The Project File Details
- Name: ROLE OF PUBLIC RELATIONS IN GENDER CONFLICT RESOLUTION ( A STUDY OF FIRST BANK OF NIGERIA PLC. )
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This study “Role of Public Relations on Gender Conflict Resolution. (A Study of First Bank Nigeria Plc, Emene, Branch), seeks to study the term gender conflict, in addition to the importance and effective practice of Public Relations. It covers the important roles which a Public Relations practitioner performs on the Bank and also the Qualities of Public Relations practitioner. A critical review to related literature were made. Relevant theories were used to gratify the study, that the social responsibility theory, which was used to describe Public Relations as social responsibilities of maintaining a good and mutual relationship between the banker and customers and environment in which it operates. The sample size of 171 were used using Taro Yamane formular. The researcher made use of survey research method. The questionnaire and oral interview was used for data collection. Data was presented in tables and a descriptive approach is adopted in analysis using chi square. Finally, the researcher made some recommendation including, Public Relations practitioners complained that management does not consult them on policy –making plan or even inform important matters. This can be resolve if only the management realize the important roles of the Public Relations. The management should likewise show concern toward the effective practices of Public Relations practitioners. When this is done we can be sine of a conducive working environment.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i Approval page ii Certification iii Dedication iv Acknowledgements v Table of contents vi Abstract vii CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1Background of the Study 1 1.2 Statement of the Problem 4 1.3 Objectives of the Study 4 1.4 Significance of the Study 5 1.5 Scope of the Study 5 1.6 Research Questions 6 1.7 Research Hypothesis 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 8 2.1Related Literature 11 2.2 Concepts of study 19 2.3 Review of Related studies 19 2.4 Theoretical Review 19 2.5 Summary 20
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 21 3.1 Design of the Study 21 3.2 Area of Study 21 3.3 Population of Study 23 3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 23 3.5 Instrument of Data Collection 23 3.6 Validity of Instrument 23
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 23 3.8 Method of Data Collection 23 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 4.1 Distribution and Collection of Questionnaire 24 4.2 Test for Hypothesis 36 4.3Discussio of Findings 36
CHAPTRER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 43 5.1 Summary of findings 43 5.2 Conclusions 44 5.3 Recommendations 44 5.4 Implication of research findings 45 5.5 Suggestion for further studies 45 REFERENCES 47 APPENDICES 48 QUESTIONNAIRE 49
1.1 Background of the Study
Gender is a general term that refers to girls, boys, women and men. Gender can
also be defined to include the roles of makes and females in the society. A gender
perspective in conflict would look at the way in which the considerations of these
different groups of people will be dealt with during the transitional justices process.
Female’s experience of conflict and transitions however differ from the of males due
to gendered patterns that define different roles and experiences during both conflict
and post- conflict. Whenever there is interaction between two individuals, there are
chances of difference of opinion. Gender and conflict then, refers to the ways women
and men are affected in times of conflict.
Conflicting situation is a situation in which two or more values, perspectives
and opinions are contradictory in nature, have not yet aligned or agreed upon yet.
Conflict may be defined in many ways and can be considered as an expression
hostility, negative attitudes, antagonism, aggression, rivalry, and misunderstanding. It
is also associated with situation that involves contradictory or irreconcilable interests
between two opposing groups. A simple definition of conflict is that it is any tension
which is experienced when one person perceived that one’s needs or desires are or are
likely to be thwarted or frustrated (Gupta and Joshi, 2008). A conflict is more than
just a disagreement. It is a situation in which people perceive a threat (Physical,
emotional, power, status etc) to their well – being and is caused by t he differences
and clash of personalities – attitudes, beliefs and values and needs, Conflicts are
inherent in any interpersonal relationship, its management is integral to the
performance of any organization. Conflict management involves acquisition of skills
relating to conflict resolution, self –awareness about conflict modes, conflict
communication skills, and establishing a structure for management of conflict in your
environment. Banking industry is the backbone of any economy. Progress of any
country is directly or indirectly influenced by soundness of banking system of the
country. In globalized world, trade and commerce would almost be impossible with
the availability of suitable banking services.
The handling of conflict resolution in an organization or in the political realm
of a state is major function of Public Relations. It is an essential skill of Public
Relations manager to prevent gender conflict resolution rather than finding solutions
when crisis erupt. The use of fire brigade approach in finding solution to problems
that arises in banking sectors is described as “Remedial Public Relations” by Haywood
(1984) where as “preventive Publics Relations” is what many scholars advocate in
public relations practice. This is “the prevention of crisis in an organization through
effective communication network between the organization and its publics in order to
engender understanding, acceptance, goodwill, respect, efficiency, good welfare and
mutual support ad co-operation”. In order to handle conflict resolution in our
organizations, and be in a position to apply Public Relations as a strategic management
option for survival and growth, Nwosu (2004) says that Public Relations practitioners
should see themselves as managers as well as carryout their functions as skilled and
knowledgeable managers in a manner similar to what exit or is the dominant paradigm
commercial organizations. This is therefore, the key to the reduction eradication of the
unceasing crises in organizations arising from areas management – employee relations
management – trade –union relations, cultism organizational politics,, ethnic and
sectional chauvinism and personality clashes. In the same vein, researcher reported
that male managers preferred power and authority while female managers used
communication before resorting to using power (coercion). Also, female supervisors
were found to use coercion less than male than male supervisor and often after other
resolution styles do not yield desired results (Mulac, Siebold, & Farris, 2000; Lamude
& Torres, (2000).
This implies that female supervisors in first Bank tend to ultimately use
coercion if necessary. The research reported that subordinates see coercive – based
technique as negative while the rewarding, referent and expert – based techniques
were seen as positive by the subordinates. Reflecting on conflict management
Faniran (2002) and Adekunle (2004) reported that experienced managers were
found to be more effective in managing conflict situations than less experienced
managers. The authors further reported that working experience rather than gender of
the manager has been found to have significantly influenced conflict management
effectiveness. Also, the bankers argue that experience male and female managers were
found to be equally effective in managing conflict though their attitude may be quite
different. First bank solve gender issue by giving all their customers male and female
change to exercise their fundamental human right according to bank ethnic. In the
current dispensation of Nigeria political realm, gender is a big threat in the society,
where the First Lady of Nigeria is fighting tooth and nail for federal government to
recognize female in the working sectors. Ladies should be give 50% chance of
opportunity. This chapter therefore, focuses on the importance and the acquisition of
necessary skills and knowledge in conflict resolution management among
organizational heads, and other general crises management skills, including how to
handle the media and bad press “during crises in First Bank Plc. Emene, Enugu.
1.2 Statement of Problem
From the above background, its obvious that gender conflict is a negative
element that is highly unwelcomed in the banking sector. Conflict decreases growth
and brings about instability in the banking industries. It brings about unhealthy
competition among other Mega Banking Sectors. This development is critical as
foreign and domestic investors will be sceptical that their huge investment would be
safe, fear and insecure as well as lack of trust and confidence will prevail. Thus, for
the continuity of development for First Bank to be guaranteed, the need for Public
Relations roles in managing conflict in the First Bank can not be over emphasized.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
i. To find out whether Public Relations play a vital role in conflict
resolution between First Bank and other mega banks.
ii. To find out whether racism of gender inequality of income or sex and
lack of labour affect the working force of First Bank Plc.
iii. To find out whether unhealthy competition affect the global market of
banking industries in First Banks Plc. Emene branch.
iv. To find out whether gender conflict decrease the growth and brings
about instability in the banking industries.
1.4 Research Questions
The researcher formulated the following question:
i. Does Public Relations play a vial role in conflict resolution between First
Bank and other Mega Banks?
ii. To what extent does racism of gender inequality of income or sex affect the
working force of Fist Bank Plc?
iii. Does unhealthy competition affect the global market of banking industries in
First Bank Plc. Emene Branch?
iv. Does gender conflict affects the growth and brings about instability in the
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
The researcher made use of null hypothesis
Hoi; Public Relations does not play a vital role in conflict resolution between First
Bank and other mega Banks.
H0: Public Relations play a vital role in conflict resolution between First Bank and
other mega Banks
Hii: Racism of gender inequality of income or sex does not affect the working force
of First Bank Plc.
H0: Racism of gender inequality of income or sex affects the working force of First
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will benefit many government officials and co-operate organizations
in conflict resolution and management as few work have been done on the subject.
Also it will serve as a starting point for other researchers who will be interested in the
subject of this research. It will also be beneficial to Emene communities and Public
Relations experts as more knowledge has been gained from the research. The research
of this kind becomes necessary as its finding provides the Public Relations
practitioners with comprehensive and broad knowledge of what could be the effect of
corporate social responsibility for enhancing community relations. In essence, the
study will serve as a useful guide for future researcher to either validate or reject the
finding of the study.
1.7 Definitions of Terms (Operational Definition)
The terms are operationally defined as follows: The meaning of key words that
constitute the research problem and some key words that my be used frequently in
course of this research work will be defined as sub-headings to ensure proper and easy
understanding of the study.
The following salient concepts have been conceptually defined for the study.
Crisis Management: Black (1999) defined crisis management as the process by
which organization deals with any major unpredictable events that threatens to harm
the organization, it is responding to unforeseen circumstance with no time to plan
Management: Weihrich (1994) opted management as the process of designing and
maintaining an environment in which individual working together in groups
efficiently accomplish selected aims through planning, organizing, staffing, leading
Public Relations: (1987) also defined Public Relations as the forms of planned
communication outward or inward between an organization and it public for the
purpose of achieving specific object concerning mutual understanding.
Resolution: A firm decision to do or not to do something, the quality of being
determined or resolute. It also a process of settlement of dispute among smaller and
mega banks to gender conflict.
Conflict Resolution: Conflict resolution conceptualization as the methods and
processes involved in facilitating the peaceful ending of conflict.
Gender Conflict: Gender conflict is based on the cultural beliefs various societies
have established concerning the roles men and women play in those societies
This chapter is concerned with the review of related study on the topic; “Role
of Public Relations in Gender Conflict Resolution, (A study of First Bank Plc.) Emene
The chapter is arranged under the following headings:
2.2 Review of Concept
2.3 Review of Related Studies
2.4 Theoretical Framework
2.2 Review of Concept
The following Concepts were reviewed;
The concept of public relations
The Gender Conflict
The Gender Relations
2.2.1 The Concept of Public Relations
The concept of Public Relations is one of the fundamental principles in
industrial relations, marketing and image building of corporate organization social
groups religious institutions, military groups, institutions of leanings, government and
individual interest. The idea ever had through the external factors (human factors) as a
catalyst that imitates against the goal or effective achieving of any organization be it
profit oriented or otherwise.
All the literature for this study is sourced from relevant books and other
publications related to this works. The researcher sourced her literature from books
also literature for the study came from articles, features published in professional
journals, magazines, newspapers and other documents.
The British institute of Public Relations (IRR), says “Public Relations practice
is the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain organization
and its public.
The definitions are very practical oriented because it touches on the need for
researcher to assess the situation and the implication of what is discovered.
Secondly, it shows that Public Relations programmes must be planned.
Finally, Public Relations action must be socially responsive. An organization
is judge by its behaviour. Public Relations is about good will and reputation. It is also
agreed among experts that Public Relations is a management function which affects all
facts of the structure of an organization and its target publics.
2.1.2 The Concept Gender Conflict
According to women, gender conflicts are caused by the absence and
asymmetry of power on relation to men, and the limits to their political participation
which restricts their autonomy and involvement in decision – making process at local
regional and national level. The armed conflict is one of the strongest expressions of
these problems, as women are treated as the spoils of war by all the armed actors.
The question of gender extends to the LGBT population (Lesbians, gays,
Bisexuals, and transsexuals) for when conflict is rooted on the cultural discrimination
which they suffer, the lack of employment opportunities which forces them to earn a
living through prostitutions thereby exposing them to a range of acts of violence.
In this direction, domestic violence is one of the causes and consequences of
the problem of gender, and grassroots movements are calling for immediate and
effective action to address these issues. Education appear essential to achieving this
aim and to building and regaining gender equality in a diverse society.
2.1.3 The Concept of Gender Relation
Sex, gender, gender relation, gender matters, being classify a man or a woman
entails a difference in access to material and symbolic resources and rights all around
the world, as the fearly global gender cap Report documents (world economic Forum
But apart from this rather simple (and simplistic) truth there has been a long
and controversial discussion about the concept of “gender” and its implications.
Judith Lorber (2008:538) defines gender “a social institution based on three
structural principles: the division of people on two social groups, “men and women,
the social construction of perceptible difference” between them and their differential
treatment, legitimated by socially produced differences”.
I speak of gender relation in this chapter on order to stress that gender is a
relational category. In most societies, this concerns the relations of “men and women”
as already indicated by Lorber. It also implies that as an institution gender has a
structural dimension and a process dimension. This means that the social, economic,
cultural, linguistic and religious systems. We live in tend to be very stable.
They deeply affect our individual behaviour and beliefs. Individuals and
groups act within these structural and through their action they shape and change the
structure they live on. How the structural and process related dimensions of gender
interact, through has been a matter of ongoing discussion in social and feminist theory.
2.2 Review of Related Studies
Two literatures reviewed in the course of this research work. I will briefly
analyze some of them.
The first is James .E Gruig (2001), the role of Public Relations in management
it contribution to organizational and societal effectives, speech deliver in tayped,
The first work to be review is journals by James E. Gruig (2001), a professor of
Public Relations Department of Communication University of Maryland College Park,
Maryland 20742 U.S.A.
The researcher beings the study of excellent Public Relations by addressing the
research question posed on the request for proposals issued by the IABC research
How, why and to what extent does communication contribute to the
achievement of organization objectives?
Finding shows that many organizations do not manage communication
properly strategically and that those programmes do not make their organization more
effective. Thus, the researcher added what it called the excellence question.
How must Public Relations be practice and the communication function
organized for it to contribute the most to organization effectiveness.
We live in a fast darning world dominated by news of one conflict succeeding
another. Other terms associated with conflict are strife, dispute and even crisis life as
French research guy Debord First pointed out following the May, 1908 popular
uprisings in Paris, has become one huge spectacle of moving history dominated by
unidirectional communication of the grand, the spectacular, as defined by the Lens of
the television camera. Those unable to play and prepare for how to respond to this
grand medium when the unexpected hits them are often swept aside by the current of
history. This admonition clearly conveys the importance of Public Relations in the
socio-economic life of any organization and even a nation, as they are expected to pre
plan and anticipate events so as not be taken unawares.
According to Cutlip SM Allen (1985), Conflict are a continuing feature of
social existence. It is not the absence of conflict that marks out a great nation but the
manner on which conflicts are resolved (Akin Ibidopo Obe 1997), A simple definition
of conflict will suffice at this point. According to Robert Apple by (1994) conflict
could be seen as any personal divergence of interest between groups or individuals.
Another definition is that conflicts are behaviours intended to obstruct the
achievement of the goals of other persons (Apple by 1994).
In the past, conflict has been over looked by behaviour scientists partly because
it was felt that conflict was damaging to an organization and efforts should be
concentrated on measure to create harmony at al times. Conflict is however now
treated seriously as an important aspect in the proper understanding of organization
It has since been realized that not all conflicts are harm and that perhaps a
certain level of conflict is inevitable. The need therefore is to understand the caused of
conflict and to develop constructive measure to control and use the energies realized
Modern management practice emphasizes the need for free expression and
encourages open communication especially between superior and subordinates,
between leader and the led and also methods of continuing consultation and
Types of Conflict
In organizations, those types of conflict are possible;
– Within an individual
– Between individual
– Between individual and groups
– Between groups in the same organization.
– Between organizations.
More so, the causes of conflict that are quite prevalent include industrial relations,
sabotage regulation and deregulation, financial difficulty (mismanagement)
Product failure, make change and managerial incompetence. The major resource
of conflict includes:
– The need to share scarce resources difference in goals between organization
– Interdependence of work activities on organization.
– Difference on values, attitudes or perception among members of different
– Ambiguously defined work responsibilities and communication problems.
Public Relations on the heart of modern business concern, furthermore, Public
Relations is activated as a social management philosophy as well as an expression
of such philosophy or policy precision. Public Relations involves actions resulting
sound policies and two – way communication which contributes to the
implementation of such policies explaining, revealing, defending and promoting
them to understanding of the public. These elements should embody the reference
point in deferring how much an organization’s management respects the principles
of the Public Relations practice either as a remedy or negligence on Public
Relations (Sam Black, 1999:48) most times, the indulgence, of Public Relations
practitioners in any management policy decision depends on the importance
attached to the Public Relations by the organization; event though the policy
decision taken has in nay way involves Public Relations matters. A Public
Relations practitioner should have easy access to the top management in order to
help him understand and interpret intelligently the policy guiding the organization
for effective implementation of desirable Public Relations practices.
The Public Relations department is therefore not only important for creating
good image of an organization to the public but for the creation of a conducive and
cordial working relationship among staff and management director.
2.2.2 Role of Public Relation on Conflict Management
In this direction Auberg, C. et al (1968), the general principles of Public
Relations in conflict resolution team from daily business concern to focus on the
problem. Centralize and control the flow of information through team. Have a
– Develop a strategy base on a worst case scenario.
– Aim at containment, not at suppression
– Identify potential allies advance and call them for support.
– Have a long-term plan ready.
– Release the conflict resolution team. Test your plan and the system with a fire
Specifically, the role of Public Relations in conflict management requires the
adoption of a sharp focused and frustration to management and the conflict leading up
to it often appears wasteful and unnecessary. Conflicts between managers at different
organization levels or between accomplishments. Broad conflict within a society or
between societies are often tremendously costly not only economic terms but also in
term of human welfare and human life also on term of human welfare and human life,
recall in the economic terms but also on congress federal Government strike over the
fuel pump price like.
2.2.3 Issues Management and Crisis Communication
Public Relations Practitioners on many organization and Public Relations firms
view issues management and crisis communication as specialized Public Relations
programs, rather than as integral parts of the overall role of Public Relations in
strategic management. Typical practitioners conduct normal Public Relations
Programs such as media relations and product publicity. They may even have crisis
communication plans ready in advance, plans that emphasize the logistics of
communication during a crisis rather than a policy that specifies what to do about the
problem that produced an issues or crisis.
In contrast our theory of strategic Public Relations views all Public Relations
as issues management. Public Relations Professionals identify potential issues by
scanning the environment for public likely to be affected by the consequences of
organizational decisions. Then they manage issues “by participating in the
management decisions that create the consequences that publics are likely to make an
issue of research on crisis shows that a majority of all crises is caused by management
decisions rather than by accidents or natural disasters. As a result, most crises occur
because management did not communicate with strategic public about potential issues
before the public created an issue and eventually a crisis.
Finding also shows that Public Relations have added value to the largest
society as well as to specific organizations.
To determine this values the researcher look at theories of business social
responsibility ethnic and conflict resolutions to identify excellence Public Relations to
society a swell as organizations.
To study the value of excellent Public Relations, the researcher first review
previous research on excellence on management and searched for explanation, what it
means for an organization to be effective. It was learned from organizational theory
that an organization is effective if it achieves the goals it sets for itself.
Another study that underscore the role of Public Relations on conflict
resolution was conducted by Amodu Landre Olaolu 29 November, 2013, publish by
Conflict resolution on Niger Delta: The study examine the community
relations strategy’s use by oil companies in managing the crisis on Nigeria Delta. The
study population comprise the community relations units of oil companies on the
Nigeria Delta (among which are shell, Chevron and Agip were selected) methods of
data collections were employed. The respondents for the survey were randomly
selected while those for the interviews and focus groups were purposively selected.
Back, J. (1968) State, that conflict between oil companies and post
communities have serious implications for two parties and the communities’ relation
strategies adopted by the selected oil companies were not adequate in preventing and
resolving conflict in the Niger Delta. That was because there was a lacuna between
the strategies the oil companies believe host communities referred for conflict
resolution and the ones actually preferred by those communities.
The research, therefore, suggested that to reduce conflict between oil
companies host communities in Nigeria Delta, Companies should be mindful of
conflict propelling factors. Identified by the respondents and stated on the work, they
should improve on their community relations strategies on order to impress the
community and most importantly, they should introduce grassroot approach to the
implementation of their strategies, particularly the Global Memorandum of
understanding (GMOU) for optimum results.
2.2.4 The Evolution of Modern Public Relations
The world “Public Relations” the research thought to have actually been used
first on 1807 by president Thomas Jarferson, while drafting his 7th address to the
congress, deliberately or mistakenly wrote Public Relations instead of the words “State
of thought” it is in the USA too that we owe the modern development of Public
Modern Public Relations practice evolved through three stages.
– Press agentry
Press agents were employed by show men to create situation designed to get
the norms and pictures of the Performers published in newspapers. Press agent was
born in 1835. The employed press agents who published his business newspaper and
magazines. They had as their motto, let the fooled” informing.
In the early 1930, there was a morning pressure on business me to recognize
the need to inform the public about business operation Eminent scholars derided
business people for been ruthless and for exploitation of labour, that the people shall
be given fact about the business. This led to the charging of the motto from “let the
people be tooled” to “let the people be informed” understanding.
The third phase of modern Public Relations came with Edward Barneys.
Public Relations practitioners in 1920 recognize that Public Relations should not only
be in informing but should serve a greater understanding of Public Relations attitudes
towards business in orders to achieved goodwill.
2.3 Theoretical Framework
Ike (2005) defines theory as an attempt to explain a phenomenon or a symbolic
creation designed to explain why phenomenon occur in the pattern we observe. A
theory is an organized systematic body of knowledge that explain natural
One key theory that formed that foundation for this study is:
Social Responsibility Theory
This research used social responsibility theory as the theoretical framework.
Fred .S. Siebert quoted by Egbon (1995) say that social responsibility theory
rests on preposition that whoever enjoys freedom has certain obligation to the society
and freedom without a responsibility is meaningless. The Theory quoted on Ogusiji
(1989, post that the power to her monopoly position of the media, to see that public
have enough information on issues concerning them on order to make information
This theory is based on the obligation that the Public Relations practitioners
perform and sever the various public of pioneers, try to educate and make sure that
there is good relationship between pioneers and it public. Public Relations should
create a good feed but mechanism between the pioneer’s organization and its publics.
Underling the social responsibility as it related to Public Relations practice is
that individuals and organization should think and ask in globally accepted manner.
This must have caught the attention of Nwosu (1996), when he states that Public
Relations is working in and being guided by public interest considerations or being
socially responsible in order to be socially accepted.
In essence, it is correct to say that Public Relations bring cordial relationship
and create mutual understanding between the management of organizations and it
The researcher has been able to select and review related literatures to her
study, including appropriate theory which is clearly understood that Public Relations
practices on inevitable for the well being of any organizations as well as promoting
conducive environment whether the organization is profit making or non- profit
making and the Public Relations policy is important of success in any organizations.
In the literature review, methods on definition and the meaning of Public
Relations, gender conflict, gender relation, roles of Public Relations on conflict
management, and crisis communication and the evolution of modern Public Relations
were review to ascertain how the related to this study.
The summary of the review literature certain on the importance of Public
Relations Manager, how is identify to be the eyes and the ears of the organization.
The methods and approaches used in this research work will be discussed in
this chapter. The research tools and techniques used in analysing the study will also be
explained as well.
3.1 Research Design
A design on generally referred to a formulated framework as a plan of action of
which a given piece of work expected to follow. A research design, therefore, a plan
for research work aims at providing guidelines which the research work is being
The study has a descriptive survey research design. The method of
questionnaire and intensive are used on data collection. Data are presented on table
and a descriptive approach in adopted in analysis.
3.2 Population of Study
In this research work, the population is found by all members of the internal
staff, First Bank Nigeria Emene Branch in which it is a sum total of 300.personal
officer through the Public Relations officer
3.3 Sampling and Sampling Procedure
This implies a proportion which was taken as a representative of the whole
population and which conclusions are made on them based on the data which they give
was taken to be peculiar to all member of the whole population. In relation to the
study, systematic random sampling method was adopted in order to obtain a true
representation of all categories of the staff. The sample size of the population is 171
from the population of study
n= N 1+N (e)2
Where ; n = Sample size
N = The entire population
E = Level of significant
I = Unit (Constant)
Based on this, the establishment data (n) were computed thus;
n = N 1+N (e)2
Where n = N 1+N (0.05)2
300 1+300 (0.05)2
Description of Research Questionnaire
The main instrument used for data collection was questionnaire and personal
interview. The questionnaire for this study had closed ended items, open items which
were relevant to the study.
3.4 Validity and Reliability of Gathering Instrument
To ensure validity of the research instrument, a pre-test copy of questionnaire
were produced and given to researcher’s supervisor for input and also to ensure that
the study does deviate from the scope.
3.5 Method of Data Collection
The researcher collected the data from the respondents’ one on one. The
researcher utilizes the two effective method of data collection; these are oral interview
and questionnaire. Oral interview because of its advantages on giving more in depth
However, the questionnaires were personally distributed and the researcher
made the collection. This is to enable their opinion without being bias on the role of
Public Relations on general conflict resolution.
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