The Project File Details
Rural development intervention in Nigeria has emphasized the role of government and their statutory agencies, in driving social and infrastructural development. This approach has led to the representation of rural communities as recipient rather than active movers of development. This project work investigated the dilemma of rural development in NsugbeAnambra East L.G.A of Anambra State and also examined the activities of traditional agencies in rural development. The study used primary and secondary data. A random sampling technique method was used while questionnaire were used as instruments for data collection. The measuring instrument applied was the (x2) and based on the findings which includes that 54.5% or 180 respondents agree that Nwannebuife age grade group promotes rural development in Nsugbe community in Anambra East L.G.A in Anambra state and 36.4% or 120 respondents strongly agree. With recommendations that the government should help by partnering with these age grade group in rural community development, it also determined the positive and negative role of Nwannebuife age grade in promoting rural development in Nsugbe community, Anrambra East L.G.A in, Anambra state.
Title Page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – – ii
Declaration – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgments – – – – – – – v
Table of contents – – – – – – – vi
List of tables – – – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem – – – – 5
1.3 Objectives of the study – – – – – – 5
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – – 6
1.5 Hypotheses – – – – – – – – 7
1.6 Significance of the study – – – – — 7
1.7 Scope of the study – – – – – – 8
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms – – — – 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1Literature Review 10-17
2.2 Related Literature and Concepts
2.2.1 Concept of Role
2.2.2 Concept of Promoting
2.2.3 Concept of Rural Development
2.3 Empirical Literature Review – – – – 17-18
2.3.1Ugochinyere Age Grade Association – – 18-21
2.3.2 The Nwannebuife Age Grade institution – – 21-27
2.4 Theoretical Frame work – – – – – 27-31
2.5 Organization of Rural Development activities – 31-33
NsugbeAnambra East L.G.A Anambra State. – 33-34
2.6 Social cultural/community Development Association 33-34
2.7 Rural Development in Perspective – – – 34-37
2.8` Summary – – – – – – – 37
CHAPTER THEE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – 38
3.2 Population of the study – – – – – 38
3.3 Sample size and Sampling techniques – – – 39
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – 40
3.5 Validity and Reliability of Data Instrument – 40
3.6 3.4 Method of Data Collection – – – 41
3.7 Method of Data Analysis – – – – 41
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND RESULTS
4.1 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – 42
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis – – – 42-53
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis – – – – 53-57
4.4 Discussion of Findings – – – – – 57-58
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMRNDATIONS 5.1 Summary – – – – – – – 59 5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – 59 5.3 Recommendation – – – – – 60 References – – – – 61-63 Appendix A – – – – – – 64 Appendix B – – – – – – 65-69
1.1 Background of the Study During the colonial era, the abundant natural resources in the rural
areas were exploited without any attempt to develop such areas.
Development projects were concentrated in the few urban centers and any
extension of such development effort was to facilitate their administrative
convenience. The rural areas served as sources of cheap and most often
forced labor. Dike (1992), need that though the road and river ordinance, the
warrant chiefs were empowered to order communities to provide up paid
compulsory labor for the construction and maintenance of access roads and
other services. The different attempts to development culminated in the 1976
local government reforms which main proclaimed objective was to bring
government operating at the grass roots, a development process that would
improve the lot of the rural populace were triggered off.
Rural sector in Nigeria, public policy was consistently employed and
this “increased agricultural development (Hall, 2000, OnokerHoraye and
Okafor, 1991 and Tom (1991). The assumption was that increase in
agricultural output would lead to rural income and improvement in the
livelihood of people especially the NsugbeAnambra East Anambra state
individuals. However, Okpula (1980) disagrees and argues that the
prevailing public policy emphasis its increased in agricultural out-put and
productivity as the main goal of rural development, is at variance with the
communities perception of which constitutes their development. It is
obvious from the above position, that the rural dwellers do not share
government as enthrisium for agriculture development. They frequently do
not adopt the type of rural development proposals, proagrammes and
projects that are exposed in the official natural development programmes.
As Olisa (1992) rightly observed over 80% of the country’s
population are living in the rural areas and are engaged in agriculture, yet the
country’s internal food supply relative to domestic demands, has been
consistently on a steep decline. Another way of starting the Nigerian rural
development dilemma, Lisa(1945) further stated is that all the agricultural
and industrial projects started in all corners of Nigeria since 1950s to the
present were successful and in active production today, the country would be
recording substantial food supply and much of its rural areas would have
undergone substantial transformation.
These efforts of developing the rural areas in Nigeria have not yielded
the desired results, due largely to their inability to accelerate the
development of the sector. The initiatives failed because of the exclusion of
the people not only from policy making and planning but also from
implementation. Other attendant factors for the low level of development of
the rural areas include the failure to harness available resources within the
rural areas, inability to sustain their programmes, managerial problems and
the failure to take into cognizance the socio-cultural background and
hastened experience of the benefiting rural communities. The complexity
and enmity of the problems confronting the rural dwellers in Nigeria, call for
a profound search or both the formulation of a more appropriate and
enduring approach the problem is more than just technology and productive.
It is the “social, cultural and economic issue responsible for under
development that requires attention” (Altieri, 1995).
The consequent entrenchment of profit and centralized institutions of
governance in society has continued to threaten the existential essence of
man in his local and natural involvement. The Igbo were originally free from
such centralized and despotic institution of governance. However, to
facilitate government in Igbo land were the kingship institute was few to
achieve uniformity with the test of the country, the columned mater created
the “warrant chiefs” in 1916. The proliferation of kingship institution was
thus engineered in an area of Nigeria where the predominant political
organization was the “democratic village republic”. In which the traditional
local institution for governance has been the age grade. However, the
important thing is that all communities in Anambra East local government
area Anambra state should agree on the need for an enhanced socio
economic political and cultural life of the community.
Agreeably, government alone cannot provide these services Julius
Nyerere had said “that if people realize that their suffering is not the will of
God, they will make efforts and sacrifices. It could have been thus
realization that spurred non-governmental organizations in Anambra East
local government into action. But while non-governmental bodies are
making efforts towards improving the living condition of Anambra East
populace, it must be stressed that there is need for adequate government
participation in their development bid.
Credence is said to these when one looks at the United Nations
definition and community development. Community development also rural
development is the process by which the affairs of the people themselves are
united with those of government authorities to improve the economic social
and cultural. Conditions of communities to integrate these communities, into
the life of the nations and to enable them to contribute fully to national
process community development by this definition, ought to be a joint effort
between government and the people of the rural communities.
1.2 Statement of Problem
A common task facing developing and under developed nations today
including Nigeria is the development of rural area. Development of the rural
areas or communities means an improvement or advancement in the socio
economic political and cultural life style of people. In most rural
communities including Anambra East local government area, there is
insignificant provision of basic human needs like Hospitals, pipe borne
water,tarred and motor able, roads, schools etc, by government. This attitude
on the part of government creates an impression in the minds of people that
they are not part of the body polities.
The non-development problem of rural areas spreads across all state
of Nigeria but is more pronounced in Anambra East local government area.
In this community there is object neglect of provision of these facilities by
This study attempted at identifyingthe scope of developmental
projects undertaken by non-governmental organization in Anambra East
local government area. Thus, the researcher investigated the role of
Nwannebuife age grade in promoting rural development in Nsugbe.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following objectives were relevant to the study.
1. To find the roles of Nwannebuife Age Grade group to rural
development in Nsugbe.
2. To determine some of their experiences in developing rural areas in
3. To make recommendations which will foster harmonies relationship
between the Nwannebuife Age Grade and the Nsugbe commonly in
1.4 Research Questions
The following are relevant research questions
1. What are the roles of the Nwannebuife age grade institutions in the
development of communities in Nsugbe in Anambra State?
2. To find how to analyze the interface of the Nwannebuife age grade
institutions with a view of understanding the nature of rural development
3. To what extent does the project aim at determining some of their
experiences in developing rural areas?
4. How can one make recommendations to foster harmonies relationship
between the Nwannebuife age grade and the Nsugbe community in rural
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Ho: Nwannebuife age grade has roles in rural development of Nsugbe.
Hi: Nwannebuife has no role in rural development in Nsugbe
Ho: It is impossible to analyze the interface of Nwannebuife age grade
institution with a view of understanding the nature of rural development in
Nsugbe community in Anambra State.
Hii: It is possible to analyze interface of Nwannebuife age grade institution
with a view of understanding the nature of rural development in Nigeria
community in Anambra state.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The essence of this study is to draw the attention of the local, state and
federal government on rural development using the people.
This research draws the attention of government to the need for
stepping up their matching, rather as well as provision of human and
material assistance to communities in Anambra East local government area
who are embarking of the developmental project.
Finally, this research will aid structure towards making further
research in their area as well as serve as an invaluable source of information
on Anambra East Community and libraries.
1.7 Scope of Study
The study is focused on the role of Nwannebuife age grade in
promoting rural development in Nsugbe community, Anambra east local
government area in Anambra state. The studies will emphasis on the positive
and negative roles of the Nwannebuife age grade in Nsugbe community with
a proper background.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Operational definitions were used
Role: people’s task or duty in an undertaking
Non-Governmental:Any group set up that is outside direct government
control or involvement.
Organization: They are social and technical devices or instrument that
helps in the accomplishment of goods that are too large and complex to be
handled by one person.
Community: A territorially bounded social system within which people live
in harmony love, intimacy and share common social, economic and cultural
Development: A continuous process of positive change I the quality and
span of life of a person or group of persons.
Government: An authoritative unit of the state which has the sole function of
achieving the ends of the state –provision of welfare services, maintenance
of law and order and establishing and maintaining of relations with similar
units in other state.
Environment: The environment have (external internal) means Nsugbe
community, Anambra East local government Anambra state.
Inputs: The inputs in the senses relates to human material resources, and
financial needs ere emulating from the environment.
Conversion process: the conversion process refers to all agents’
development in the community non-governmental organization leaders in
the community and all those with positive disposition on the conversation
process within the community.
Outputs: the reactions from the conversation process give birth to outputs
which manifest on the form of development projects and their execution.
Feedback: This has to do with the degree of response to input out
relationship which reads either in support of the system or its rejection in
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