1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
All over the world statement, thinkers and demographers have been concerned with the rapid growth of population rate in the last four decades. At the current rate of growth. The world population as at 21 May, 2010; the human population of the world is estimated by the United State Census Bureau to be 6822, 200,000. Annual birth have leveled at about 134 million per year since their peak at 163 million in the late 1990’s and an expected to remain constant. However, deaths are only around 57 million per year and are expected to increase to 90 million by 2050, because births out number deaths, the world’s population are expected to reach 90 million between 2040 and 2050.
The rapid increase in human population over the course of the 20th Century has raised concerns about whether earth is experiencing over population and scientific consensus that is the current population expansion and accompanying increases in usage of resources are linked to threats to the ecosystem with the rising level of atmosphere Carbon oxide, global warming and pollution. Due to this pace of growth, strategies were undertaken to curb the problem. This led to the emergency of “Contraceptive” drug. Other terms commonly used includes birth control, fertility regulation, Planned Parenthood and responsive parenthood, huge amount have been spent on family planning and family planning programs just in a bid to popularize its importance and adoption in tertiary institution. Therefore, it is expected that there is a widespread knowledge of contraceptive drug among adolescent especially female student. Although, the adoption of their information varies, some have interesting and positive attitude due to passive orientation while others see the usefulness and go ahead to practice it. Sexual activity is particularly high among unmarried youth and those who happen to use contraceptive and those who did not use with social concern in mind but more for personal reasons such as to avoid illegitimate births.
Contraceptive drugs should not only be seen in the view of population reduction alone but also in line with the misfortune that is associated with indiscriminate sexual intercourse. A growing population of adolescent not only initiates sexual intercourse at early stages, but also engages in having multiple sexual partners hence the high record of incidence of illegally induced abortion. In most cases, restrictions on abortion force women to rely on illegal abortion and as most young people are poor, they often use unqualified abortimist, which leads to frequent severer health consequence such as sterility and death.
It is therefore time for the society to recognize that the health and even the lives of its young ladies must not be scarified in an attempt in an attempt to prevent their sexual activity. In most developing countries young ladies get married later and more start sex before marriage. This exposing them to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and unwanted sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) including HIV/AIDS. In these countries 20% to 60% of young women pregnancies and births are unwanted most coming sooner than planned. These pregnancies put young women health at risk through child bearing or unsafe abortion. Increasingly, early parenthood means lost education as will as with life long loss of earnings. Evidence in Nigeria shows that induced abortion increasing and is considered to be a major cause of material mortality which quite high in Nigeria.
The question to ask ourselves now is, has the introduction of contraceptive use in any way helped to stem the rate of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) among women especially female student in the tertiary institution? The answer to this question abore is not affirmative.
Background Of Survey Area
The Osun State Polytechnic, Iree was established on 12th October, 1992. it was one of the satellite campuses of the Polytechnic Ibadan before it become an autonomous institution. Faculty of science was one of the structures inherited from the Polytechnic Ibadan before being developed to meet its present status. At the inception, the faculty consists of the following these departments namely;
– Science Laboratory Technology
– Computer Science
– Mathematics and Statistics
Later Food Science and technology and Applied Science were established but very recently, the computer science department was reshuffled to another newly created faculty, the faculty of information and communication technology. It is however pertinent to state that faculty of science is one of the oldest faculties in the institution and its importance to the polytechnic system is undoubtfully enormous. It is robust intellectually socially and politically. Faculty of science is the oldest faculty of the six existing faculties in the institution; the faculty is playing an important role in the institution and the nation as a whole because of its contribution to academic and technological advancements. The faculty consists of five departments, namely Department of Applied science, Food science and technology, Mathematics and statistical, Micro biology and Department of science laboratory technology.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although globally the level of contraceptive use is considered low compared to contraceptive awareness, certain societies have recorded higher prevalence of contraceptive use than others. The WHO in 2011 reported the general prevalence of contraceptive use to be higher in countries in Latin America, at an estimated 63%, than in countries in Africa at an estimated 20%, with the rate of non-use highest in sub-Saharan African countries. The rate of contraceptive use among the Nigerian population was reported at approximately 12% (Monjok, Smesny, Ekabua, and Essien, 2010).
Nigeria’s Population Reference Bureau (PRB) reported in 2011 that only about 29% of Nigerian youth use contraceptives; in spite of reported high rates of sexual activities and increased awareness of contraceptive technologies (Akani, et al, 2008; Fatusi and Blum, 2008: Cadmus and Owoaje, 2010: Tayo et al, 2011: Osakinle et al, 2013; Adeniji, Tijani and Owonikoko, 2013). These studies reveal that youths are generally aware of the existence of contraceptive methods and the benefits accruing from using contraceptives. However, this awareness is not reflected in the actual utilization of these methods, thereby leading to increase in the incidence of STIs and unsafe abortions resulting from unwanted pregnancies.
Similar findings indicating low contraceptive use were found among students in Nigerian tertiary institutions, thus indicating that students are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies and the contraction of STIs (Orji and Esimai 2005; Nwokocha, 2007; Attahir, Sufiyan, Abdulkadir, and Haruna, 2010; Wusu, 2010; Omoyeni, Akinyemi and Fatusi, 2012). Studies suggest that the high degree of social freedom in tertiary institutions in Nigeria affords students the opportunity to engage in sexual activities; in some cases this could also be triggered by the desire to acquire material gains (Nwokocha 2007; Wusu, 2010). The risk related to the high rates of sexual activity and low contraceptive usage among Nigerian students (especially unwanted pregnancy and STIs) are among the most serious health risks that young people face and can endanger not only their physical health but also their economic, emotional and social well-being (Ebuehi, Ekanem and Ebuehi, 2006).
THE issue of contraceptive practices among students of tertiary institutions in Nigeria, have received little or no attention over time; Against this background, I recognised the need to explore contraceptive knowledge and practices among tertiary-level students in Nigeria, in order to contribute to a greater understanding of the extent of their vulnerability to unprotected sex and its attendant problems.
This study was conducted among students of Federal Polytechnic Iree, located in Osun state, Nigeria. It is hoped that the findings from this study will be useful for informing policy and practice in the polytechnic and, by extension, other institutions of higher learning in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study was conducted with the following objectives:
- To determine if there exists any relationship among the different department of faculty of science and the use of contraceptive.
- To know the best method to be used between the measure of central tendency and the stratified techniques.
- To test for the significant different that exists between student and the attitude towards the contraceptives use.
Ho: Social characteristics such as age, gender and cultural beliefs and practices influence students’ contraceptive use in Federal Polytechnic Iree.
Hi: Social characteristics such as age, gender and cultural beliefs and practices influence students’ contraceptive use in Federal Polytechnic Iree.
Ho: There a high level of awareness and knowledge among students in Federal Polytechnic Iree about different methods of contraception.
Hi: There a high level of awareness and knowledge among students in Federal Polytechnic Iree about different methods of contraception.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Contraceptive as a method or means of reducing family size is an issue that almost everybody knows about. To ensure that every grown up man and woman use it will be nothing but hyperbolizing the concept. The knowledge of contraceptive does not however lead invariably to adoption of contraception. It is therefore essential to develop effective programs that provide accurate reproductive health information and useful services to young people who have been largely left out of the family planning revolution. Young ladies therefore should both be guided and encouraged to postpone sex or provide them necessary effective method of contraceptive. Although many people think that providing family planning services to youth will promote promiscuity. There is no evidence for that yet. The high incidence of premarital sexuality is attributable to increasing moral attitudes and the slacking blocking of traditional requirement for premarital casualty. An ever increasing number of adolescent migrate from rural homes to urban centres in search of job opportunities for higher learning or apprenticeship, this breaking away from constraints traditionally applied by family members and village communicates, evidence from the 2009 (Nigeria Demographical Health Survey (NDHS) has not only confirmed the high incidence of premarital sexuality in urban centres but also has revealed that the incidence of premarital sexual behaviour is not limited to urban centres. These youth typically engage in sexual relations with out contemplating the dangerous consequences which include unwanted pregnancies, abortions, AID (Acquired Immunes Deficiency Syndrome) and other sexuality transmitted diseases. In response of these issues the International community at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 2009, for the trust time recognized formally that adolescent reproductive and sexual health involves a specific set of needs distinct from adult needs. The ICPD also stressed that previously health service has largely ignored young people need consequently the programme of action emphasized that young people of both sexes are typically poorly informed about how to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies and sexuality transmitted diseases as mentioned earlier.
Therefore, this suggests the need to provide young people with comprehensive information and access to services in the country. It is however on this bases that this research was designed to indeptly study the positive and negative attitude of students have towards the use of contraceptives drugs.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
At the inception of this work, I envisaged little problem to arise knowing that the people deal with are highly educated ones. The major problem that was encountered was resistance from few ones to fill the questionnaire but due to a little encouragement and enlightenment some saw the topic as very interesting, while some still showed embarrassment. A few numbers of respondents gave religions reason for the non-response to some questions. Some female respondents, especially some ignore at some of the questions because of their personal nature. Another major problem that was encountered includes those of non-response and missing questionnaire. Having followed them up for about 4 days in their department to retrieve the questionnaire but due to carelessness on their part explained how it got miss during rush hours of classed and lecture period. Although I anticipated a 5% loss, however, many of these constraints were overcome by patience and humility on the part of the researcher to ensure that we can be sure of a reliable and scientific enterprise.
The researcher encountered some additional constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.
- a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
- b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Contraceptive Drug: The birth control pill (also called “the Pill”) is a daily pill that contains hormones to change the way the body works and prevent pregnancy. Hormones are chemical substances that control the functioning of the body’s organs. In this case, the hormones in the Pill control the ovaries and the uterus.
CONTRACEPTIVES: Any of various devices or drugs intended to prevent pregnancy
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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