Educational goals and objectives are attainable through appropriate school plant planning. It therefore behooves that school plant is appropriately planned to facilitate the effectiveness of school system. This paper examines conceptual clarification of school plant planning, shows the need for school plant planning in an ideal school system, observes school plant planning process, considers challenges of school plant planning in Nigeria and concludes that the realisation of educational goals and objectives, no doubt, depends on the extent to which government and administrators of schools are able to give school plant planning adequate attention needed. It is

recommended that considerable time be devoted in planning school plant for both intended and existing schools in order to achieve the educational goals and objective.





Education is believed to be the veritable machinery for the development of a country. This is because of the roles played by educated people in the development of science, social – economic and political structure to improve the individual, families and making the society a batter place to live. In the light of these values, education today must prepare the child to function effectively as an adult in the 21st century. However, Nigerian schools are the least ready to adapt to the onslaught of new information and practices accumulating on daily basis due to the challenges ranging from industrial actions of academic staff, poor school plant planning, lack of fund for infrastructural development and a host of others. This is evident in the suggestion that teachers are handicapped by inadequate training and facilities which made it difficult for the teachers, to prepare students for the new development. The school plant themselves which provide accommodation for teachers and the learners hinder rather than enhance good teaching practices (Aloga, 2014).


School plant planning which include instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning and accessories planning are essential in teaching-learning process. The extent to which these spaces could enhance teaching and learning depends on their location within the school compound, their structure, and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school plant will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students (Adesina, 2011). Emphasizing the importance of school plant planning to students academic performance, Oluchukwu (2000) asserted that school plant planning is an essential aspect of educational planning. He went further to explain that unless schools are well suited, buildings adequately constructed and equipment adequately utilized and maintained, much teaching and learning may not take place.

School facilities in most Nigerian schools today are apt to reinforce rote teaching method and further hinder the students’ capacity for independent and creative thinking. The typical school building in Nigeria is usually a simple row of bare classroom structures – often of rectangular shaped walls in which chairs, tables, and students must fight for space. According to Ezeocha (cited in Aloga, 2014) inadequate physical facilities can lead to undesirable personal behaviours, and large group interaction such as sports/games, drama cannot be conducted effectively without adequate physical space and equipment. While emphasizing the importance of school plants planning to students’ learning outcome, Oyesola (2007) stated that the main objective of school plants planning is to satisfy educational goals which have been pre-determined by educational planners. He emphasized that better planned school plants will enhance better school programmes and the community needs by providing a place for psychological and physical safety for students and teachers and enhancing the good quality and quantity of instruction.

Similarly, Ajayi (2007) maintained that high level of students’ learning outcomes may not be guaranteed where school site planning, instructional space planning, administrative space planning, space of convenience and circulation space planning are not properly undertaken and the plant components themselves are structurally defective, not properly ventilated and not spacious enough for use.


The relevant literature reviewed for this study revealed that many of the Nigeria’s secondary schools face the combined challenges of poor school plant planning, deteriorating conditions, out-of-date design and capacity utilization pressures. These combined deficiencies impair the quality of teaching and learning and also create health and safety problems for staff and students. The effects of poor school plant planning and poor maintenance of school infrastructure are threats to school management, curriculum delivery and students’ academic performance.

The researcher has also observed during visit to some schools for supervision that most schools visited, the school compounds were bushy, have dilapidated buildings with leaking roofs, broken chairs and desks, rough floors and windows without louvers. In some of the schools, the buildings were dirty, no lightning while some are blown off roofs and indication of absence of or little planning. The roads leading to the sports field in some schools were weedy. It appears adequate management and maintenance is not provided on the available school infrastructure. Location of schools seems not to have been a concern to the authorities running them. For instance, it is common to find schools located by commercial and other activities that generate noise such as automobiles, neighbourhood human discussions, discotheques, and so on,  to the extent that distract the concentration of learners. The buildings on the other hand are another source of worry. Most school infrastructures are not regularly painted. They are dilapidated and often in shambles which make schools dull and unattractive; this tantamount to creating a very hostile study infrastructure not congenial to Nigeria’s children who must take their place as leaders of tomorrow with their counterparts in the developed world. During rains, it is common to see class rooms leaking; school infrastructures flooded with run-off and making the children very uncomfortable. Again, all these seem to be as a result of inadequate or poor planning. These are what this study fully explored in the school infrastructure of Lagos, Nigeria. Hence, this study examined the effect of school plant planning on effective learning in secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State.


This study was conducted with the following objectives:

  1. To assess the effect of school plant planning on effective learning in the secondary schools.
  2. To examine the effect of school plant planning on students’ academic performance.
  3. To investigate the impact of administrative space planning on students’ learning effectiveness.
  4. To explore any relationship between instructional space planning and students’ academic performance.



Ho: There is a significant relationship between school plant planning and students’ academic performance.

Hi: There is no significant relationship between school plant planning and students’ academic performance.


Ho: There is a significant relationship between instructional space planning and students’ academic performance.

Hi: There is no significant relationship between instructional space planning and students’ academic performance.


It is hoped that this study will advance school plant planning quality for effective achievement in students. This study will no doubt contribute immensely and meaningfully towards improving learning quality and also help attend to other unfavourable working conditions which affect teachers, schools and students as a result of decrease in quality of school plants.

This study will assist the federal, state government, Head teachers, and principals of schools to see the need for improvement of school plant planning quality in order to boost the academic performance of students.


This study is primary concerned and restricted secondary schools in Badagry Local Government Area of Lagos State. Due to shortage of time, the research will not be able to carry out the study in the entire state.

The researcher encountered some constraints, which limited the scope of the study. These constraints include but are not limited to the following.

  1. a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
  2. b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.


SCHOOL PLANT: School plant refers to everything within the school premises which includes the site, buildings, equipment and all essential structures, permanent and non-permanent as well as machines and laboratory equipment and others.

SCHOOL PLANT PLANNING: School plant planning is an integral part of the over-all educational planning. … In his own view, Oyesola (Undated) defined school plant planning as a process in which a congenial site is selected and appropriate structures (buildings) designed and constructed to satisfy the identified educational needs of the students.


This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.  Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.



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