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This study investigated the role of parents in the development of moral values among students of tertiary institutions in Delta state. Three research questions guided the conduct of this study and two null hypotheses were tested at α = 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study.  The population of the study comprised male and female students in tertiary institutions in Delta state. Simple random sampling technique was adopted to select 260 students in Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba and College of Education, Agbor as sample for this study.  An 18-item structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection using a 4-point scale with responses ranging from Strongly Agree = SA, Agree = A, Disagree = D and Strongly Disagree = SD. Data collected to answer the stated research questions were analyzed using descriptive statistics involving mean and standard deviation. Student t-test statistic was employed in the test of hypothesis at α = 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that parental practices (such as parental warmth, interaction, discipline and parental role model) have negative influence on the moral value system of students in tertiary institutions; there is no significant difference between male and female students’ mean ratings on parental practices and moral value system; and there is no significant difference between male and female students’ mean ratings on parental divorce and identity formation among others. The study recommended among others that authoritative and permissive parenting styles should be adopted by parents in order to foster good moral development in their children/students in tertiary institutions; and parents should monitor the type of friends they keep both at home and in school by paying unscheduled visits to their children in schools.




TITLE PAGE                                                                                             i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                      iii

DEDICATION                                                                                           iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                        v

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                           vi

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                      ix

LIST OF APPENDICES                                                                                      ix

ABSTRACT                                                                                               x



1.1     Background to the Study                                                                            1

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                                                  5

1.3     Purpose of the Study                                                                        6

1.4     Research Questions                                                                           7

1.5     Significance of the Study                                                                  7

1.6     Scope of the Study                                                                                     8

1.7     Operational Definition of Terms                                                       8



  • Conceptual Framework 11

2.1     Economic Development                                                                    16

2.2     Business Education and National Development                               18

2.3     Importance of Business Education to economic development          20

2.4     Roles of Business Education to Economic Development                           22

2.5     Skills Possessed by Business Education Graduates                                   23

2.6     Competency of Business Education Teachers                                   25

2.7     Alleviating Poverty through Business Education                              27

2.8     Business Education and Unemployment Curbing                                      29

2.9     Business Education for Self-Reliance                                                         31

2.10   Related Empirical Studies                                                                 33

2.11   Summary of Literature Review                                                                   35



3.1     Design of the Study                                                                          37

3.2     Population of the Study                                                                              38

3.3     Sample and Sampling Technique                                                      39

3.4     Instrument for Data Collection                                                                   40

3.5     Validation of the Instrument                                                             40

3.6     Reliability of the Instrument                                                             40

3,7     Method of Data Collection                                                                41

3.8     Method of Data Analysis                                                                  42



4.1     Data Analysis                                                                                   44

Research Question One

Research Question Two

Research Question Three

4.2     Test of Hypothesis

4.3     Major Findings of the Study

4.4     Discussion of Results                                                                        53



5.1     Summary                                                                                          57

5.2     Conclusion                                                                                        59

5.3     Recommendations                                                                                      60

5.4     Contribution to Knowledge                                                              61

5.5     Limitations of the Study                                                                             61

5.5     Suggestions for Further Research                                                     62

REFERENCES                                                                                         67

APPENDICES                                                                                           72





1.1     Background to the Study

The home plays very important roles in values development and values re-orientation of children. The home has a great influence on the students’ psychological, emotional, and social and economics state. The quality of home environment goes a long way in determining the eventual personality and academic achievement of students since home is the first place of learning. Home background is the foundation for the children’s development, as such parental background in terms of moral values, family size, culture, religion, socio-economic status and educational attainment and qualification play important role in students’ educational achievement and social integration. Studies are replete with the importance of the home environment or parents on students’ academic performance. According to Ajila and Olutola (2000), the home affects the individual since their parents are the first socialising agents in an individual life. This is because the role of parents in instilling moral values in a child affects his or her reactions to life situations and level of academic performance in the school. Hence, it is through parents’ efforts and abilities that a child is socialized to become productive citizen. More so, students’ attitudes to learning and educational performance are shaped by the kind stimuli offered to them by their various environments. This can be considered in terms of the type of family, the home, parental social orientation, educational level and morals learnt from home. Similarly, the value that different parents attach to education could affect the child’s attitude to school and eventually affect his/her motivation for success in schoolwork.

The school is an institution where teaching and learning takes place. It is therefore the responsibility of the school to shape the lives of the young ones and equip them with the right values. It is instructive to note that the school compliments the home in developing and fostering moral value development in students which will help them become responsible citizens. By equipping students with the right value of honesty, hard work, punctuality, respect and the like, to become responsible and productive members of the society. Education could be described as a powerful tool not only for intellectual development but also for the development of shared beliefs, attitude, values, morals and ethical principles. One thing that is certain about the numerous definitions of education is that any education that does not lead to positive development is not worth it. Osokoya (2007) defined education as the systematic development and cultivation of the mind and natural powers. Education is a universal instrument par excellence for effective human and national development. is main aim of education generally, is to provide the child with the opportunity to fully develop his potentials and become stable mentally, physically, socially and morally. Moral, on the other hand, has been defined as standards, principles of good behaviour. Thus, moral values implies behaviour, attitude exhibited and encouraged by members of the society for the fact that they are both good and desirable to mankind generally as against those behaviours condemned and discouraged. Examples of moral values include faithfulness, self discipline, honesty, humility, brotherliness, patience, hardworking, truthfulness among others.

Values are transmitted from one generation to another and they keep the society alive and orderly. Thus, they are very important or useful to people. Bolarin (2005) saw value related issues as of great importance in education because we educate in and for society with a system of values. This being the case, one may say apart from some other socializing agencies like the church, peer group, age grade and school.  Esu (2009) defined values as ideals that guide or qualify your personal conduct, interaction with others and involvement in your career. Enu and Esu (2011) noted that values are basic beliefs and attitude in a society whether of individuals or groups which are considered worthwhile and serve as guide to choices and behaviours in our daily life. Onyechi (2013) opined that people see value as principal, standards or qualities that are considered worthwhile and desirable. Omoni (2013) defined values as important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by members of a culture about what is good or bad or desirable. Values help to inform one on how he or she can conduct one’s life in a meaningful way. Different schools of thought consider values to mean trait, practices, acts, ideals, beliefs, attitude and principles that a group or society acknowledge to be of merit, worthwhile, dear, acceptable and right. Values therefore are deep seated beliefs that influence people’s actions and behaviours. It is therefore essential that every individual, group and indeed the entire nation must have core values which serve as the driving engines for growth and development. The acquisition of essential life values and ethical principles such as love, tolerance, honesty, dignity and respect for individuals’ right is vital for the survival of any nation or society. Bolarin (2005) identified some dominant values which formed the core values upheld by a larger section of the Nigerian society to include detesting laziness, dignity of labour, respect for parent/elders, hospitality, public spiritedness, and respect for authority, hard-work, and respect for sanctity of life, honesty and truthfulness. When these values are grossly compromised, then what you get is greed, corruption, dishonesty, violent crimes, political killings, kidnapping and so many other antisocial behaviours.

Values are a set of desirable behaviour by following which is good for the individual and also the society. This is the reason why values are not taught, lectured about or professed, they are only demonstrated. Parents and teachers are two categories of people who make maximum impact on the personality of an individual in the formative years of life which remains all through the life. The first school a child attends is his home and parents are the first teachers. With the help of their conduct and behaviour they induce an influence on their children. They play a major role in inculcating values in their children. Values are essential for a sound character and personality. But at times due to their sheer negligence a child lacks morally and ethically accepted values.  Parents at times show a lot of concern for the children and instead of correcting they start to pamper even for their improper behaviour. It is actually detrimental for the growth of the child.  Such parents are very possessive. Some of the parents are too strict with their children. They try to overpower their wards .They do not let the child enjoy the bliss of his innocence. They try to check him for whatever he does. Another class  consists of those parents who are not much concerned about their children either due to lack of time or are not educated enough to guide their children. Whatever is the reason but it certainly affects the child’s behaviour. The parents handling of the children should be such that it could take care of all aspects and could provide firm guidance without being too strict. It is on the basis of the above premise that this study seeks to investigate the role of parents in the development of moral values among students of tertiary institutions.

1.2     Statement of the Problem

The spate of moral decadence in Nigerian tertiary institutions has attracted the attention parents, teachers, the government, religious organisations and other stakeholders. It has been generally observed that morals and values are on the verge of collapse among tertiary students in Nigerian schools. Issue of culture and discipline in Nigerian schools has never been of much concern and threat to the educational system.

However, in the past few years, there have been rising incidents of serious misconduct by students. There are alleged cases of teachers being threatened and/or attacked by students in tertiary institutions. In some cases the attacks have been violent. In the midst of these problems, there is a growing debate over the declining standard of education as caused by students’ unrests; and the routine blaming of teachers for being unproductive. Parents have also been accused of abdicating their responsibility of rearing responsible children.

It is against this backdrop that this study sought to investigate the role of parents in the development of moral values among students of tertiary institutions in Delta state.
1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the role of parents in the development of moral values among students of tertiary institutions. Specifically, this study seeks to:

  1. Explore, from the perspective of students, their experiences of parental practices.
  2. Describe the factors that influence moral value development in students in tertiary institutions.
  • Determine the association between parental divorces and identify formation of students in tertiary institutions.

1.4                   Research Questions

The following research questions provide guide for the conduct of the study.

  1. How does a parental practice (such as parental warmth, interaction, discipline and parental role model) influence moral value system of students?
  2. To what extent do parents monitor social influences (such as peer and reference groups) of their children which affects their moral value development in tertiary institutions?
  3. What is the relationship between parental divorce and identity formation of students in tertiary institutions?

1.5                   Research Hypothesis

Sequel to the above research questions, the following null hypotheses were formulated and tested at alpha level 0.05 level of significance.

H01: There is no significant difference between male and female students’ mean ratings on parental practices and moral value system.

H02:   There is no significant difference between male and female students’ mean ratings on parental divorce and identity formation.

1.6     Significance of the Study

The findings of this study could be of great importance to students as it could engender moral rebirth in students and the need to grow up to become responsible citizens.

The relevance of this study cannot be over emphasised. Since students look up to their mentors for guidance and models of which the teachers can serve, this findings of this study could help teachers to become more proactive and be good models to the students.

Similarly, the findings of this study could be of help to parents and families especially broken homes to devote more time and efforts to the upbringing of their children/wards. This is premised on the fact that the home is the cradle for the teaching of values.

This work may also provide necessary information to future researchers who may be interested in carrying out a similar study to the present study through its findings.

1.7     Scope of the Study

This study is delimited to the investigation of such variables as association between parental divorce and students’ identity formation; influence of social and reference groups on moral development and parental practices and moral value system of students in tertiary institution. In addition, this study is delimited in scope and coverage to students in tertiary institutions in Delta State only.


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