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ABSTRACT

 

Spectrum is a vital requisite for growth enhancement in this Digital Economy, and the efficient way of managing the use of the spectrum resources is very important. In recent years, wireless and mobile data traffic in Nigeria has increased dramatically and requires significant portion of spectrum. However, accommodating this unprecedented usage of spectrum will require new innovative approaches, these approaches includes cognitive radio and geolocation databases, these approaches permits the application of new radio frequency frameworks for licencing, based on the licensed or unlicensed shared use of spectrum. Therefore, this research aimed at analyzing framework policies, which are adopted and implemented by several countries; suggesting ways that would greatly help the Nigeria Communications Commission (NCC) to alleviate the shortage and efficient use of spectrum. The research started by identifying the key framework policy designed for spectrum management by the NCC. It went on to analyze the spectrum management framework for two developed and two African countries then further on it carried out analysis on the key framework policies used by these countries in relation to Nigeria, finding out that spectrum sharing and the Mobile Virtual Network Operators are key strategies not implemented by the NCC. The study then concluded by providing recommendations for such strategic implementation for proper spectrum management knowing that the best way to ascertain the economic value of spectrum for Mobile. Spectrum managers needs to consider new methods to spectrum management, including the adoption of these mechanisms, policy makers also, needs to take into account a range services resulting from an efficient use of the Radio Frequency which help in economic and social benefits hence preserving government critical services

TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i
TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iii
DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. v
ABSTRACT ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. vii
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. x
LIST OF FIGURES ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. xi
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS …………………………………………………………… xii
CHAPTER ONE …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.0 Radio Spectrum ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
1.2 Introduction to Spectrum Management ………………………………………………………………………………. 2
1.3 Spectrum Management Approach ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3 1.4 Problem Statement …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
1.5 Research objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
1.6 Outline of This Report …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
1.7 Chapter Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7
CHAPTER TWO ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 8
LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
2.0 The Spectrum Management ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8
2.1.1 Allocating Spectrum for a Changing World …………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.1.2 Radio Frequency Spectrum Management ………………………………………………………………………. 10
2.2 Spectrum Regulation in Developed Countries …………………………………………………………………. 11
2.2.1 Spectrum Regulation in the United State (US) …………………………………………………………. 11
2.2.1.1 Radio Frequency Development and Regulation ……………………………………………………….. 13
2.2.1.2 Use of Spectrum Conserving Methods for Radio Communication Systems …………………. 13
2.2.2 Spectrum Regulation in the United Kingdom (UK) ………………………………………………….. 14
2.2.2.1 Spectrum Frequency Allocation in UK ……………………………………………………………………. 15
2.3 Spectrum Regulation in Africa ………………………………………………………………………………………. 22
2.3.1 Spectrum Regulation in South Africa ……………………………………………………………………… 22
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2.3.2 Spectrum Regulation Framework in Kenya ……………………………………………………………… 28
2.4 Spectrum Regulation in Nigeria …………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
2.5 Chapter Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 43
CHAPTER THREE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
3.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
3.1.1 Mobile Spectrum Management …………………………………………………………………………………….. 45
3.1.3 Mobile Technology and Spectrum Use ………………………………………………………………………….. 47
3.1.4 Mobile Virtual Network Operator …………………………………………………………………………………. 49
3.1.5 Mobile Spectrum Trading ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 49
3.2 Research Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 51
3.2.1 Direct-Data Survey …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
3.3 Participants ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
3.4 Instrumentation ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
3.5 Ethical Considerations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
3.6 Chapter Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54
CHAPTER FOUR …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ……………………………………………………………………………………. 55
4.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
4.1 Response Rate ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 55
4.2 Response Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57
4.2.1 General Response Analysis On Spectrum Management …………………………………………………… 57
4.2.2 Response Analysis on Mobile Spectrum Development, Policies, Guidelines and Trading ……. 57
4.2.3 Response Analysis on Mobile Virtual Network Operators ……………………………………………….. 58
4.3 NCC Framework in Relation to Other Countries ……………………………………………………………………. 60
4.4 Chapter Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 60
CHAPTER FIVE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………………………………………. 61
5.0 Summary of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
5.1 Conclusions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
5.2 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 63
5.3 Suggestions for further research ………………………………………………………………………………………… 64
REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 66

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION
1.0 Radio Spectrum
Recently studies on Radio Spectrum have indicated an increase in the integration and use of Radio spectrum, this spectrum is as a quota of the overall electromagnetic spectrum that carries wireless waves; and an increased use of this resource has brought about a significant increase in studies to find an effective means to manage such resources. The Radio Frequency has limitations, which are well define by the range of frequency of transmitted signals, which usually considered varying from 3 Kilohertz to 300 Gigahertz. Being a very distinct, limited and valuable resource, it use to carry out wireless communications, which includes television and radio broadcasts, maritime and aeronautic navigation systems, mobile telephony and satellite commands, communications and control. This wide range of uses can be seen to reflect in the commercial and public sectors hence the must be managed well to ensure an effective and efficient use and to avoid signal interference. As a national and international resource, it is being manage by international and national organisations; government also manage radio spectrum through economic regulation to ensure that increasing demands are supplied hence putting the resource to effective use. Managed
The total available spectrum supply is fixed; technologically this resource can be manage in order to extent the way in which it can be utilised. Frequency lower bound Band Example use
3 kHz
Very Low Frequency
Long distance radio
30 kHz
Low Frequency
Naval broadcast
300 kHz
Medium Frequency
Aeronautical communications
3000 kHz
High Frequency
Sound broadcasting
30 MHz
Very High Frequency
Private business radio
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300 MHz
Ultra High Frequency
TV broadcasting
3000 MHz
Super High Frequency
Radar
30 GHz
Extremely High Frequency
Broadband wireless access
300 GHz
Not designated
Table 1.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum frequency band
Source: Martin, Chris, and William, 2007
The most significant feature of the Radio Frequency are the rate of propagation and the level of information which these signals can convey; generally, this works in an indirect proportion were by the lower the propagation distance, the higher the data carrying volume of the signal. These feature of the Radio Frequency limits the rate of application for which a particular band is suitable although spectrum such as in the Ultra High Frequency band which ranges from 300-3000 Megahertz is suitable for a wide variety of services and is thus in great demand, such as cellular mobile telephony [1].
It is on these bases that this Project seek to provide a detailed study of the current understanding of the spectrum regulation in Nigeria as used by the NCC and the state-of-the-art regulatory framework used by various selected countries hence providing ensembles to address the need for the NCC to adopt some of the framework policies for proper spectrum management.
1.2 Introduction to Spectrum Management
Radio frequency as seen by several countries it is a special and exclusive asset of the state, just like other national resources such as land, water, solid minerals and petroleum; but unlike these, the Radio Frequency is reusable. The purpose of spectrum management is to mitigate radio spectrum pollution and maximize the benefit of usable radio spectrum [2].
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In the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) a regulatory body for the international spectrum, constitution it was fully recognized that “it is the autonomous right of each State to regulate its spectrum Frequency use”. For an effective management of spectrum, regulation should be at national, regional and global levels.
Radio Frequency management has special objectives which includes but not limited to the following; Rationalizing and optimising the use of the spectrum; detecting and avoiding signal interference, deigning of frequency allocation table for both short and long range frequency, introduction to advance wireless technologies, coordination of wireless communications with neighbouring countries and other administrations. In addition to the objectives, some of the items that needs regulated nationally are Allocation of Frequency for various radio services, licence assignments and Radio Frequency to transmitting workstations; several licence fees type of equipment approval, coordination with neighbouring countries, and external relations towards regional commissions such as the CITEL in America and towards the International union (ITU).
Radio Frequency management is one and be treated as a natural domination as there is generally a unique regulator for any Radio Frequency band [2].
1.3 Spectrum Management Approach Among the several approaches of spectrum regulation, uniquely most RF regulators around the world are systematically using the Command and Control spectrum management method. In this approach, regulators are the central authorities for spectrum management, usage decisions and distribution. In the United Kingdom for example, the regulator, which is the Office of Communications (OfCom), regulates the physical technologies to be employed, they also control the use and the usage circumstances for a specified spectrum portions, when and who have access
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to such portions of spectrum [3]. Decisions made for the distributions are often static in both temporal and spatial dimensions, meaning their validity last a lengthy period of time, mostly decades and covers a very large geographical region. With the dedication of each frequency band to a single service provider the usage is then exclusive there by maintaining a communication that is interference free. Uniquely amidst these models for spectrum management, the oldest is the control management mostly thought of to be an artefact of outdated technology it requires interference free channels for quality acceptance.
Obviously, an advantage of this model is that public interest services is sustain.
Both public and commercial interest programs are beneficial to the society, though the first may not be as beneficial for the society as the later in terms of productivity according to the service provider’s perspective; hence, the public services have to be force by the regulators explicitly through agreements made on licences. These agreements on licences are of advantage as they are centralised approach they are standards, which are critical in networked industries for which they look up to telecommunication industries. 1.4 Problem Statement
Nowadays, spectrum management most especially spectrum sharing and spectrum trading are under intense confab. Due to an increased use of the wireless network for mobile, there is an increase traffic flow.
1.5 Research objectives
The purpose of the study is to investigate the spectrum regulation process used by the Nigerians Communications Commission in managing spectrum in Nigeria, and to carry out a comparative
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analysis with that of two developed countries (FCC of the United States and OfCom of the United Kingdom) and two developing African countries, (ICASA of South Africa and CCK of Kenya). The study also carried out to understand the perception of Mobile Network operators in Nigeria on the spectrum Management for future development. Below are the following objectives.
i. Examine the process of spectrum management used by the developed countries, developing countries and Nigerian Communications Commission.
ii. Provide a survey to recognize status of the spectrum regulation framework administered by NCC.
iii. Comparatively study and determine the effective feature of Spectrum Regulation framework needed to implement by the NCC.
Hence, the need for additional spectrum to accommodate this exponential growth is important. As a regulator, the NCC need to respond to these needs probably by making more spectrum available, allowing MVNO’s as a secondary market and encouraging lease and sharing of spectrum in a temporal manner to third parties, this serves as an important way to help telecom operators to share unused spectrum for proper incentives creation.
Recent studies showed that one of the key problem in trying to launch a new radio service is the scarcity of spectrum; this is obvious when operators have to pay a lot to get access during spectrum auctions to specific bands in the spectrum available. Even with this problem, there are severally unused spectrum according to recent studies on spectrum measurements on utilization.
The command and control management approach is consider the sole reason for this artificial “access limitation”; with these, parties in this management scheme have really deliberated in lessening the constraints on spectrum access. The lessening of this constrains gave rise to two models which are the spectrum property right and the spectrum commons.
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1.6 Outline of This Report
This study consists of the following sections:
Chapter 1 – Introduction
This chapter gives the introduction of the entire report, presenting the historical background of the study, the rationale behind the work, spectrum regulation, its importance and how it’s done, giving the problem definition and aims/ objectives of the study
Chapter 2 – Literature Review
In this section, a detail review of related study is being carried out, studying several countries (US, UK, Kenya and South Africa) hence discovering the theoretical framework upon which this research is built.
Chapter 3 – Research Methodology
In this section, we have considered few methodologies used in the analysis of the research survey administered to the Nigerians Communications Commission and some selected Mobile Network Operators in Nigeria. The section also went further to discuss some of the state of art processes and techniques that bring about efficient spectrum management, the Mobile Virtual Network Operators and the spectrum-sharing framework are been discussed.
Chapter 4 – Results and discussions
In this section, the survey outcome is analysed and the key features are being noted; the Mobile Virtual Network Operators and the spectrum trading and sharing were comparatively analysed showing the results of such classifiers as being used by the several countries and how necessary it is to be implemented,
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Chapter 5 – Conclusion and Recommendations
This section gives a detailed summary of the results that are indicated, some conclusions and recommendations based on the findings will be made providing suggestion (s) for future research, made for other researchers to carry out research in the related field or area
1.7 Chapter Summary This chapter gives the contextual study of the thesis. It provided an outline account of Spectrum, further providing a regulating the use of spectrum by the NCC for mobile technology to promote effective and efficient use and gain for a net economic and social benefit. It provides and overview and the study on the process and relevance of spectrum management, it explained the problem statement and purpose of why this study is necessary, considering the objectives of the study; it further went to give how this study is organised in chapters.

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