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OKECHUKWU ANTHONY OBI

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Download the complete SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING project topic and material (chapter 1-5) titled STUDIES ON SOME BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ROCK POOL HABITATS OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA here on PROJECTS.ng. See below for the abstract, table of contents, list of figures, list of tables, list of appendices, list of abbreviations and chapter one. Click the DOWNLOAD NOW button to get the complete project work instantly.

 

PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON STUDIES ON SOME BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ROCK POOL HABITATS OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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  • Name: STUDIES ON SOME BIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ROCK POOL HABITATS OF MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
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  • Length: [171] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

Entomological surveys were conducted to determine the biological and
physicochemical parameters influencing mosquito breeding in rock pools on inselbergs
in Kaduna State. Available rock pools were searched on the inselbergs fortnightly
between June and October, 2013 in 21 settlements distributed in 7 Local Government
Areas.This covered theState vegetation from the Guinea Savanna to SudanSavanna.A
total of 368 rock pools were sampled for mosquito larvaeusing soup ladle dipper
(0.105L) from 269 (69.7%) rock pools harbouring mosquito larvae. Biological
(microinvertebrates, macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, algae and vertebrates) and
physicochemical (depth, surface area, distances to adjoining pools, temperature, pH,
total dissolve solid, electrical conductivity, total suspended solid, turbidity, hardness,
dissolve oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, phosphate,
nitrate and alkalinity) parameters of the pools were determined. Polymerase Chain
Reaction was used for the identification of mosquito species of Anopheles gambiaes.s.
Of the 31,726 mosquito larvae collected, thirteen species in three mosquito
genera(Aedes, Anopheles and Culex) including Ae. vittatus (95.71%),An. arabiensis
(0.01%), An. gambiae s.s. (0.1%), An. longipalpis (0.0%), An. pretoriensis (0.0%), An.
rufipes (0.02%), Cx. albiventris (0.84%), Cx. horridus (0.33%)Cx. macfiei (0.76%), Cx.
perfidiosus (1.65%), Cx. pipiens pipiens (0.44%), Cx. simpsoni (0.0%) and Cx. tigripes
(0.0%) bred in rock pools. Aedes vittatuswas the most dominant mosquito encountered
in all the 21 sampling locations. PCR–based assay revealed 41.6% amplification of the
An. gambiaecomplex sample with 38.9% populations belonging to An.gambiae s.s.
whilst the remaining 2.6% were An. arabiensis. Up to 58.4% of the An. gambiae
complex could not be identified through PCR even after three runs. ANOVA showed
that the abundance of mosquito larvaediffered significantlywith pH of the rock pools
(p<0.05). Highly significant difference existed between the abundance of mosquito
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larvae and total dissolve solid, electrical conductivity and alkalinity of the rock pools
(p<0.001). The abundance of mosquito larvae did not differ significantly with depth,
surface area, total suspended solid, hardness and turbidity of the rock pools
(p>0.05).Principal Component Analysis showed that temperature, electrical
conductivity and total dissolve solids were paramount for mosquito breeding in rock
pool habitats. Low
positive correlation (r = 0.394) existed between dissolve oxygen and abundance of
mosquito larvae (p<0.001). Strong positive correlation (r = 1.000) exist between
biochemical oxygen demand and the abundance of mosquito larvae (p<0.005). Nitrate (
r=0.047) and chemical oxygen demand had low positive correlation (r=0.029) with mos
quito abundance. Strong positive correlation (r) existed between macroinvertebrate and
mosquito abundance(p<0.001) while microinvertebrates correlated negatively (r) with
the abundance of mosquito larvae (p<0.05) in rock pools.Chlorophytes had widespread
occurrence while Microcystis spp. had the highest percentage positivity, being the only
cyanophyte associated with mosquito larvae (p<0.05) in rock pools. Chlorophytum
laxumwas predominant amongst other aquatic macrophytes found with mosquito larvae
in rock pools. Epidemiologically, the mosquito species encountered are potential
vectors of human and animal diseases, hence rock pools should be inspected to
incriminate vectors and be incorporated in mosquito control strategies.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page…………………………………………………………………………… i
Declaration…………………………………………………………………………ii
Certification……………………………………………………………………….. iii
Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………….. iv
Dedication…………………………………………………………………………. v
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………. vi
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………. viii
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………… xii
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………… xiii
List of Plates………………………………………………………………………. xiv
CHAPTER ONE
1.0INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………. 1
1.1 Statement of Research Problem……………………………………………… 5
1.2 Justification…………………………………………………………………… 5
1.3 Aim of the Study……………………………………………………………… 5
1.4 Objectives………………………………………………………………………5
1.5 Hypotheses…………………………………………………………………….. 6
CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………… 7
2.1 Overview of Mosquito Species……………………………………………….. 7
2.1.2 External morphology of mosquitoes…………………………………………. 7
2.1.3 Life cycle…………………………………………………………………….. 9
2.1.3.1 Blood feeding and gonotrophic cycle…………………………………………… 9
2.1.3.2 Biology of mosquito eggs…………………………………………………………. 10
2.1.4 Larval biology………………………………………………………………… 15
ix
2.1.4.1 Larval habitats………………………………………………………………………16
2.1.4.2 Larval distribution in nature…………………………………………………………17
2.1.4.3 Effect of temperature on mosquito larvae………………………………………….18
2.1.5 Pupal biology…………………………………………………………………….19
2.1.5.1 Moulting, pupation and emergence…………………………………………………20
2.2 Global Impact of Mosquito Biodiversity…………………………………….….22
2.3 Predator Escape Mechanisms in Mosquitoes..………………………………….27
2.4 Biotic Interactions of Larval Mosquitoes with Different Predators andCompetitors in Aquatic Ecosystems…………………………………..29 2.4.1 Amphibian tadpoles……………………………………………………………..34
2.4.2 Aquatic insects…………………………………………………………………..34
2.4.3 Larvivorous psorophora………………………………………………………….35 2.4.4 Odonate larvae…………………………………………………………………..35
2.4.5 Larvivorous organisms in temporary water bodies……..……………….…….37
2.4.6 Cyclopoid copepods…………………………………………………………….38 2.5 Aquatic Insect Predators and their use in Mosquito Control………………..42
2.5.1 Coleopteran predators…………………………………………………………..43
2.5.2 Dipteran predators……………………………………………………………….44
2.5.3 Hemipteran predators……………………………………………………………46
2.5.4 Odonatan predators……………………………………………………………..47
2.6 Predators-Mosquito Association by Habitat Types……………………………48 2.6.1 Temporary water bodies (Habitats) associations……………………………….48
2.6.2 Tree-hole associations…………………………………………………………..49
2.7 Predators’ Influence on Mosquito Oviposition, Development, Survival, Abundance and Fitness………………………………..51
2.7.1 Predators‟ influence on mosquito oviposition………………………………….51
2.7.2 Predators‟ influence on mosquito development, survival, abundance………..55
x
2.7.3 Predators‟ influence on mosquito fitness………………………………………56
2.7.4 Factors influencing capacity of predaceous insects.…………………………….57
2.8 Interaction between Mosquito Larvae and Species that Sharethe same Trophic Levels……………………………………………………59
2.8.1 Interference and exploitation competition………………………………………62
2.8.2 Apparent competition and apparent mutualism with shared predators………..62
2.8.3 Intraguild predation………………………………………………………………63
2.8.4 Indirect mutualism……………………………………………………………….65
2.8.5 Competition for resource and shared predators………………………………….66
2.8.6 Effect of productivity on mosquito interactions in food webs…………………..67
2.8.7 Role of oviposition habitats selection……………………………………………68
2.9 Ecological Relevance of Water Physicochemical Parameters…………………68
2.9.1 Water temperature……………………………………………………………….69
2.9.2 pH………………………………………………………………………………..70
2.9.3 Dissolved oxygen………………………………………………………………..71
2.9.4 Total alkalinity (TA)…………………………………………………………….72
2.9.5 Total suspended solids (TSS)……………………………………………………72
2.9.6 Electrical conductivity (EC)…………………………………………………….73
2.9.7 Nitrate……………………………………………………………………………74
2.9.8 Phosphate………………………………………………………………………..74
2.9.9 Turbidity…………………………………………………………………………75
2.10 The Ephemeral Rock Pool Environment……………………………………..75
2.10.1 Factors influencing macroinvertebrates diversity in rock pools…………….77
2.10.2 Effects of pool flooding and drying…..……………………………………..78
2.10.3 Biological communities in ephemeral rock pools………………….………..79
2.11 Freshwater Rock Pools: Habitats Characteristics, Faunal Diversity and Conservational Value…………………………………81 2.11.1 Geological formation…………………………………………………………82
xi
2.11.2 Hydrology…………………………………………………………………….84
2.11.3 Chemical and physical characteristics…………………………………………..83
2.11.4 Succession and community assembly…………………………………………..85
2.11.5 Rock pools inhabitants and comments on selected taxa: General………………86
2.11.6 Biotic interactions………………………………………………………………88
CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS…………………………………………………90
3.1 Study Area and Sites……………………………………………………………..90 3.2 Study Duration and Determination of Geographic Attributes………………..91
3.3 Determination of Physicochemical Parameters of Rock Pools………………..93
3.4 Sampling and Specimen Preservation Techniques……………………………..93 3.5 Species Identification……………………………………………………………..94
3.5.1 Mosquitoes……………………………………………………………………….94
3.5.2 Micro and macroinvertebrates…………………………………………………..94
3.5.3 Algae…………………………………………………………………………….95
3.5.4 Aquatic macrophytes…………………………………………………………….95
3.6 Statistical Analysis……………………………………………………………….95
CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS…………………………………………………………………………96
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………..125
CHAPTER SIX
6.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………..138
6.1 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….138
6.2 Recommendations………………………………………………………………139
REFERENCES……………………………………………………………………..140
xii
APPENDICES………………………………………………………………………153 LIST OF FIGURES
2.1 Generalized life cycle of mosquitoes…………………………….…………………12
2.2 Life cycle of direct-hatching mosquitoes whereeggs are laid on top of shallow standing water and hatch within 2-3 days…………….13
2.3 Life cycle of delayed-hatching mosquitoes where eggs are laid on moist substrates in sites where standing water existed previously……………………………………………………………14
2.4Main distinguishing characteristics forAnopheles, Aedes andCulex mosquitoes………………………………………………………………23
3.1Kaduna State showing sampling points…………………………………………….92
4.1 Interaction effect of the physicochemical parameters of the rock pools amongst the inselbergs……………………………………………114

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Mosquitoes are probably the most notoriously undesirable arthropods with respect to
their ability to transmit pathogens that cause human disesases such as malaria, dengue,
yellow fever, filariasis, viral encephalitides and other deadly diseases. In several parts
of the world, the indirect effect of malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases accounted
for more deaths as well as reduced production following work losses (Rueda, 2008).
Emergence of new vector-borne disease entities and the resurgence of old ones are
caused by several factors, which are ecological changes that increase vector densities,
such as climate, immunity status of humans, human and potential vector population
densities and the presence of suitable reservoir amongst others (Adebote et al., 2006).
The increase in economic activities, tourism and human migration have led to more
cases of the movement of both disease vectors and the pathogens they carry thereby
increasing the biodiversity of mosquitoes around the world (Manguin and Boete, 2010).
Diversity of mosquito breeding environment stems from innate preferences shown by d
ifferent taxa to the locations and conditions of various aquatic habitats (Adebote et al.,2
008). Oviposition preferences of adult females and the ability of immature stages of
mosquitoes to adapt to both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions of a given
aquatic habitat determine the abundance and distribution of immature mosquitoes
(Dejenie et al., 2002). Mosquitoes have diverse habits that allow them to colonize
different kinds of environments. The immature stages of mosquito are thus found in a
variety of aquatic habitats including ponds, streams, ditches, swamps, marshes,
temporary and permanent pools, rock holes, tree holes, crab holes, lake margins, plant
containers (leaves, fruits, husks, tree holes, bamboo internodes), artificial containers
(tyres, tin cans, flower vases, bird feeders), and other habitats (Rueda, 2008). They can
16
thrive in a variety of water conditions such as freshwater, brackish water and or any
water quality (clear, turbid or polluted), except in marine habitats with high-salt
concentration. Part of the problems militating against effective and sustained control of
mosquitoes and the diseases transmitted by them is the overt advantages available to
mosquitoes to breed in diverse aquatic media that are naturally occurring and or the
creation of human activities.
Rock pools are small bodies of water that undergo recurrent, variable wet-dry phases,
making them temporary intermittent pools (Levas, 2006). The relatively small nature of
rock pools and the few macroscopic biota constituents make it easier to determine their
community structure. Rocky outcrops have a profound influence on the distribution and
abundance of biodiversity worldwide (Lindenmayer et al., 2008). Such environments a
re well documented as biological hotspots which often support unique biotic
communities and high levels of endemism. The composition of mosquito fauna of a po
ol is influenced by its temporary or permanent nature. The highly variable rock pool
environment, with continuously changing abiotic and biotic conditions, therefore
continuously tests the tolerance limits of the inhabitants (Jocque et al., 2010). The
physicochemical compositions of water bodies are complicated and determine their
condition and fauna composition. They include salts, dissolved inorganic and organic
matter, degree of eutrophication, turbidity and presence of suspended mud. Other
hydrologic factors that affect preimaginal mosquito populations in water are the
presence or absence of plants, temperature, light and shade, hydrogen ion
concentration, presence of food substances (living or dead), presence of predacious
mosquito larvae, fishes, other insects, crustaceans and arachnids (Okogun et al., 2005).
Huggettand Griffiths(1986)attempted to relate the communities occurring in rock pools
with the extremes of salinity, hydrogen ion concentration, light and temperature
17
occurring within them. They concluded that temperature was the most important of
these parameters. Daniel and Boyden (1975) investigated diurnal variations in water
pH, carbon dioxide, salinity, as well as temperature and oxygen concentration within
intertidal rock pools and concluded that temperature and oxygen concentrationsshowed
the greatest variation that were particularly important in controlling community
structure.
The biological and physicochemical attributes of aquatic environments may alter adult
mosquito vector competence (Kengluecha et al., 2005). Although aquatic habitats of
mosquitoes encompass a broad and complex spectrum, the rock pools comprise a
distinct group with unique ecological properties (Vezzani, 2007). Rock pools form a
distinct class distinguishable into true rock pools and rock edged pools (Okogun et al.,
2005). Pool structure is determined by a complex set of biological and physical factors
that interact to develop a patchy habitat (Wallenstein et al., 2010). Interactions between
climate and geology (e.g. limestone, sandstone, granite) generally determine the
morphology and hydrology of rock pool habitats, with hydro periods ranging from
several days up to the whole year. Pool volume is usually small, resulting in strongly
fluctuating environmental conditions, low conductivity and wide variations in pH (from
4.0 to 11.0) and temperature (from freezing point to 40°C) often with well-marked diel
cycles(Wallenstein et al., 2010). Rock pools usually form in shallow depressions in the
rock (Ranta, 1982). Rock pools in general are oligotrophic systems open to nutrient inp
uts and outputs (Jocque et al., 2010). Even a brief rain shower may, depending on the t
opography, fill a rock pool to overflowing. They are mosaically distributed habitats
characterized by unpredictable changes in their water contents (Ranta, 1982).
Enrichment happens mainly through bacterial degradation of dead aquatic organisms,
faeces from large (terrestrial) vertebrates and organic material blown in. Immediately
18
after filling, dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations may be quite high, but
decline quickly because of nutrient uptake by organisms and a reduced rate of nutrient
supply from the sediment (Jocque et al., 2010).
The algal composition in rock pools exhibit a marked gradient in many places, with
green algae dominating pools that occur higher on the shore, whereas brown and red
algae are dominant at lower shore levels, where common species from the adjacent sub
tidal communities occur (Wallenstein et al., 2010). In rock pools, Metaxas and Scheibli
ng (1993) showed that competitive hierarchies involving 3 species of Daphnia can lead
to competitive exclusion. Rock pools harbour freshwater communities and are located
higher on the shore between the rocky intertidal and terrestrial habitat. Because of the
comparatively small spatial dispersal capacity of mosquito larvae, larval control is the
principal and most effective tool for mosquito-borne disease management (Siobhan et
al., 2009). To critically audit the environment for the sources of mosquito that may be
involved in disease transmission include searches of aquatic habitats in rock pools
amongst several other breeding sites and determination of factors that support
habitation (Adebote et al., 2008).
The biological and physicochemical factors affecting the breeding of mosquitoes in
rock pool habitats have been the subject of rather little ecological interest and research.
This could be attributed to the relative inaccessibility of these productive mosquito
habitat types that should be given priority in mosquito abatement programmes. Few
attempts have also been made to describe the distribution patterns of rock pool biotas in
relation to any suspected influence of physicochemical conditions to which the pools
are subject and how these in turn affect species composition and relative abundance of
preimaginal mosquitoes. Typically in areas where mosquito breed in rock pools, not
19
every pool is often colonized by juvenile stages to the extent that several apposed pools
could be devoid of mosquito while few other neighbouring pools have high density of
larvae. Such disjointed larval colonization has not been fully investigated to unravel its
ecologic undertone and potential applicability in control.
1.1Statement of Research Problem
The biological and physicochemical factors that influence the behaviour of mosquitoes
to colonize and breed in rock pool habitats in Kaduna State have not been fully
investigated and therefore largely unknown.
1.2Justification
This studywas designed to unravel key ecological factors that modulate the breeding of
mosquito vectors of human and animal diseases in rock pool habitats in Kaduna State,
Northern Nigeria, where such habitats are known to be abundant but relatively
inaccessible to routine control operations. The knowledge of inherent pool
characteristics that make rock pools to be desirable or otherwise for mosquito breeding
will enhance knowledge of the biology of the insects and the ability to control them.
1.3Aim of the Study To evaluate the biological and physicochemical contents of rock pool breeding habitats
of mosquitoes in Kaduna State, Northern Nigeria.
1.4 Objectives
i. To determine the species composition and relative abundance of mosquito breeding
in rock poolhabitats in Kaduna State.
ii. To determine the biota composition of rock pools link with breeding of mosquitoes.
iii. To determine the physicochemical parameters of rock pools.
20
1.5 Hypotheses
i. Mosquitoes do not colonize and breed in rock pool habitats.
ii. The colonization and breeding of mosquitoes in rock pools are not influenced by
biological factors.
iii. The colonization and breeding of mosquitoes in rock pools are not influenced by
physicochemical factors.

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