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Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

NWEKE CHINENYENWA NKEIRUKA

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: STUDIES ON THE TREATMENT OF COAL AND BREWERY WASTEWATER USING ADSORPTION AND COAGULATION– FLOCCULATION TECHNIQUES.
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [5,414 KB]
  • Length: [187] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This work is an experiment of the treatment of coal and brewery
wastewater using coagulation-flocculation and adsorption techniques. Jar
test method was applied as the coagulation-flocculation technique while
batch adsorption method was implemented as the adsorption technique. The
coagulants used were Alum and Mucuna pruriens (MUC). These were varied
in terms of dosages, pH, time and was experimented on brewery effluent.
The adsorbent used was the seed shell of pumpkin seeds. The adsorbent used
was the seed shell of pumpkin seeds. The adsorbent was activated and
divided into two; pumpkin activated carbon in base (PACB) and pumpkin
activated carbon in acid (PACA). These were experimented on coal and
brewery effluents separately. The average value for coagulant rate constant
(K) was 899.57 while the average value for the order of reaction () was
1.66.The average value for the Langmuir constants Q (0.98) and b (0.04)
were determined. The average value for the Freundlich constants K (2.25 x
108 ) and n ( -0.05) while 0.099 (Kad) was the average Lagergren value
determined. The average value for thermodynamic parameters were ∆H0
(8.73J/mol), ∆S0 (1103.98J/mol) and ∆G0 (-331,844.42 J/mol), a little above
room temperature (300c). These values obtained and how the work was
carried out were explained in their various chapters.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – v
Table of content – – – – – – – vi

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study – – – – – 1
1.2 Aims and Objectives – – – – – – 3
1.3 Significance of The work – – – – – 3
1.4 Scope of the research work. – – – – – 4

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Coal – – – – – – – – 5
2.1.1 Coal Formation – — – – – – 5
2.1.2 Testing of Coal – – – – – – 8
2.1.3 Properties of coal. – – – – – – 8
2.1.4 Uses of coal – – – – – – – 9
2.1.5 Coal waste water – – – – – – 9
2.1.6 Relationship between raw Coal characteristic and –
effluent quality. – – – – – – 11
2.2 Brewery wastewater – – – – – 12
vii
2.2.1 Characteristics of Brewery Wastewater – – 13
2.2.2 Brewery effluent. – – – – – 13
2.2.3 Brewery Effluent composition – – – 14
2.3 Solid composition in waste water effluent – – 16
2.4 Pumpkin seeds (Pepita, Cucurbita pepo) – – 18
2.5 Mucuna pruriens – – – – – 20
2.5.1 History – – – – – – 20
2.5.2 Common Names – – – – – 21
2.5.3 Description – – – – – 21
2.5.4 Habitat – – – – – – 22
2.5.5 Variability – – – – — – 23
2.5.6 Product & Uses – – – – – 23
2.5 .7 Characteristics – – – – — – 25
2.6 Coagulation/ flocculation – – – – – 26
2.6.1 Coagulation / Flocculation process – – 27
2.7.2 Classes of Coagulants . – – – – 27
2.6.3 Classes of flocculants – – – – 29
2.6.4 Mechanism of Coagulation – — – 31
2.6.5 Mechanism of Flocculation – – – 33
2.6.6 Coagulation transport mechanism — – 34
2.6.7 Factors influencing coagulation – – – 34
2.6.8 Factors influencing the speed of flocculation – 37
viii
2.6.9 Zeta potential and colloidal Stability. – – 38
2.7 Adsorption – – – – – – 39
2.7.1 Types of Adsorption – – – – 39
2.7.2 Factors which affect the extent of adsorption — 41
2.7.3 Adsorption isotherms – – – – 44
2.7.3.1 Types of adsorption isotherms. – – – 44
2.7.3.2 A New classification of adsorption Isotherms.- 47
2.7.4 Activated carbon – – – – – 48
2.7.4.1 Types of activated carbon – – – 49
2.7.5 Production of a spherical Activated carbon with
the use of H202. – – – — – 51
2.7.6. Factors that Influence the performance of
active carbon in water (source: Wastewater Engineering,
Metcalf & Eddy, 1991). – – – – – 52
2.7.7 Factors that influence the performance
of active carbon in air. (Wastewater Engineering,
Metcalf and Eddy, 1991). – – – – – 53
2.7.8 Uses of activated carbon – – – – 53
2.7.9 Activated carbon reactivation – – – 54

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Theoretical Background – – – – 56
3.1 Kinetics of rapid coagulation – – – 56
3.2 Equilibrium, kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic
studies of adsorption. – – – – 60
ix

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 Equipment and method – – – – 64
4.1 Effluent sample collection – – – – 64
4.1.1 Brewery effluent collection- – – – 64
4.2 Jar test procedures- – – – – – 70
4.2.1 Equipment- – – – – – – 70
4.2.2 Coagulation-flocculation experimental procedures
(Jar test) for dosages and pH variations for Brewery
effluent. – – – – – – – 71
4.2.3 Turbidity measurement – – – – – 72
4.2.4 Determination of the pH value – – – 72
4.2.5 Determination of the concentration of the effluents
for coagulation processes.- – – – 72
4.3 Adsorption experiment – – – – – 65
4.3.1 Pumpkin seed adsorbent collection – – 65
4.3.2 Preparation of pumpkin seed – – – 65
4.3.3 Procedure for preparation of 60% acid (N3PO4)
and 60% Base (NH4Cl) used for impregnation. – 67
4.3.4 Absorbance Measurement using spectrophotometer 68
4.3.5 Batch Adsorption experiment measurements – – 68
4.3.6 Thermodynamic study- – – – – 69

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Results and discussion – – – – – 73
5.1 Characterization results of the effluents. – 73
x
5.2 Plotted graphs – – – – – – 74

CHAPTER SIX
6.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – 112
6.2 Recommendation – – – – – – 112
Reference – – – – – – 113
Appendices – – – – – – 120

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Materials play a major role also in lowering pollution and
contamination of the environment. For this reason there are intensive
research activities in the areas of lowering toxicity of exhausts, confinement
of contamination and recycling of materials of many kinds- including water.
Effluent disposal is a major problem around the world. Growing along
with the population growth, industries create environmental problems and
health hazard for the population. Hence, environmental concerns and
progressive depletion of raw material resources behoove scientists and
engineers to develop materials from renewable agricultural and plant
resources to lower the extent of pollution of the environment
(Brostow, Hagg Labland, 2009).
The world population is increasing- while availability of potable
water is decreasing. Water is essential for the survival of human beings- not
to mention modern industry. Although the earth consists of 75% of water,
xii
water for drinking, sanitation, agricultural and industrial processes is not
easily available. According to the United Nationals Organization Report of
2005, 1.2 billion people lack access to adequate amount of clean water and
2.6 billion people lack proper sanitation. This situation got only worse since
2005 and necessitates recycling of municipal wastewater and industrial
effluent on a massive scale. To meet the requirements of potable, industrial
and agricultural water, we have to treat the wastewater, particularly the
municipal sewage, sludge and slimes and industrial effluents.
Water is used among other applications, in mineral processing, such
as in bringing metal ores in the form of water slurries from their original
location below the Earth surface to the surface and also in subsequent
transport. Movement of coal from its deposits in coal mines and the
subsequent surface transport similarly requires the use of water. In the
brewery industries, water is also necessary for production. It is for such
reasons that the problem of potable water is related to that of industrial
water. Clearly less use of industrial water- or recycling some of it- will
increase the supply of potable water.
The effluents are highly undesirable and unsafe to use. Wastewater
contains solid particles with a wide variety of shapes, sizes densities and
composition. Specific properties of these particles affect their behaviour in
xiii
liquid phases- and thus the removal capabilities. Many chemical and
microbiological contaminants found in wastewater are coagulated and
adsorbed on or incorporated in the solid particles. Thus, essential for
purification and recycling of both wastewater and industrial effluents is the
removal of solid particles.
In this work, attempt is made to use adsorption and coagulation/flocculation
as tools to investigate the aggregation process while varying the dosage of
adsorbent and varying the dosage, pH and type of coagulants on coal and
brewery effluent samples.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
This research study shall achieve the following objectives:
1)The characterization of brewery and coal effluent samples.
2)The determination of the adsorptive behaviour of the effluents using one
locally sourced adsorbents.
3) Adsorption isotherm testing, kinetics models, temperature dependency
and thermodynamic parameters using coal and brewery effluents.
4) Effects of process parameters on the coagulation/ flocculation of brewery
effluent sample.
5) Determination of the rate of coagulation and the constants of coagulation
using brewery effluent sample.
xiv

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE WORK
Wastewater discharged to the environment may contain toxic
compounds, heavy metals that are harmful. It can cause a lot of health issues
to human and aquatic life. An effort to ensure adequately treated effluent
that conform with WHO standard makes this work very important.
Information available from this study will assist in the improvement of
wastewater treatment and reduce waste of water resources and cost on the
environment.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH WORK.
1) Batch adsorption experiment using one natural adsorbent.
2) Effect of the adsorbent concentration on the adsorptive removal of TSP
(total suspended particles) and the amount adsorbed.
3) Evaluation of equilibrium isotherms and correlation coefficient value (R) .
4) Coagulation experiment comparing two coagulants.
5) The evaluation of coagulation constant, coagulation rate(-rA) and the
order of reaction ().

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