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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. v
DEDICATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… vii
LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. x
LIST OF TABLES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. x
LIST OF PROCEDURES …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. x
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. xi
: INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………. 1 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Background of the Research …………………………………………………………………………………………. 1
1.2 Brief Overview of Wireless Sensor Network ………………………………………………………………….. 2
1.2.1 Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Networks ……………………………………………………………… 3
1.2.2 Requirements for Wireless Sensor Networks ……………………………………………………………… 4
1.3 Statement of Purpose …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
1.4 Motivation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 5
1.5 Objectives of the Research …………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.6 Research Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6
1.7 Organization of the Thesis ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 6
: LITERATURE REVIEW ………………………………………………………………………….. 8 CHAPTER TWO
2.1 State of The Art ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8
2.2 The Advent of Smart Homes ………………………………………………………………………………………… 9
2.3 Present Smart Home ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 10
2.4 Benefits of the Smart Home………………………………………………………………………………………… 12
2.5 Overview of Wireless Communication Technology ……………………………………………………….. 13
2.5.1 Solutions for IoT Connectivity ……………………………………………………………………………….. 13
2.6 The LoRa Modulation ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 16
2.6.1 LoRa’s Chirp Spread Spectrum Implementation ……………………………………………………….. 16
2.6.2 LoRa Physical Layer Packets …………………………………………………………………………………. 18
2.6.3 Spreading Factor Orthogonality ………………………………………………………………………………. 21
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2.6.4 Main Semtech Chips and Independent Implementations …………………………………………….. 22
2.7 The LoRaWAN Standard……………………………………………………………………………………………. 23
2.7.1 Topology and Device Classes …………………………………………………………………………………. 23
2.7.2 Packet Structure and MAC Commands ……………………………………………………………………. 26
2.7.3 Encryption and Device Activation …………………………………………………………………………… 27
2.7.4 Frequency Bands…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 28
2.7.5 Notable LoRaWAN Implementations ………………………………………………………………………. 29
2.8 European Regulations ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
2.8.1 Effective Radiated Power (ERP) Limitations ……………………………………………………………. 30
2.8.2 Duty Cycle Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
2.8.3 Channel Line-up …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32
METHODOLOGY ……………………………………………………………………………………. 34 CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Implementation …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 34
3.2 Network Simulator 3 ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
3.3 The LoRa Module ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
3.3.1 PeriodicSender ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 37
3.3.2 End Device LoRaMac ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
3.3.3 EndDeviceLoraPhy ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
3.3.4 LoraChannel ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
3.3.5 LoraNetDevice ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
3.4 Helpers and Tests ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 45
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ………………………………………………………………….. 48 CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Performance Evaluation ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 48
4.2 Throughput Performance ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 48
4.3 Comments ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK ……………………………………………………. 52 CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 52
5.2 Future Work ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53
REFERENCES: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 54

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Research
Many surveys have shown that smart homes can utilize energy more efficiently than traditional buildings (Alhaj et al., 2015). Thus, several researchers have advocated building a smart home in order to reduce energy consumption. In the literature Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is adopted as the dominant technology for every proposed smart home .The WSN, rather than Wi-Fi, has been popularly employed for remote control and monitoring applications because it is low cost and consumes little power. For a smart home or home automation various sensors for reducing energy consumption are applied to acquire data from objects and their surrounding environments. Sensors are the devices that can replace or extend the human being’s physical senses of sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch.
The application of WSN has been proven to be more flexible and advantageous in such areas as smart homes, telemedicine, industry, environmental monitoring, agriculture, warehouse tracking, transport logistics and surveillance. A WSN consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors that monitor and control variables that include temperature, voltage, and current. Smart homes can also be called “automated homes” as they can, inter alia, control devices and be used for surveillance purposes.
One of the main purposes of smart homes is to reduce energy consumption which remains the focus of this research work (Nagar et al., 2016). To achieve this goal, smart controls must be implemented in a smart home. Additionally, sensors and smart controllers, by monitoring the exterior and interior lighting levels, enable daylight to be used to reduce the use of electrical lighting while sufficiently illuminating the home. Although many ideas about smart lighting control for energy saving in smart homes have been proposed, a smart lighting control system with high reliability and control accuracy remains to be found.
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The main purpose of this research is to propose and implement a network capable of collecting relevant information in a smart home. Wireless sensor networks are composed of a large number of miniature self-organizing wireless sensor nodes. WSN can detect, collect and deal with the information in its surrounding area and then send data to the controller/user (Alhaj et al., 2015). In WSN for smart homes, each node in the network is independent of the other nodes; they are battery powered, small with attached sensors. In this research work, smart homes for energy management using wireless sensor network have been designed for user convenience via the open-source LoRa server project. Hence, it can be implemented without any user intervention.
1.2 Brief Overview of Wireless Sensor Network
Sensing is simply used for obtaining information about a physical object or a process such as change in temperature or pressure. Any object that is able to do this is called a Sensor. When many sensors cooperatively monitor large physical environments, they form a Wireless Sensor Network. The sensor nodes communicate with centralized controls called base stations, also known as the sink nodes. A base station normally allows the dissemination of information to another network, a powerful data processing or storage centre or an access point for human interface.
Communication with the base station could either be single-hop, where the nodes transmit data directly to the base station, or multi-hop, where some clients serve as relays for other sensor nodes, that is, they collaborate to propagate sensed data towards the base station. There could be variation in the processing and communication capabilities of the sensor nodes in WSN. Some could be simple nodes while others could be categorized as complex nodes depending on their configurations.
The two most important operations of a WSN are data dissemination (sending data/queries from the sinks to the sensor nodes) and data gathering (sends sensed data from sensor nodes to the sinks).
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The architecture of the network could either be “flat”, where each node plays the same sensing tasks and there is no global identifier in a sensor network or “hierarchical”, where sensor nodes are divided into clusters, where the cluster members send their data to the cluster head which sends the data to the sink node.
The IEEE 802.11 family of standards, which was introduced in 1997, is the most common wireless networking technology for mobile systems. However, the high energy overheads of IEEE 802.11-based networks makes this standard unsuitable for low-power sensor networks (Singh & Singh, 2010). This has led to the development of a variety of protocols that better satisfy the networks’ need for low power consumption and low data rates. These sensor nodes, however, possess some major characteristics which are described below.
1.2.1 Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Networks
 Limited Resource: Power consumption is highly constrained as nodes depend on batteries or energy captured from the environment. Memory and processing capacity of the nodes is also limited due to the small size of the nodes. Energy is a crucial resource for sensor networks. Therefore, developing energy-saving techniques has a significant impact on the network architecture.
 Large Scale of Development: A sensor network may consist of thousands of heterogeneous nodes with one or more centralized control called Base Stations. The network structure and resources used are often ad hoc.
 Specific Application: A sensor node is usually designed to serve a specific application. The nature of the sensor’s application may affect the cost as well as the physical size of the sensor nodes.
 Harsh Environmental Conditions: Sensor networks often operate in environments with harsh conditions and should possess the ability to withstand these conditions.
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 Node Failure Recovery: Because the nodes are usually deployed in a remote and hostile environment, there is usually little or no human intervention. The network topology should therefore have the ability to tolerate the failure of nodes and activate self-configuring schemes to avoid network partition.
 Self-Management: When deployed in remote/harsh environments, the nodes should be able to configure themselves, adapting to failures without human intervention. In these energy-constrained devices, the self-management features must be designed and implemented so that few overheads are incurred.
1.2.2 Requirements for Wireless Sensor Networks
1. Fault tolerance: Despite the fact that the sensor nodes are prone to errors because of node failure due to the harsh environment, there should be consistency in the network functionality.
2. Lifetime: The nodes are dependent on either batteries or energy scavenged from the environment for power supply. The nodes should therefore be able to function to full capacity before completely exhausting the batteries. Thus, energy saving and load balancing must be taken into account in the design and implementation of the WSN platform, protocols and application.
3. Scalability: The protocol defined in the network should be able to adapt to high densities and numerous numbers of nodes.
4. Real-Time: Strict timing constraint for sensing, processing and communication are necessary since the network is tightly related to the real world.
5. Production Cost: Since a large number of nodes are being deployed, the cost of production should be low.
6. Security: The need for security in WSNs is evident due to the nature of the nodes. The remote and unattended operation of sensor nodes increases their exposure to malicious intrusions and attacks. Attacks are mainly targeted at the power of the nodes to prevent successful sensor communications.
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1.3 Statement of Purpose
Future homes will be able to offer a range of different smart services, e.g. energy, utility, entertainment, medical, and security, all of which require a reliable way to transfer information and a way to detect abnormalities such as the disconnection of nodes or interference (Amato, et al., 2016). All wireless networks are affected by interference, which makes timed deliveries hard to achieve. As for wireless sensor networks, not only is it prone to interference, but the network could also experience changes in its topology (Homes & Tedblad, 2015). Nodes might crash or be physically moved which will result in changes in the network’s topology.
Therefore, it is important to consider these asynchronous and dynamic factors in the network. The principle of smart homes is based the collection of a set of information to provide services such as those related to security, helping people, management of energy, etc. In the case of energy management, the aim, among other things is to reduce the electricity bill but more specifically to reduce global energy consumption and carbon footprint as well as to prevent blackouts. This research proposes a technology to implement a wireless sensor network capable of collecting relevant information for the management of energy.
1.4 Motivation
Routing in wireless sensor networks is still an open research field. Many protocols have been designed and evaluated using simulation tools. Only a few have been tested in real world scenarios. This turns out to be a problem in the evaluation of these protocols. In the literature, it is shown that the results of simulation studies do not always reflect the results measured in real world scenarios. For example, in contrast to simulations, routing in a real world WSN application is not the main task of a WSN.
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Only a fraction of the already limited resources (like RAM and CPU cycles) of a sensor node can be used by the routing protocol. Consequently, the implementation and evaluation of a real-world sensor application using different routing approaches can produce new insights for routing in WSNs.
1.5 Objectives of the Research
This project aims at achieving the following:
1. To study the state-of-the-art technology in wireless sensor networks for smart homes.
2. To propose a network technology capable of collecting relevant information in a smart home.
3. To have a demonstrator for eventually testing the power management strategies of the proposed technology.
1.6 Research Methodology
In order to achieve the aforementioned objectives, the following approaches were adopted:
1. I surveyed the different types of Wireless Sensor Network technology in order to collect information regarding the provision of services.
2. Since the data collection occurs at the sensor nodes, I reviewed the various protocols for wireless sensor network.
3. Finally, a contribution was proposed and implemented using simulation frameworks such as NS3, C++/python to provide an experimental analysis of the behaviour of the algorithm.
1.7 Organization of the Thesis
This work is organized as follows:
Chapter 2 gives an overview of the state-of-the-art technology in wireless sensor network and introduces the various LPWAN technologies for Wireless Sensor Network.

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