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SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF PERCEIVED SEXUAL BEHAVIOURS OF ADOLESCENTS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA.

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  • Name: SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES OF PERCEIVED SEXUAL BEHAVIOURS OF ADOLESCENTS IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA.
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
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  • Length: [229] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to determine the socio-demographic correlates of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents in Imo State. The statement of problem is the increase in risky sexual behaviours of adolescents and inherent dangers of unplanned pregnancy, dropping out of school, unsafe abortion and sexually transmitted infections/HIV/AIDS. Furthermore, no empirical data was identified in Imo State hence the motivation to determine the socio-demographic variables that influence the level of sexual behaviours of adolescents in Imo State. The study was guided by 11 purposes, 11 research questions and 11 hypotheses. A cross sectional survey research design was used for the study. Sample size was 3360 (2.2%) adolescents drawn from a population of 153586 adolescents. A structured, validated and reliable questionnaire (r = 0.77) was used as the instrument for data collection. Data analysis was done using mean for research questions, ANOVA and Z-test statistics were used to test the hypotheses. The result showed that in Imo State Secondary Schools, the sexual behaviours of the older adolescents ( x = 2.60) were significantly higher than those of the younger adolescents ( x = 1.41), P<0.05. The males had higher levels of sexual behaviours (x =1.53) than the females (x = 1.44), P<0.05. There were significant differences among adolescents in classes JSS1 to SS3 in terms of their levels of sexual behaviours with SS3 ranking highest followed by SS2 and SS1. The rural adolescents’ level of sexual behaviour ( x = 1.51) was higher than that of the urban adolescents (x = 1.43). Furthermore, there were no significant differences among adolescents of different family sizes in terms of their levels of sexual behaviours, P >0.05. There were significant differences among adolescents of different family structures, financial strengths, and religious beliefs, P< 0.05. Furthermore, there were significant differences among adolescents with various ages at first sexual intercourse in terms of their levels of sexual behaviours. Finally, there was a significant difference in the levels of sexual behaviours of the adolescents who used alcohol (x =2.60) and those who did not use alcohol (x =1.78) as well as adolescents who used illegal drugs ( x = 1.68) and those who did not use illegal drugs (x = 1.50). Based on the above findings, conclusions were drawn and recommendations made.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page i
Approval page ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Tables xi
List of Appendices xiii
CHAPTER ONE 1
INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 8
Purpose of the Study 10
Significance of the Study 11
Scope of the Study 14
Research Questions 15
Hypotheses 16
vii

CHAPTER TWO 19
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 19
The Conceptual and Empirical frame Work 20
The Concept of Adolescence 18
Attitudes and Behaviours of Adolescents Towards Sexuality. 24
Sexually Transmitted Diseases. 25
Socio-Economic Impact on Sexually Transmitted Infections. 28
Reproductive Knowledge, Attitudes, Sexual Behaviours and
Contraceptive use Among Adolescents. 31
Attitudes toward STI Treatment 48
Socio-Demographic Correlates of the Adolescents Sexual
Behaviours. 49
Treatment Seeking Behaviour Towards Sexually Transmitted
Infections. 60
STI Prevention and Treatment 61
Sexual Activity 74
The Sexually Active Teenager. 77
Reasons for adolescents’ Risk taking. 79
Advise on Adolescents to Abstain from Sex. 80

viii
Safer-Sex is More Effective than Abstinence in Sexually-
Experienced- at- Risk Adolescents. 85
National Reproductive Health Policy and Strategy 89
Theoretical Frameworks. 93
Summary of Reviewed Literature. 103
CHAPTER THREE 107
METHODOLOGY 107
Research Design 107
Area of Study 108
Population for the Study 110
Sample and Sampling Techniques 110
Instrument for Data Collection 112
-Validation of the instrument. 113
-Reliability of the instrument. 113
Method of Data Collection 114
Method of Data Analysis. 116
CHAPTER FOUR 117
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 117
The Association between Independent Research
Variables and Sexual Behaviours Practiced by
ix
Adolescents in Imo State Secondary Schools. 117
Hypothesis 1 126
Hypothesis 2 127
Hypothesis 3 128
Hypothesis 4 131
Hypothesis 5 132
Hypothesis 6 134
Hypothesis 7 136
Hypothesis 8 138
Hypothesis 9 141
Hypothesis 10 143
Hypothesis11 144
Summary of Major Findings 145
CHAPTER FIVE 148
DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS 148
Conclusion 167
Recommendations 170
Implications of the Study 171
Suggestions for Further Research 172
References 173

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
Sexual behaviour is a form of physical intimacy that may be
directed to reproduction (one possible goal of sexual intercourse),
spiritual transcendence, and/or the enjoyment of any activity involving
sexual gratification (Wikipedia, 2005). Behaviour refers to the actions or
reactions of an object or organism usually in relation to the environment
(Wikipaedia, 2006). It was further noted that behaviour can be conscious
or unconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary. Human
behaviour is the most basic human action and can be common, unusual,
acceptable and unacceptable.
Health South Australia (2009) stated various types of sexual
behaviour as follows, abstinence, masturbation, coitus, anal sex, oral sex,
prostitution, transvestism (use of clothing of opposite sex for sexual
gratification) and transsexualism (a disorder of gender identity in which
the individual wishes to be or feels that he or she is a member of the
opposite sex). This study will concentrate on sexual behaviours that could
result to sexually transmitted infections.
The term adolescence comes from the Latin verb adolescere,
which means “to grow up” or “to grow to maturity. It means somewhat
more than the physiological development implied by the original Latin
2
verb (Dusek, 1977). Adolescence is the bridge between childhood and
adulthood. Dusek further noted that it is the transition from childhood to
adulthood, the stage in which the individual is required to adapt and
adjust childhood behaviours to the adult forms that are considered
acceptable in his or her culture.
Decey and Kenny (1994) in their explanation of adolescents are
of the view that adolescents’ fall within the age range of 10 to 19 years.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2003) defined adolescence both in
terms of age (spanning the ages of 10 to 19 years) and in terms of phase
of life by special attributes. These attributes include rapid physical
growth and development, physiological, social and psychological
maturity, but not all at the same time. According to WHO (2003), there is
Sexual maturity and the onset of sexual activity, experimentation,
development of adult mental process and adult identity as well as
transition from total socio-economic dependence to relative
independence. WHO/United Nations Fund for Population Activities
(UNFPA)/United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (1989) are of the
view that adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood and
includes those between 10 and 19 years.
According to Wikipedia (2005), correlate is a causal,
complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relationship, especially a
structural, functional or quality correspondence between two comparable
3
entities; for example, a correlation between drug abuse and crime.
Wikipedia further noted that it is used to predict the value of one variable
given the value of the other. Houghton (2007) stated that correlate is to
put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel or reciprocal relation
and further noted that in brief, it is to put in or have some relation or
connection. Furthermore, correlate was defined as causal,
complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relationship and was explained as
being connected either logically or causally or by shared characteristics or
either of two interrelated things, especially if one implies the other
(Houghton, 1995; Webster, 2009 & Martin, 2009).
Flay (2002) stated that all behaviours, not just problem
behaviours, are related to each other. They are correlated and they also
cause each other. Brian, Flay, Dphil, FSBM, and FAAHB (2002) pointed
out that the linkages between alcohol or drug use and both violence and
sexual behaviour among adolescents were clear. The authors further
noted that about a third of the youth that committed serious crimes
consumed alcohol just before the offense. The authors further pointed out
that more than 70 per cent of teen suicides involved frequent use of
alcohol or drugs and nearly 40 per cent of drowning involved the use of
alcohol. Studies have shown that alcohol and drug use were the best
predictors of early sexual activity and were associated with more
unplanned pregnancies, more sexually transmitted diseases, more HIV
4
infections, and greater school dropout than any other factor (Code, 1992;
HHS Youth & Alcohol, 1992; Reis & Roth, 1993; Eron, Gentry &
Schlegel, 1994; Levine & Rosich, 1996; Healthy Youth, 2000; & Poulin
& Graham, 2001).
Sharma (2003) reported that adolescents practice a wide variety of
sexual behaviours. The commonest of them is masturbation. Mutual
masturbation among same sex adolescents is also common. Other forms
of sexual behaviour include necking and petting, which are physical
contacts in an attempt to produce erotic arousals without sexual
intercourse. Sometimes petting and necking can also lead to orgasm.
Heterosexual intercourse, lesbianism and homosexual relations are some
other forms of sexual behaviour practiced by some adolescents (Sharma,
2003). Sharma further noted that among the sexually active adolescents
one may observe that many have single partners; others have multiple
partners at a time. Many adolescents, according to Sharma, entered into a
sporadic sexual activity and then kept away from sex while others
indulged in sexual activities regularly. Sharma (2003) further stated that
one can rightly say that information about safer-sex practice and its usage
is far below optimum levels among sexually active adolescents.
Obiajuru (2000) observed that some adolescents were exposed
to sexual risk behaviours like having casual sex with unknown partners,
having multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non compliance to the
5
use of condom during sexual intercourse, homosexuality and lesbianism.
Among all these also are the watching of pornographic films, collecting
money in exchange for sex and having group sex. Doedens (2000);
FMOH (2001); Garofalo, Cameron, Wolf, kessel, and Durant (1998) &
Sharma (2003) noted that there is alarming increase of exposure to risky
sexual behaviours among the adolescents not considering the
consequences like pregnancy, abortion, STIs including HIV/AIDS.
Infections transmitted from one person to another through sexual
intercourse are referred to as sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
Sexually transmitted infections constitute a serious and sometimes deadly
group of infectious diseases especially Human Immune Virus /Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS).
In an uninformed or a deviant in sexual behaviour, there are two
undesirable consequences such as disease and/or pregnancy (Hanlon &
Pickett, 1979). The authors further reported that the present epidemic of
STIs among adolescents is of serious dimensions. Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (2002) stated that the number of conception in
unmarried female adolescents is unknown. It is estimated that each year
approximately 10 per cent of all adolescent girls become pregnant, the
majority out of wedlock. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention
further reported more than 300,000 teenage abortions in 1976 and about
6
600,000 pregnancies that were carried to term in the United States of
America.
Slap, Lot, Huang, Daniyam, Zink, and Succop (2003) observed that
family polygamy and lower educational level of parents were associated
with increased sexual activity among adolescents. The proportions of
students reporting sexual activity were 42.3 per cent in students from
polygamous families and 27.5 per cent in students from monogamous
families (Slap et al., 2003). United Nations programme on Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndrome (UNAIDS) and WHO (2000) reported that
Nigeria’s birth rate for adolescents is one of the highest in the world and
the prevalence among female adolescents in Nigeria of STIs including
HIV, is climbing rapidly.
Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) (1990)
reported that the median age at first sexual intercourse was 16.6years
while about one third of the women had their first sexual intercourse at
the age of 15years. In an effort to reduce its high maternal and infant
mortality and higher rate of sexually transmitted infections and dropout
from school, Nigeria developed a National Reproductive Health Policy in
2000 that focuses on preventing risky sexual behaviours during
adolescence.
The programme, according to UNAIDS and WHO (2000), has
been hampered by outdated and incomplete information on the sexual
7
knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of the adolescents in Nigeria. The
importance of clarifying needs before intervening is highlighted by the
recent evaluation of sex education intervention in Nigeria and Ghana
(Brieger, Delano, Lane, Oladepo & Oyediran, 2001). The evaluation
showed that the programme was effective for young people in school but
not for young people out of school because of differences in sexual
experience and knowledge. Sexual activity was less common among
female than male students, less common among female students attending
female only boarding schools than other schools, 7.7 per cent versus 24.3
per cent and less common among students living in urban than in rural
locations. Allan Guttmacher Institute (2001) and Kirby (2001) reported
that the sexual health needs of young people in Nigeria are high, as
evidenced by the prevalence of pregnancy and sexually transmitted
diseases including HIV/AIDS.
Temin, Okonofua, Omorodion, Renne, Coplan, Heggenhougen
et al. (1999) observed that students noted that having multiple partners
and engaging in unprotected sex with unknown partners were high risk
behaviours but did not acknowledge the potential health risks of sexual
intercourse with a regular known partner. Temin et al. further observed
that the adolescents’ perception of risk does not necessarily translate into
safe behaviour. Regardless about risks, students described attitudes that
8
discourage safe sexual behaviour and there was also low utilization of
reproductive health services (Temin et al., 1999).
From the above background, it becomes obvious that some
adolescents take for granted their high-risk sexual behaviours in relation
to high prevalence of STIs. The trend and consequences of adolescents’
exposure to sexual risk behaviours have raised crisis among the
adolescents. Efforts being made to curb the sexual revolution and these
risky sexual behaviours seem to yield little positive result. It is on the
basis of the above that this research work has been designed to find out
the socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours of the adolescents
in Imo State.

Statement of the Problem
The ideal sexual behaviour of the adolescents should be sexual
abstinence, safe sex practice, and avoidance of illegal drugs and alcohol
which influence sexual behaviours, but this appears not to be the practice.
There is rising incidence of exposure to sexual risk behaviours by the
adolescents within the age range of 10-19 years (Doedens 2000, Sharma
2003, Temin et al; 1999).
Watney (1987) stated that adolescents’ sexual activities were
clearly not and never had been without risks. There are inherent dangers
of unplanned pregnancy, dropping out of school, unsafe abortion and
9
sexually transmitted infections/HIV/AIDS which are the major
implications of sexual risk behaviours considering the grave
consequences (Hadey, 1997; Nicholl, Catchpole, Cliff, Hughes, Simms &
Thomas, 1999). In view of the fact that the number of cases of
STIs/HIV/AIDS have been on the increase all over the world due to
increased sexual activities among the adolescents (Getcell, Pippin &
Varnes, 1991); and Nigerian government is also interested in controlling
STIs/HIV/AIDS among adolescents through the control of their sexual
behaviours, Nigeria hence formulated the National Reproductive Health
Policy and Strategies to achieve quality reproductive and sexual health
for all Nigerians (FMOH, 2001). Unfortunately, despite all these ongoing
efforts, some adolescents still practice risky sexual behaviours as they in
the last decade (1980-89) have developed a widely held sense that they
are entitled to have sex (Williams, 1989).
There is need therefore; to identify the socio-demographic
correlates of perceived sexual behaviours of the adolescents in order to
formulate strategies to tackle the problem from the root. However, data
on socio-demographic variables influencing the sexual behaviours of the
adolescents exist in different parts of the world and few are available in
other geopolitical areas of Nigeria (Temin et al., 1999; Anochie &
Ikpeme, 2001; Ajuwon et al., 2001; Ibe & Ikechebelu, 2002 & Ibe & Agu
2006 ). Unfortunately, no empirical data has been identified in Imo state
10
which has a different socio-economic and cultural background with
HIV/AIDS prevalence of 3.05 per cent (Obiajuru & Ogbulie, 2007),
hence the researcher was motivated to identify the socio-demographic
correlates of sexual behaviours of the adolescents in Imo State. The
problem of this study therefore, is the increase in the risky sexual
behaviours; birth rate; STIs/HIV/AIDS among the adolescents and lack of
empirical data on socio-demographic correlates of perceived sexual
behaviours of adolescents in Imo State.

Purpose of the Study.
This study was designed to determine the socio-demographic correlates
of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents in Imo State secondary
schools.
This study was guided by the following specific purposes, namely, to
determine the levels of perceived
1. sexual behaviours of the older and younger adolescents in Imo
State secondary schools.
2. sexual behaviours of male and female adolescents in Imo State
secondary schools.
3. sexual behaviours of adolescents in classes JSSI to SS3 in Imo
State secondary schools.
11
4. sexual behaviours of the urban and rural adolescents in Imo State
secondary schools.
5. sexual behaviours of adolescents with different family sizes in Imo
State secondary schools.
6. sexual behaviours of adolescents with different family structures
in Imo State secondary schools.
7. sexual behaviours of adolescents with various ages at first sexual
intercourse in Imo State secondary schools.
8. sexual behaviours of adolescents with different financial strengths
in Imo State secondary schools.
9. sexual behaviours of adolescents with different religious belief in
Imo State secondary schools.
10. sexual behaviours of adolescents who use alcohol and those who
do not use alcohol in Imo State secondary schools.
11. sexual behaviours of adolescents who use illegal drugs and those
who do not use illegal drugs in Imo State secondary schools.

Significance of the Study
The general benefit of this research is that the adolescents and the
general public would be aware of the socio-demographic variables that
influence their sexual behaviours as well as high risk sexual behaviours
which predispose them to contacting sexually transmitted infections
12
including HIV/AIDS, unplanned pregnancy, dropout from school, and
unsafe abortion. Specifically, identifying the level of sexual behaviours of
older (15-19 years) and younger (10-14 years) adolescents in Imo State
secondary schools establishes the group that is more vulnerable to risky
sexual behaviour that requires emphasis during intervention.
Identifying the levels of sexual behaviour of male and female
adolescents in Imo State secondary schools shows the sex that is
significantly involved that will become a focus point during preventive
and control measures. The levels of sexual behaviour of Imo State
secondary school adolescents in various classes JSS1-SS3 indicate those
who are sexually active and inactive. This calls for more attention
towards those who are sexually active during intervention through sex
education and introduction to protective measures. The level of sexual
involvement of the urban and rural adolescents establishes the area that is
more involved which is informative in regards to sex education and other
strategies required to control unhealthy sexual behaviours.
Different family sizes, family structures and financial strengths
independently could actively or inactively influence the sexual
behaviours of the adolescents in Imo State. The understanding of the
levels of influence consequently establishes those at risk that would
become target for preventive and control measures. Furthermore, any age
13
at first sexual intercourse that was more involved in sexual behaviour
should be addressed during intervention through sex education.
The religious group or groups that are more involved in sexual
behaviours would require special attention by sex education providers as
well as introduction to protective measures. The study would establish the
impact of the use of alcohol and illegal drugs on sexual behaviours of
adolescents in Imo State. Furthermore, these would show the profile of
those at grave risk that would become the target for prevention and
control programmes.
The theoretical significance of the study is that the theoretical
frame work for understanding health behaviours including sexual
behaviours promotes safe sex, medical compliance and screening. The
theory explains the perceived susceptibility and severity of the sexual
behaviours of the adolescents.
The health workers, policy makers, international, governmental
and Non-governmental agencies operating in the state would be aware of
the predictors of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents in the state
that predispose them to unplanned pregnancy, unsafe abortion, dropout
from school and sexually transmitted infections; and consequently,
establish operational profile of persons at grave risk that would become
specific targets for prevention and control programmes. Also this study
14
could provide useful information to other researchers who may wish to
carry out more researches in the area.

Scope of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to determine the socio
demographic correlates of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents in
Imo State secondary schools. The population of the study was limited to
government owned secondary school adolescents within the age range of
10 to 19 years in Imo State. The secondary schools have a population of
153,586 adolescents.
The dependent variables of the study are the sexual behaviours of
the adolescents’ defined in terms of multiple and casual sex partners,
frequency of Sexual intercourse, non use of condoms, masturbation,
heterosexual and homosexual relationships, lesbianism, prostitution, anal
sex, oral sex and safe sex practice e.g. abstinence, single sex partner and
use of condom.
The independent variables of the study are the socio-demographic
values which are gender, location, age, level of education (class level),
family size, family structure e.g. polygamy, monogamy and single
parenthood, financial strength, use of alcohol, use of illegal drugs,
religion, and various ages at first sexual intercourse.
15

Research Questions
The main research question for this study reads thus: What are the
variables that influence the levels of sexual behaviours of the adolescents
in Imo State?
Specifically the following research questions guided the study:
1. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of older and
younger adolescents in Imo State secondary schools?
2. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of male and
female adolescents in Imo State secondary schools?
3. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents
in classes JSS1 to SS3 in Imo State secondary schools?
4. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of urban and
rural adolescents in Imo State secondary schools?
5. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents
of different family sizes in Imo State secondary schools?
6. What are the levels of sexual behaviours of adolescents of different
family structures in Imo State secondary schools?
16
7. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents
with various ages at first sexual intercourse in Imo State secondary
schools?
8. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents
with different financial strengths in Imo State secondary schools?
9. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents
of different religious beliefs in Imo State secondary schools?
10. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents
who use alcohol and those who do not use alcohol in Imo State
secondary schools?
11. What are the levels of perceived sexual behaviours of adolescents
who use illegal drugs and those who do not use illegal drugs in Imo
State secondary schools?
Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated and would be tested at an
alpha level of 0.05 significance.
1. There is no significant difference in the levels of perceived sexual
behaviours of older and younger adolescents in Imo State
secondary schools.
17
2. There is no significant difference in the levels of perceived sexual
behaviours of male and female adolescents in Imo State secondary
schools.
3. There are no significant differences among adolescents in classes
JSS1 to SS3 in Imo State secondary schools in terms of their
perceived levels of sexual behaviours.
4. There is no significant difference in the levels of perceived sexual
behaviours of urban and rural adolescents in Imo State secondary
schools.
5. There are no significant differences among adolescents of different
family sizes in Imo State secondary schools in terms of their
perceived levels of sexual behaviours.
6. There are no significant differences among adolescents of different
family structures in Imo State secondary schools in terms of their
perceived levels of sexual behaviours.
7. There are no significant differences among adolescents with
different ages at first sexual intercourse in Imo State secondary
schools in terms of their perceived levels of sexual behaviours.
18
8. There are no significant differences among adolescents with
different financial strengths in Imo State secondary schools in
terms of their perceived levels of sexual behaviours.
9. There are no significant differences among adolescents of different
religious beliefs in Imo State secondary schools in terms of their
perceived levels of sexual behaviours.
10. There is no significant difference in the levels of perceived sexual
behaviours of the adolescents in Imo State secondary schools who
use alcohol and those who do not use alcohol.
11. There is no significant difference in the levels of perceived sexual
behaviours of the adolescents in Imo State secondary schools who
use illegal drugs and those who do not use illegal drugs.

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