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This research work aims was on Social Marketing Dimensions and Customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North Local Government Area L.G.A. Four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated. The research adopted two theories that guided the study, the Theory of Reasoned Action and Social Cognitive Theory. The research adopted a survey method which made use of questionnaire. The population of the study comprised of beer drinkers aged 18 years and above in Enugu North local government area of Enugu state which is made up of 326,900 people. To derive the sample size, the Taro Yamane formula was used to determine the sample size of 400. However, during the course of questionnaire distribution and collection, 400 questionnaires were administered and 340 were returned. The test of hypotheses was conducted using multiple linear regression with the aid of SPSS Software Version 20. Findings from the analysis showed that there was a positive, significant relationship between social marketing dimensions and customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North L.G.A. It was therefore the recommendation of this study that social marketing should explore customer’s behaviour, attitudes in order to identify and develop suitable campaigns to change their behaviour to desired levels.
Title Page i
Approval page iii
Table of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 8
2.1 Conceptual Literature 8
2.1.1 Customer Patronage 8
2.1.2 Environmental Friendliness 9
2.1.3 Ethical Disposition 9
2.1.4 Green Disposition 9
2.1.5 Relationship Marketing 10
2.2 The concept of Social Marketing 10 2.2.1 Issues Specific to Social Marketing 14
2.2.2 Process of Social Marketing 16
2.3 Theoretical Literature 19
2.3.1 Theory of Reasoned Action (ATR) 19
2.3.2 Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) 20
2.4 Empirical Literature 20
2.4.1 Gap in Literature 20
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction 25
3.1 Research Design 25
3.2 Sources of Data 25
3.2.1 Primary Source of Data 25
3.3 Population of the Study 25
3.4 Sample Size Determination 26
3.5 Sampling Technique 27
3.6 Administration of Research Instrument 27
3.7 Validity of the Research Instrument 27
3.8 Reliability of the Study 27
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 28
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.0 Introduction 29
4.1 Presentation of Data 29
4.2 Analysis of Data 29
4.3 Discussion of Findings 49
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 50
5.2 Summary of Findings 50
5.3 Suggested Areas for further research 51
The concept of social marketing has gained widespread recognition in the field of marketing. Social marketing can be seen as the design, implementation and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communications, distribution and marketing research (Kotler & Zaltman, (1971).
Social marketing began as a discipline in the 1970s, when Kotler & Zaltman (1970) argued that the same marketing strategies that have been so successful in selling products and services to consumers could also be used to promote socially beneficial ideas, attitudes, and behaviors. Hence, social marketing is the adaptation of commercial marketing technologies to programs designed to influence the voluntary behavior of target audiences to improve their personal welfare and that of the society of which they are part of (Brenkert, 2002). The use of such marketing techniques has been expanding in our society. For example, most persons are familiar with campaigns to “market” political candidates and their platforms, energy conversation and abstain from smoking. Many of these efforts encompassing various aspects of marketing go beyond simple advertising. For instance, some “stop smoking” organizations sponsor informational seminars, distribute special products designed to alleviate the desire to smoke in those who want to quit smoking, and initiate publicity aimed at the general public regarding the disadvantages of smoking. There is substantial pressure within the discipline of marketing and among the general public to expand the application of modern marketing’s tools and theories in the dissemination of social ideas (Lazer & Kelly, 1973). However like any new social development, this trend may have positive and negative societal effects.
On the positive dimension, there are sufficient literature which illustrate how marketing thinking has improved the sale ability of useful social programs (Kotler, 1975). However, on the negative side, it is quite possible that the widespread involvement of marketing professionals in the marketing of social ideas may raise severe ethical problems and further turn public opinion against marketers and the marketing field (Smith, 2001).
In the private sector, marketers seek to influence voluntary consumer spending and choice. Marketers attempt to influence behaviour through behavioural shaping or reinforcement strategies although consumers may decide not to buy. Thus, a marketer’s basic talents lie in influencing voluntary behavior, and the talents are incorporated in social marketing (Gene, 1999).
Social marketing is becoming increasingly relevant to the developing world. Success of social programmes has significantly contributed to the process of development in the countries of the third World. The success has been attributed to the adoption of marketing approach to the social/development programmes. For promoting any social idea or issue it is not enough to prepare the communication programme. Social marketing involves the marketing mix and dimensions, not simply advertising (Hastings and Angus, 2011). Like commercial marketing, social marketing involves its own marketing dimensions or mix:
According to Peattie et al (2009), social marketing dimensions include: social proposition, accessibility, social costs of involvement and social communication. Based on the foregoing, the primary essence and aim of this study is to carry out an empirical analysis of social marketing dimensions and customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North, L.G.A.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Social marketing applications have become a method often used to positively influence social issues all over the world. The moral dimension of social marketing, being parallel to this, has gained importance. The goal of social marketing is to direct the behaviors that have been identified of individuals and groups to “the better” in terms of society. Social marketing is an endeavour that can be engaged in by profit making organization (e.g a liquor company program encouraging responsible drinking), as well as by nonprofit and public organizations. It is used to influence an audience to change their behaviour for the sake of improving health or themselves, preventing injuries, protecting the environment or contributing to the community.
The lack of social marketing programmes that will address the issue of environmental unfriendly activities by organizations is a serious threat to healthy environment. Organizations engage themselves in things like air or water pollution, waste dumping and unsafe beer bottles. Also, people who tend to drink without ethical dispositions that they have to be responsible for their actions after drinking would be advised against the dangers of irresponsible drinking and driving.
More also, a lot of people do not know that they can build and maintain relationships with beer brand organizations and win amazing gifts as loyal customers of such organizations beer brand.
On the basis of the foregoing, this study is basically motivated to carry out an empirical analysis of social marketing dimensions and customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North, L.G.A.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to carry out an empirical analysis of social marketing dimensions and customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North, L.G.A. In line with this, the specific objectives of the study are:
1.4 Research Questions
In the course of this study, the following research questions were addressed.
1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
The hypotheses that guided this study are specified as follows:
Ho: Green disposition does not significantly affect the level of customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North, L.G.A.
Ho: Relationship marketing does not significantly affect the level of customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North, L.G.A.
Ho: Environmental friendliness does not significantly affect the level of customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North, L.G.A
Ho: Ethical disposition does not significantly affect the level of customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North, L.G.A.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The primary essence of this research is to carry out an empirical analysis of social marketing dimensions and customer patronage of beer brands in Enugu North L.G.A. This study will be of great importance to the students of marketing and other related departments given that it will expand their experience on the concept of social marketing dimensions and related issues. Furthermore, this research will be of great significance to the various marketing firms, private establishments and agencies. In addition, this study will serve as a great source of enlightenment to the general public on the concept of social marketing dimensions. The brewery industry will find this study of so much importance and significance given that the study is focused on of social marketing dimensions and customer patronage of beer brands. Subsequent researchers will also find this study of great importance because the content of the research will serve as a guide to their study. Finally, this study will be an addition to the existing body of knowledge. (or existing literature)
1.7 Scope of the Study
The subject scope of this study is to carry out an empirical analysis of social marketing dimensions and customer patronage of beer brands. This study will be carried out in Nigeria with a particular focus in Enugu North, L.G.A.
1.8 Limitations of the study
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
In this section of the study, some of the technical terms will be defined specifically.
Beer: This is an alcoholic drink made from yeast- fermented malt flavoured hops.
Customer Patronage: This is the assistance rendered by customers with respect to a specific brand by buying the company’s product often.
Environmental Friendliness: This is be referred to as the conscious effort that consumers put on in ensuring that the environment is free from any harm.
Ethical Disposition: This is a framework dwelling upon morality of what is right or wrong.
Green Disposition: This is a process whereby the ecological environment is highly protected in the course of marketing activities to keep the environment healthy and safe.
Relationship Marketing: This has to do with the long term relationship that marketers have with their customers. It engenders customer loyalty to the brand in question.
Social Marketing: This is design, implementation and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product planning, pricing, communication, distribution and marketing research.
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