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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction
A student’s result is the criteria for the measurement of the student’s capability in terms
of academic work in the school. It is also used to measure a student’s capability in each
course offered by the student. Without an adequate results computation system, the aim
for which results are produced may not be achieved, because the slightest mistake made
during the process might lead to a very big problem, which may reduce or eradicate the
ability to grade a student from his school result. For this reason an effective, efficient and
error free results computation system should be designed and implemented in our schools
for proper running of the schools system. This project is therefore embarked upon to
develop an automated results computation system for tertiary institutions using the
Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science Kwararafa University,
Wukari Taraba State as a case study to know the problems encountered in the manual
system and how these problems can be solved.
1.1 Background to the Study
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Student’s result is one of the most important elements in schools. These data must be
processed under critical management, while requiring simple operations for processing
the examination results. The need for student to have access to their result on time and
accurately cannot be overemphasized. Scores from examination taken by student need to
be returned to these student to enable them know their performance in the various courses
written.
Also, students need to know what courses they failed in order to retake the exams. Staff
in charge of students result computation is burdened with a lot of other academic works
like lecturing, research, marking of exams and attending to other administrative task.
These other duties tend to affect the timely, efficient and accurate computation of results.
The effort expended in the process of registration of students and computation of their
examination results is awesome. Quite worrisome is the fact that these processes are
carried out every academic session, putting the operators in a continuous and ever
demanding cycle.
Vecchioli (1999) noted that organizing and managing student records into a cohesive and
efficient system might seem like an impossible task. This study was carried out to verify
the manual process involved in generating students examination result and to seek a way
of automating the system for effective operations.
Barrett (1999) notes that in an effort to efficiently document and maintain accountability
data, schools are relying more on technology in the form of Student Management
Information Systems (SMIS). This system is designed to efficiently handle processes like
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inputting scores, storing results, automatically calculating grade points, and interpreting
the student’s overall result. The usual manual process has now reached a level where it is
difficult for the available man power to cope with the magnitude of examination work, in
the given time. The imbalance between man power availability and the magnitude of
work to be done in processing examination results, leads to the delay in the declaration of
examination results. An effective measure, which can improve the efficiency of the
examination result processing, is therefore the introduction of computerization, especially
with the use of examinations result processing software. Computerized relational
database systems (RDBMS) like Oracle database, Microsoft SQL server, MySQL etc.
were developed with goal of reducing data redundancy.
Brian (2009) stated that databases are collections of interrelated data of such a nature that
the collections can be represented as a number of files but not a single file.
Garcia-Molina et al. (2008) also stated that depending on the Database Management
System (DBMS) used, these files may be integrated permanently into a single connected
structure or integrated temporarily for each interrogation, known as a query. Nearly all
departments within an organization require data to be processed into information in a
timely manner. Timely information processing and dissemination leads to efficiency and
customer satisfaction. Schools are organizations as well and timely information
processing and dissemination is needed to run a school efficiently. Many schools have
their own system to manage students profile and assessments. Common practice as earlier
stated is by recording the student information in a record book(s). Students’ information
is obtained from the registration forms obtained from the practices that have always been
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used. This practice has some weaknesses such as it takes a longer time to search the
student’s profile, the possibility of misplacing these record books and the vulnerability of
student’s record as the records could be accessed by unauthorized persons.
Eludire (2011) stated that other problems associated with manual course system
management include; improper registration, late release of students’ results, Inaccuracy
due to manual and tedious calculation, Retrieval difficulties/inefficiency. It is unfortunate
that most educational institutions in the developing world still operate the manual
methods of record keeping and computation. Although the manual method still works, it
is prone to errors. Automation of school administration processes should be encouraged.
Computers can be used for this automation process and processing student’s results can
be done quickly and efficiently to the satisfaction of the students, lecturers, parents and
school authority. It is pointed out in the research work Student Examination Result
Processing System (2012) that the effort expended in the process of registration of
students and computation of their examination results is enormous. Hence, the need to
evolve a computerized process that will effectively and efficiently capture all the
important data associated with the registration and examination result processing within
the University.
My research focuses on the design and implementation of an application where student
results can be stored, users can access this software from anywhere as long as the
computer they are working on is on the network same as the application server. This
application enables users with the right permission to insert new user details, students’
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examination records as well as updating these records whenever necessary. This research
seeks to provide an alternative to the manual system of presenting results to students.
In Universities like Kwararafa University, Wukari, the need for an automated method of
keeping data has been there. There have been several attempts to develop systems for
automating results computation, but most of the work of this project will be on the
computation of the results of the students at the undergraduate levels; and also span
across other Head of Department, Examination Officer and Lecturer functions. With the
Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science as the research projects’
case study, this work is focused on providing alternative solutions to the general
problems associated with results computation, timely computation of students’ grades,
and above all, security issues which hinders unauthorized access to results by students
and lecturers.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problems posed by manual methods of results computation are enormous. The
situation is the same in Kwararafa University, Wukari and correspondingly, the
Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science. The issues here can only
be addressed by employing upper hands. The computation of examination results of
students is obviously an object-centered activity, the student being the dominant object in
this case. Hence, the need to evolve not just a computerized process, but an objectoriented
software design and implementation that will effectively and efficiently
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capture all the important objects associated with the results computation within the
University and the interactions among the objects.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this project is to design and develop a system with the capability to automate
the process of result computation.
The objectives of this project are to:
1. Develop a system that keeps accurate record of students’ examination results in
the school and prevent loss of result which is vital to the Exams and Records.
2. Reduce the length of time spent in results’ computation.
3. Develop a system that prevents unauthorized access or tampering of students’
result hence, upholding data integrity.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The project work will help in a good number of ways to ease the delay in manual results
processing. The software developed will help the department management to achieve
efficient Information Management System. There are many other advantages, and some
of them are listed below.
1. It saves time during examination results processing.
2. Database for examination result is maintained.
3. References are very fast and delays can be avoided.
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4 It allows easy access to stored information.
5. It helps in reducing the costs such as labor, inventory and stationery.
6. Generation of accurate results/information on transactions is ensured.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This research work will concentrate on results computation system, as well as
examination officer functions provided in an automated format which enables the Head
of Department, Examination Officer to interact with the application effectively. This
work will also use the Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science as
the organization in question for its development.
1.6 Limitations of Study
In the course of this design, some factors leads to constraints in the effective actualization
of the project.
1. The duration for this project is too small for the study to be carried out in a more
complex scope. There are some other programmes like examinations, to be
attended to which curtailed the time to spend on the project. The above constraint
leads to limiting the application functionalities.
2. The limited resources available for carrying out this project pose a major
constraint. There is much work to be done but limited cash was available. The
available related materials in this research topic are insufficient and some of the
respondents are unwilling to supply useful information.
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1.7 Definition of Technical Terms
Information System: It is a collection of procedures, people, instructions and equipment
to produce information in a useful form.
Technology: It is the study of techniques or process of mobilizing Resource (such as
information) for accomplishing objectives that benefits man and his environment.
Information: Information can be defined as the process of gathering, transmitting,
receiving, storing and retrieving data or several items put together to convey a desired
message.
Computer Network: Computer Network is a system that connects two or more
computers together using a communication link.
Databases: A systematically arranged collection of computer data, structured so that it
can be automatically retrieved or manipulated. It is also called databank.
Database Table(s): It is a collection of rows and columns in the database which are used
for logical data storage and retrieval in the database.
Database Management System (DBMS): This is the software that performs the task of
database management.
Programming Language: This is the language used to give instructions to the computer.
Structure Query Language (SQL): This is a very high level programming language
that is used to query the database.
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