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ABSTRACT

Identifying solid waste disposal sites and appropriately managing them is a big task to many
developing countries. This is a critical problem in Enugu urban in particular. The existing site
in Enugu urban is not sufficient in its capacity and it is damaging the environment due to its
location, and the type of waste dumped, while the surrounding area is being irrigated. Due to
the expansion and urbanization developments in Enugu State, it badly needs to develop
controlled solid waste dumping site to prevent several contamination problems. This study
was conducted first, to assess the existing waste management strategies in Enugu urban; and
second, to find out the potential waste disposal sites in Enugu urban, using GIS and Remote
Sensing techniques. The objective of this research are (i) to generate a digital elevation model
of the study area, (ii) to create land cover classification of Enugu urban,(iii) to develop a GIS
model for the suitable sites, The data used are Landsat EMT8+ 30m and higher resolution
image 0.15m resolution and SRTM. Remote sensing data, with GIS spatial analysis tools.
Accordingly, site suitability maps for each of the factors were developed in a GIS
environment. Results indicate that 3 dumping sites were appropriate. This study indicated that
the application of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing techniques are
efficient and low cost tools to study and select appropriate dumping site so as to facilitate
decision making processes

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. i
TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………..ii
CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………iii
APPROVAL………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iv
DEDICATION………………………………………………………………………………………………………. v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………………………………………………. vi
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………viii
LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………………………………. xi
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………………………………………….. xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem…………………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.3 Significance of the Research……………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study …………………………………………………………………….. 3
1.5 Scope of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
1.6 Study Area ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3
1.7 Problem Encountered ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4
CHAPTER TWO: CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Conceptual Framework………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
2.1.1 Definition of Solid Waste……………………………………………………………………………….. 7
2.1.2 Solid Waste Collection ……………………………………………………………………………………. 8
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2.1.3 Municipal Solid Waste Management ………………………………………………………………. 8
2.2 Theoretical Framework………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.2.1 Solid Waste Management ………………………………………………………………………………. 9
2.2.2 Solid Waste Management in Nigeria………………………………………………………………… 9
2.2.3 Causes of Increase in the Generation of Solid Waste………………………………………… 10
2.2.4 Methods of Collecting Solid Waste In Nigeria …………………………………………………. 11
2.2.4.1 Collection System and Equipments……………………………………………………………… 12
2.2.4.2 Collection Routes …………………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.2.5 Solid Waste Disposal…………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
2.2.6 Solid Waste Processing …………………………………………………………………………………. 16
2.2.7 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) ………………………………………………………….. 17
CHAPTER THREE: LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………….. 18
CHAPTER FOUR: METHODOLOGY
4.1 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 22
4.2 Data Acquisition……………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
4.2.1. Primary Data Acquisition ……………………………………………………………………………. 24
4.2.2 Secondary Data Acquisition………………………………………………………………………….. 24
4.2.2.1 Hardware Requirement …………………………………………………………………………….. 24
4.2.2.2 Software Used: ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
4.2.2.3 Criteria for Dumping Site. ………………………………………………………………………… 25
4.3 Data Preparation…………………………………………………………………………………………. 25
4.3.1 Importation………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25
4.3.2 Creating maplist for interpretation of features:…………………………………………………. 26
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4.3.3 Sub-Mapping:…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 26
4.3.4 Sample set: ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 26
4.3.5 Classification……………………………………………………………………………………………… 27
4.3.6 TIN ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 29
4.3.7 DEM…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 30
4.3.8 HILLSHADE ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
4.3.9 Overlaying of classify image and Hillshade ……………………………………………………… 32
4.3.10 Histogram…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 33
CHAPTER FIVE: ANALYSIS AND RESULT ……………………………………………………… 34
5.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34
5.1 Specifying Environmental Setting ……………………………………………………………………. 34
5.2 Slope:………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
5.2.1 Reclassify Slope …………………………………………………………………………………………. 37
5.3 Weighting and Combining Dataset …………………………………………………………………….. 37
5.3.1 Weight Overlay for Suitable Area……………………………………………………………………. 39
5.3.4 Filtering……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 39
5.4 Setting Model Parameter ………………………………………………………………………………. 40
5.5 Buffering………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
6.1 Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
6.2 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
5.3 Recommendation………………………………………………………………………………………… 46
REFERENCES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Selecting and managing appropriate solid waste dumping site is one of the challenging problems
in developing countries, due to the lack of proper solid waste management system and the type
of waste thrown to the environment. The practice of direct dumping of waste into water bodies,
open and abandoned lands without proper treatment leads to serious Environmental pollution and
health-related problems.
The rapid growth of the world population and the urbanization processes are making the nonrenewable
resources to be in shortage and the disposal of effluent and toxic waste done
indiscriminately. The current global trend of waste management problems stems from
unsustainable methods of waste disposal, which is ultimately a result of inadequate planning and
implementation (Abbas etal.,2011). According to the United State Environmental Protection
Agency (USEPA, 2005) Solid waste is defined as any garbage, refuse, sludge from a waste water
treatment plant, water supply treatment plant or air dried materials, including solid, liquid, semisolid
or contained gaseous materials resulting from industrial, commercial mining and
agricultural operations and from community activities. The effectiveness of solid waste disposal
depends upon the selection of proper site which is mainly impacted by economical and
environmental issues. Each city produces tones of solid wastes daily from households, hospitals,
industry, offices, market centers etc.
As poverty, population growth, and high urbanization rates combined with ineffectual and underfunded
governments to prevent efficient management of wastes (UNDP, 2004);
Municipal solid waste disposal has been enormous concern in developing countries. Waste
management issues should be confronted in a more generalized manner, which means that new
strategies need to be designed considering diverse and variable urban models. According to
(Karadimas etal.2004),
This demonstrates the necessity of developing integrated, computerized systems for obtaining
more generalized and optimal solutions for the management of urban solid waste.
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1.2 Statement of the Problem.
Rapid population growth and urbanization has increased the volume and range of residential and
commercial solid waste generated in Enugu urban Municipal area. The handling and disposal of
this large waste with conventional methods have become increasingly difficult.
The recurrent problem of solid waste management in our urban areas has lead to the issue of
environmental sanitation gaining popular concern in Nigeria and the outside world so as to bring
about a distinction between the volume of solid waste actually generated and the rate at which it
is evacuated or disposed or left to accumulate.
In Enugu urban Municipal, there are few, less significant and inadequately positioned Solid
wastes are disposed indiscriminately often in open spaces such as playgrounds, market places,
roadside, river banks, gutters (during heavy rainfalls), most of which pile up and later block or
choke the city drainage lines. Thus, there is need to create and an ideal environment where solid
waste disposal and transportation could work to contribute to a clean environment.
The selection of suitable sites for solid waste disposal is the focus of this project. The choice of
this project is Enugu urban municipal due to the need to plan for an effective waste disposal in the
area to avoid environmental hazards and improper disposal of waste. Moreover, since the present
administrations major programme is ensuring a clean and healthy environment, GIS technology
can thus aid in locating the suitable sites for solid waste disposal. This work is therefore designed
to apply GIS in site selection of dumping sites for effective solid waste management in Enugu
urban municipal.
1.3 Significance of the Research
The main benefit of this study is to provide an assessment of sites for solid waste disposal within
the Enugu urban, in terms of present and future capacity that will create an ideal environment for
the Enugu community. Locating a suitable site or land fill within the Enugu urban will also
reduce the cost of transporting solid wastes disposal. This will reduce the damage caused by
pollution and provide a facility which would not endanger any environmentally sensitive areas
or have a negative impact on existing or future land use within the Enugu urban.
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1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this project is to develop a GIS based site suitability analysis for solid waste
disposal in Enugu Urban using Remote sensing and Geographical Information system
(GIS).
In order to achieve this aim, the following objectives are followed
(i) To generate a Digital Elevation Model of the study area.
(ii) To create Land cover classification map of Enugu urban.
(iii)To develop a GIS model for the suitable site(s)
1.5 Scope of the Study
The potential of selecting solid waste disposal site was limited to Enugu urban made up of
Enugu north, Enugu south and Enugu east Local Government Area. The present method elevates
the entire study area using custom scale of 1 to 3(1-3) where 1 denotes a site fully unsuitable for
solid waste disposal site while 3 shows optimum for dumping site. The utilization of zonal land
suitability method is an innovation in a landfill sitting process. The criteria for determining the
potential solid waste disposal site includes these factors i.e. roads, rivers, slope, land use (builtup).
The scope however comprises data conversion from analogue to digital format of acquired
data which were in hard copies, through digitizing, and the geographical analysis using ArcGIS
9.3.
1.6 Study Area
The study area is Enugu urban; Enugu urban is the capital city of Enugu state Nigeria . It
falls within the geographic coordinate of the Lat. 6°19’54’’N and 6°32’24’’N and Long.
7°22’57’’E and 7°35’36’’E .It is located in the south eastern geopolitical zone of Nigeria and
it is largely populated by members of the Igbo ethnic group , one of the largest ethnic groups
in Nigeria. It has a very large population, about 722,664 (2006 census) .Enugu urban consist
of three local government area, which is Enugu north, Enugu east , Enugu south.
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1.7 Problem Encountered
The problem encountered is the finance, due to bad economy facing the country at this moment, it
was difficult for me to carry out this research because of money, and other problem was how to
generate both primary and secondary data.

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