on their academic performance
Could it be that they are insensitive to the possible negative influence of peer
pressure and poor time management on their academic performance. It is in view
of these concerns that this study was carried out to determine the relationship
among peer pressure, time management and their academic performance.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to determine the relationship among peer
pressure, time management and academic performance of in-school adolescents in
Umuahia Education Zone, Abia State.
Specifically, the study intends to:
1. Find out the level of peer pressure among in-school adolescents.
2. Find out the level of time management among in-school adolescents.
3. Determine the relationship between peer pressure and academic performance
of in-school adolescents.
4. Determine the relationship between time management and academic
performance of in-school adolescents.
5. Determine the relationship among peer pressure, time management and
academic performance of in-school adolescents.
Significance of the Study
Theoretically, the findings of this study will help to clear some of the
theoretical assertion by some of the theory on which this study will be anchored on
as theory of social control theory.
According to the theorist he believes that exploiting the process of
socialization and social learning builds self control and reduces the inclination to
indulge in any bad behaviour. The theory stipulated that ties or bonds which lead
adolescents in conformity to family, school and other aspects of societal beliefs
serve to diminish adolescent’s propensity for deviant behaviour. The theorist
believes that anti-social behaviour occurs only when such bonds are weakened or
are not established. Thus, if moral codes are internalized and individuals are tied to
and have a stake in their wider community they will voluntarily limit their
propensity to commit deviant acts.
On the practical aspect, the findings from this study will be of immense benefits
to the counselors, teacher, the society, school and researchers.
To the counselor- it will help to create discipline in the life of adolescents.
When this is done there will be sanity, peace and order, which will enhance the
moral tone of the school as well as the society. It will also help the counselor to
know the right technique to adopt in modifying negative peer pressure. To the
teacher-the teacher will equally benefits from the finding of the study because the
finding will help them know what is expected of them as they are role model.
To the school-the findings of the study will directly lead to the raising of our
standard of education because experience has shown that disciplined students learn
faster and perform better academically than undisciplined students. Therefore, the
findings of this study will help the school produce students who can contribute
meaningfully towards the development of the nation in future. The findings of the
study will be made known to public by organizing conferences, workshops and
seminars to inform them of the positive and negative effect of peer pressure and
proper utilization of time. This will help sensitize in-school adolescent by making
them to be aware of the merits of good peer pressure and time management.
Finally, the results of the work will be of great help to future researchers. This will
be a source of research materials or empirical data for them
Scope of the Study
The study is delimited to in-school adolescents in Umuahia Education Zone,
Abia State. The study will be restricted to SS2 students, both male and female
senior secondary school students. They were chosen because it is expected that
they have spent five years in the school and they have acquired the experience of
both positive and negative peer pressure, and how it can affect their performance.
Academic performance is delimited to the students’ cumulative average score of
school subjects in a session.
The following research question will guide the study.
1. What is the level of peer pressure among in-school adolescents?
2. What is the level of time management among in-school adolescents?
3. What is the relationship between peer pressure and academic performance of inschool
adolescent in Umuahia Education Zone?
4. What is the relationship between time management and academic performance
of in-school adolescent in Umuahia Education Zone?
5. What is the relationship among peer pressure, time management and academic
performance of in-school adolescents?
The following null hypotheses postulated will be tested at 0.05 level of
Ho1: There was a significant relationship between in-school adolescents’ peer
pressure and their academic performance.
Ho2: There was a significant relationship between in-school adolescent time
management and their academic performance.
Ho3: There was a significant relationship among peer pressure, time management
and academic performance of in-school adolescent with regards to gender.
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