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MAIKANO MAHMOOD DANZAKI

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Download the complete mass communication project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled SPECIAL TELEVISION PROGRAMMES AND MOVIES AS INSTRUMENT FOR SOCIAL CHANGE IN HIV/AIDS CAMPAIGN: A STUDY OF KADUNA METROPOLIS here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON SPECIAL TELEVISION PROGRAMMES AND MOVIES AS INSTRUMENT FOR SOCIAL CHANGE IN HIV/AIDS CAMPAIGN: A STUDY OF KADUNA METROPOLIS

The Project File Details

  • Name: SPECIAL TELEVISION PROGRAMMES AND MOVIES AS INSTRUMENT FOR SOCIAL CHANGE IN HIV/AIDS CAMPAIGN: A STUDY OF KADUNA METROPOLIS
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [3285KB]
  • Length: [85] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This research titled: Special Television Programmes And Movies As Instrument For
Social Change In HIV/AIDS Campaign: A Case Study Of Kaduna Metropolise,
attempts to find the best way to stop or reduce to the barest minimum the spread of
HIV/HIDS. It was established that home videos produced locally are the major Focus
through which facts, figures, myths and messages about HIV/AIDS are transmitted to the
general public. Two theories were used as framework for the study namely the cultivation
and diffusion of innovation theories. While the cultivation theory was adopted to find out
the perception and influence of home movies by respondents with regard to dangers of
HIV/AIDS and transmission, the diffusion of innovation theory was adapted to find out
how new innovations can be used to combat HIV/AIDS through specially produced
television programmes and Movies.The major findings of this research work shows that:
A high percentage (87%) of respondents patronize specially produced television
programmes and Movies, Respondents have located new ways to prevent themselves
from contracting the deadly virus, A good percentage of respondents admitted that the
specially made programmes influence their attitudes positively and so help them to avoid
contacting the disease. Below are the following recommendations,That movie producers
should liaise with other HIV/AIDS control agencies and other stake holders in order to
have information on the nature, spread and prevention/management of the disease.
Funding should be increased so that research could be carried out and to spread the
information in stock for the benefit of the public. Movies producers should produce films
that show sympathy towards those affected by the disease instead of stigmatization.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page – – – – – – – – – – i
Declaration – – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval Page- – – – – – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgments – – – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – vii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – – 4
1.3 Research Questions – – – – – – – – 5
1.4 Research question analysis – – – – – – – 5
1.5 Objectives of the Research- – – – – – – – 5
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – – – 6
1.7 Scope of the Study- – – – – – – – – 7
1.8 Limitation of the Study- – – – – – – – – 7
1.9 Definition of key Terms – – – – – – – – 8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – 10
2.1.1 Background on HIV/AIDS – – – – – – – 10
2.3 Classification of mass media – – – – – – – 12
2.4 Film – – – – – – – – – – 13
2.5 Mass media – – – – – – – – – 15
2.7 Broadcast media – – – – – – – – – 17
2.8 Television – – – – – – – – 18
2.9 Functions of Mass Media – – – – – – 19
2.10 Social Change – – – – – – – – – 20
2.11 Campaign against HIV/AIDS – – – – – – – 22
2.12 Campaign against HIV/AIDS KSTV – – – – – – 24
2.13 Kaduna State Media Corporation – – – – – – 25
2.14 Brief on KSTV/Capital TV – – – – – – – 26
2.15 Kaduna State Television [KSTV] – – – – – 26
2.16 Capital Television – – – – – – – – 27
2.17 Television and social change – – – – – – – 27
2.18 Social changes / HIV – – – – – – – – 28
2.19 Synopsis on specific programs on KSTV and capital television – – 29
2.20 Cultivation theory – – – – – – – – 29
2.21  Cultivation theory as a framework for this research study – – 31
2.22 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 34

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 36
3.2 Location of the Study – – – – – – – – 36
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – – – – 37
3.4 Sampling Technique – – – – – – – – 38
3.5 Sample size – – – – – – – – – 39
3.6 Method of Data Collection – – – – – – – 39
3.7 Instrument of data collection – – – – – – – 39
3.8 Validity and reliability – – – – – – – 40
3.9 Data Presentation and Analysis Method – – – – – 40

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1. Introduction – – – – – – – – – 41
4.2.1 Data presentation for first category of respondents – – – – 41
4.1.2 Data presentation for movie producers – – – – – – 49
4.3. Data analysis/ discussion of findings – – – – – 55
4.4 Research question Analysis – – – – – – – 57

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1. Introduction – – – – – – – – – 59
5.2. Summary of chapters – – – – – – – – 59
5.3. Conclusion – – – – – – – – 62
5.4. Contribution to Knowledge – – – – – – – 62
5.5 Recommendations – – – – – – – 63
5.6 Suggestions for Further research – – – – – – 64
References – – – – – – – – – 66
Appendixes – – – – – – – – – – 68

LIST OF TABLES
Section A: Demographic Data – – – – – – 41
Table 1 Distribution by Gender of respondents – – – – – 41
Table 2 Distribution by Age – – – – – – – – 42
Table 3 Distribution by marital status – – – – – – 42
Table 4 Occupational Distribution – – – – – – – 43
Section B: Subject matter Questions – – – – – – 44
Table 5 frequency of patronage of the home movies – – – – 44
Table 6 Frequency of movies watched – – – – – – 44
Table 7 Educational quality of the movie – – – – – – 45
Table 8 What respondent have learnt from the movies – – – – 46
Table 9 How the movies influenced respondents – – – – – 46
Table 10 Rating of the performance of the movies by the respondents – – 47
Table 11 What should be improved in the movies – – – – – 48
4. 12 Data Presentation for Movie Producers – – – – – 48
Section A: Demographic data – – – – – – – 49
Table 12 Gender of the producer – – – – – – – 49
Table 13 Marital status – – – – – – – – 49
Table 14 Age distribution – – – – – – – – 50
Section B: Subject matter responses – – – – – – 51
Table 15 Movies they produced / participated in producing – – – – 51
Table 16 Role they played in the production – – – – – 51
Table 17 Theme of movies they produced – – – – – – 52
Table 18 Respondents rating of the movies – – – – – – 53
Table 19 Objective of the movies – – – – – – – 53
Table 20 What improvement the movies need – – – – – 54
Table 21 Major challenges faced in production – – – – – 55

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study Since the inception of television broadcasting in Nigeria, Special Production Programme have had a remarkably wide acceptance and patronage in the Nigerian media. This acceptance is due to its entertainment content that made them special, which media management see as more effective than non-entertaining messages[Barbie, 2004]. The concept of entertainment which media scholars claims to refer to as media messages that are educative as well as entertaining are more effective (McPhail, 1989:30).More so, Meyer (2006) is of the opinion that such media contents are more likely to make the needed impact on audiences as they are packaged to be audience friendly. Development communication has always borrowed this idea in the packaging of development communication items like health programmes. Such packaged programmes that sensitize the public on disease outbreaks or the selling of new technology that will impact positively in lives of people in societies are packages that are given more attention (Meyer, 2006).One of the most effective form that ensures media messages take the education and entertainment approach is the special productions in form of movie, which has a relatively large audience compared to news, documentary, features and talk show.This is partly due to the concreteness of the content of the movie as it depicts reality through its unique presentation of ideas using sounds, pictures and motion;
aside being acted by real people and mirroring the day-to-day happenings in the society. The role of specially produced movies in social change in the society can be tremendous. They serve as vital tools for informing the people on the needed attitudinal, cognitive and behavioural changes. Furthermore,they mirror the best ways to conform to healthy and conventional expectations of the individual and
society. One of the key areas that the society needs change is attitudinal and behavioural change from the individual perspective is that of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDs). The epidemic is one of the most pressing problems facing the world today.This study examines how the mass media could be used by the use of specially produced movies to combat the spread of the HIV/AIDS
epidemic. Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies used to reach large audiences simultaneously, heterogeneously and anonymously through mass communication (MAN, 2006). Mass media are broadly categorized into broadcast
and print media. Broadcast media are all media that require the use of an electronic or mechanical medium, and uses audio or visuals or both. Broadcast media are also referred to as electronic media. They include radio, television, DVDs and film. Print media transmit messages using printed symbols and graphical or illustrative representations. Examples include the newspaper, magazine, newsletters, pamphlets and brochures (Google, 2011). The print media also include outdoor media which has its forms as signs and sign boards, bill boards and placards placed in the streets and on building mostly for commercial purposes Internet media and the World Wide Web(www) have been accorded the status of a separate category of mass media.Many mass media services are provided with such blogging, electronic mails, internet, television and radio. For this reason, many other mass media channels have a presence on the new media, thus
making it possible for the new media to be a converging point for other forms and categories of mass media (Meyer, 2005).
The mass media become the most important agent of socialization with every home owning a radio and television set beside satellite stations, video and audio players and in some cases even high-tech mobile phones and the internet that is the
hub of all forms of mass media channels and tools. Walter Lipmann (1965) opines that the media is responsible for most of the
images in “our heads”. This is explained by the various media effect theories that emerged after detailed studies of the influence of the mass media on human behavior in the 20th Century.All information around the globe are made available at the click of a button on a micro-chip device; from advertisement to movies, music, news, documentaries, and all hybrid of information, entertainment and education
(McLeod and Blumberg, 2007).

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Human Immunodeficiency Virus pandemic has been spreading like wild fire across all countries in the world. The media and other stakeholders in health embarked on mass sensitization campaigns to check the spread of the disease but despite this, the number of people living with the disease has continued to grow, and the number of deaths resulting from the pandemic keep increasingat the rate of one new infection per minute (UNICEF, 2001). Meanwhile, WHO (2009) reports show that in 2009, there was an estimated 33.3 million people living with the HIV virus and 1.8 million AIDS related diseases worldwide. Also, from the beginning of the epidemic, more than 60 million people have been infected with the virus and nearly 30 million people have died of AIDS. Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rate of infection among adults and children in the world,according to UNAID (2004) reports. TheSub-Saharan Africa is the worst hit in the world; over 25 million people in the region are estimated to be HIV positive resulting in about 2.2 million deaths annually. About 3 million people also become newly infected in the region annually.Since HIV was discovered in Nigeria in 1986, the infection has continued to spread fast with a long term threat to survival. The prevalence rate among those between the ages of 15-49 has been rising steadily from 3.4 in 1993 to 4.5 percent in 1995 and to 5.4 percent in 1999 (UNICEF, 2001). Also, the reports provide that as of 1999, Nigeria had the fourth largest number of people infected with HIV with over 2.6 million Nigerians aged 15-49. This is contributing about 8 percent to the global HIV/AIDS burden and over 10 percent to the African burden. The North-central states of Benue and Plateau have the highest number of infection among adults and children, according to surveys by the Federal Ministry of Health (NACASS, 2009). We cannot say that conventional television programmes, like documentaries, discussions and other production unlike the specially produced programmes have failed to achieve desired results, which brings about the need for specially produced television programmes targeted at broadcast television and home movie views.

1.3 Research Questions
This research is guided by the following questions:
i. How can specially produced television programmes/messages assist in curbing the
spread of HIV/AIDS?
ii. What is the level of availability of such specially produced programmes to the
public?
iii. What is general public’s perceptions of these special television programmes?
iv. To what extent do the messages influence the attitude of the public in respect of
spread of HIV/AIDS?

1.4 Research Objectives
The general aim of this study is to examine the relationship between specially produced Television programmes and movies on HIV/AIDS as well as audience perceptions and reactions to them.
The specific objectives are as follows:
i. To find out methods of producting special porogrmames and movies that can be used to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS.
ii. To establish the level of availability of such special programmes and movies to the general public.
iii. To ascertain the level of perception by the public of the specially prepared productions and movies .
iv. To find out the degree of influence of the messages on the attitude of the general public.

1.5 Significance of the Study
In view of the problem stated above, there is a strong gap in the structural framework of the quest to control the spread of HIV and AIDS. Hence the need to fill this gap by using specially designed Television productions.
In recent years, a number of studies have been conducted in some countries, areas, towns and cities measuring the effectiveness of Television productions in form of movies in combating the spread of HIV/AIDS. Some of the research studies have
to some degree touched on the questions that seek to evaluate the success recorded so far; however they have not covered special produced programmes on home movies and in Kaduna North. This research study is projected to fill these gaps in the Nigerian context and specifically in Kaduna State using Kaduna State television as it seeks to examine programmes inform of movies that centre on the control of HIV/AIDS.
The study is therefore, to join such other research in pioneering the quest to control HIV/AIDS in Kaduna State by providing a well-informed guideline and line of action for producers that will equip them with a sense of decisiveness in designing
the bits of the media messages they will use in controlling the spread of the epidemic.The study will also serve as a reference point for academics who may venture into similar research study, as it will serve as benchmark for comparison

1.6 Scope of the Study
In a bid to evaluate the impact of specially produced television productions in the prevention of HIV/AIDS, this research study limits its horizon (as the topic suggests) to special television productions. The study will also be limited to respondents residing within Kaduna metropolis. For this research, both sexes will be surveyed.

1.7 Limitation of the Study
The research, as well, is not limited to a period in which special television programmes were made. Rather, it looks, at available Television programmes that were produced with the aim of preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS.Well written dramas, strong acting, realistic productions etc will be examined, to cover 70% of the research work.The other 30% was devoted to the third plot with the social content and the role models for the behaviour we are trying to teach/reinforce. The study is based on the assumption that writers in the context know what they are doing. i.e. that they have received previous training in film making, drama productions and other journalistic duties and have experience in writing melodrama, as writing is important, but so is professional directing and production, acting, use of music,
sound effects and lighting and many others elements that go in to making programmes interesting to the targeted audience.

1.8 Definition of key Terms
The terminologies used in this study,
i. Social Change: this refers to a change in attitude and behavior of the public,often influenced by some agents of socialization, especially the mass media.
ii. Acting: Refers to playing the roles created to represent people in plays films dramas.
iii. AIDS: Acquired human immune deficiency Syndrome, a disease caused by HIV.
iv. HIV: Human Immune deficiency Virus.
v. Directing: refers to the act of imprinting the idea written in to script to be watched on TV.
vi. Music: Sound played for the purpose of the production sound effects noises in the production.
vii. Sabido: Refers to a particular methodology. That is methods discovered by Miguel Sabido, a professional and also the president of World Association of Producers of Entertainment–education.
viii. Scripts: Refers to those story ideas that are professionally written for production of such films that you watch at your homes.
ix. Special Movies: refers to ordinary film produced by film makers for broadcast, and that are sold on CD for home viewing.
x. Sponsored Programmes: Refers to those who provide money for production and transmission i.e. putting on air-playing such production on Radio or Television.
xi. Visual and Audio:- Technically means video works watched on CDs or tapes that people commonly buy. Audio is sound media items played on cassette players or CD players.…

 

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