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  • Name: SUSTAINABLE CEMENT UTILIZATION IN ENUGU, ENUGU STATE NIGERIA
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ABSTRACT

The research work examined and analyzed Sustainable Cement Utilization
in Enugu, Enugu State Nigeria. The research was carried out between July
2009 and January 2010. Sustainability is the power to use a thing and still
keep it going or maintained for the next use. (Oxford Dictionary).
The concept of sustainability now transcends environmental sustainability
to embrace economic and social sustainability (Plessis 2001).
Cement is the key element in the rapidly growing construction sector. High
cement cost affects people’s ability to build homes or engage in other forms
of construction. And this situation is very worrisome in our country with the
housing crises we are facing. Cement supply in our country has not met the
demand, 41.5% of the cement used in Nigeria is produced within the
country and 57.5% imported (Ikponmwosa 2008).
To worsen the situation, the famous Nkalagu Cement has been closed down.
The challenge of cement production in Nigeria includes the problem of power
supply, gas supply, distribution network as well as infrastructure development.
The objective of this research is to investigate sustainable cement utilization in
Enugu production, supply, importation, shortfalls, alternatives and effects
on the environment.
Data were obtained through questionnaires and oral interviews and
analyzed using bar charts, percentage and chi-square. It was found out that the
socio – economic component of sustainable utilization is the most challenged
and this effect is from transportation and production which produces
carbondioxde (CO2) and this is very unfriendly to the environment. It the
problems of the cement industries are handled, the country will be able to meet
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the demand and one of the steps to achieving this should be the reactivation
of the well known Nkalagu Cement in Enugu State.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Certification………………………………….………………………….……… i
Title page………………………………………………………………..…….. ii
Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………..…iii
Dedication…………………………………………………………………..….iv
Table of content………………………………………………………..………v
List of tables ………………………………………………………..………….xi
List of plates ……………………………………………………………………x
List of figures …………………………………………………………………. xi
Abstract …………………………………… …………………………………xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION……………………………………….… 1
1.1 Background of the study………………………………………………… 2
1.2 Statement of the problem……………………………………………….. 3
1.3 Research aim and objectives ………………………………..…………. 6
1.4 Scope and limitation of the study…………………….………………… 7
1.5 Significance of the study ……………………….………………………..8
1.6 Research Questions ……………………….…………………………….8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction………………………………………………………….…… .9
2.1 Definition………………………………………………………………..…..9
2.2 Sustainability and factory – made cements ………………………….. 11
2.3 History …………………………………………………………………..
2.3.2 Production………………………………………………….…………….. 20

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2.4 Importation……………………….……………………………………… 29
2.5 Shortfalls in cement industry…………………………………………… 31
2.6 Uses of local material for cement production ………………………… 32
2.6.2 Cement production……………………………………………………… 33
2.6.3 Pozzolanas………………………………………………………………. 34
2.6.4 General information………………………………………………………35
2.6.5 Pozzalanas from clay source………………………………………….. 37
2.7 Use of cement – sand admixture in lateritic Brick production for low
cost housing ……………………………………………………..…..…. 43
2.7.1 Compaction characteristics …………………………………….………51
2.7.2 Shear strength characteristics………………………………………… 52
2.7.3 Cost analysis……………………………………………………………. 54
2.8 Effect of cement production on the environment ………….……….. 56
2.8.1 Cement production externalities and profitability of crop
enterprises 47 …………………………………………………………. 59

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………63
3.2 Sources of data collection ……………………………………………..63
3.3 Primary data …………………………………………………………….63
3.4 Secondary data …………………………………………………………63
3.5 Population of the study ……………….………………………………..64
3.6 Sample selection/technique ……………………………………………64
3.7 Research methods ……..………………………………………………65
3.8 Method of investigation…………………………………………………66
3.9 Questionnaire …………………………………………………………..66
3.9.1 Oral interview……………………………………………………………66
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3.9.2 Validity and reliability of measuring instruments ……………………66
3.9.3 Administration of Questionnaire ………………………………………67
3.9.4 Method of data Analysis…………………………………………………68

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………69
4.2 Characteristics of the respondents …………………………………… 69
4.2.1 Respondents’ gender, marital status and age group ………………. 69
4.2.2 Respondents’ Educational Background and number of years
in the business……………………………………………..…………… 70
4.2.3 Respondents’ income level per month and location ………..………. 72
4.2.4 Respondents’ view about getting the product and the form in which
they get the product …………………………………………………… 73
4.2.5 Respondents’ view on the biggest challenge to the cement producers
and the brand of cement commonly used …………………………… 75
4.2.6 Respondents review on the brand of cement used/sold …………… 76
4.2.7 Respondents view on the reason for the brand sold and quantity
gotten weekly…………………………………………………………… 76
4.2.8 Respondent’s view on the ability to meet up with the demand and
reason for short fall in supply…………………………………………. 78
4.2.9.1 Respondents view on the effect of transportation…………………..79
4.2.9.2 Respondents view on alternative to Housing Production ……….. 80
4.2.9.3 Respondents view on the number of trucks that come
into the market weekly and the type of cement sold.
4.3 Findings …………………………………………………………………..82

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CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Conclusion and Discussion ………………………………… …………….. 86
Recommendation ……………………………………………………………. 86
Recommendation for further studies ………..………………………………88
References …………………………………………………………………… 89
Appendices

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
Sustainability is an integrating and holistic process aiming to restore
harmony between the natural and the built environment, and create
settlements that affirm human dignity and encourage equity (Yitmen 2005).
Sustainability is the power to use a thing and keep it going or maintained
for the next use (Oxford Advanced Dictionary). It can also be defined as
using the environment and not jeopardizing the opportunity of being used
by the next generation (Obiegbu 2005). Sustainability addresses issues of
the environment, energy use and people in addition to traditional project
goals of cost quality and schedule (Michael 2004). Therefore sustainability
generally is using the environment in a very friendly manner and keeping it
in a good condition that it can still be used by coming generation.

Sustainability is of increasing importance to the efficient and responsible
operation of construction business. it encompasses competitiveness and
long – term strategies and combines economic objectives with
understanding and operation within limits, increasing resource efficiencies
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and ensuring the social license to operate. The concept of sustainable
construction now transcends environmental sustainability to embrace
economic and social sustainability, which emphasizes possible value
addition to the quality of life of individuals and communities (Plessis 2001).

1.1 BACKGROUD OF THE STUDY
Nigeria’s economic potential is well known and recognized internationally.
Notwithstanding, Nigeria is yet to realize this potential and much is still
desired before the vision 2020 ‘Housing for ALL’ can be attained.

To attain this goal, the country will need to enhance her economic
performance, scored on many key parameters among which are
infrastructure. The importance of the provision of adequate housing for all
by the year 2020 cannot be overemphasized. Checking scarcity and high
cost of building materials and the need to drastically cost reduce critical
housing shortages, especially in the urban areas and developing modern
housing setups in the rural areas, have encouraged the search for
alternative, innovative and cost effective. As at December 2007
manufacturing capacity of the major producers of cement in Nigeria equals
8.46 metric tones.
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Total consumption of cement in Nigeria as at December 2007 = 11.125
million metric tones of the total consumption of cement in 2007, local
manufactures accounted for 42.5% (4.725 million metric tones) only while
imports accounted for 58.5% (6.4 million metric tones).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A sudden reduction in the supply of cement since October 2007 has
predictably occasioned sharp fluctuations in its price. Naturally, this is
posing serious problems in the construction industry, with implication for
cost, housing delivery and the economy. Cement is the key element in the
rapidly growing constructing sector. High cement costs affect people’s
ability to build homes or engage in other forms of construction. And this
situation is very worrisome in our country with the housing crises we are
facing.

The fall in cement supply has been attributed to the expiration of licenses to
import the material, and failure of the government to issue new ones. It is
surprising that neither the government nor the stakeholders anticipated the
effect of the import licenses expiration on the cement prices. Otherwise
some proactive measures should have been adopted to avoid the present
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situation, which obviously is unpleasant to the generality of consumers.
Most of the cement consumed in Nigeria is imported.

In 2001, it was estimated that the country needed eight million tones of
cement, a figure that rose to 11 million tones in 2006. At present the
country requires more than 14 million metric tones every year, particularly
for the housing sector yet; all the five companies manufacturing cement
locally can only generate 2.38 million metric tones or about 21 percent of
demand. Not enough cement is produced locally. In view of the 79%
shortfall, imported cement is used to fill the gap, but even then not enough
is imported. Before the cement import licenses expired on October, 1,
2007, cement prices had stabilized at about #1,250 per bag of 50
kilograms. But since then prices have hovered between #1,350 and # 2500
depending on the geographical location and the brand of cement.

Stakeholders in the constructing and the housing sector are under
pressure, building developers are unhappy. In the recent past, some major
manufactures and importers of cement imagined the possibility of cement
selling at the cost of #1000 per 50kg bag or less.
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Unfortunately this has not happened. Government’s policy of non
interference with market forces, particularly under the OLUSEGUN
OBASANJO presidency actually worsened the matter, as price
skyrocketed, making overnight billionaires out of some dealers.

A strong public policy that will make cement easily available in the market,
at affordable price, is long overdue. High prices will only put industry and
make nonsense of government’s calculations and public expectations.
How to bridge the gap between the present reality and future projection in
the supply and pricing of cement will remain a thorny issue, but it is not
unsurmountable. The federal government needs to renew cement import
licenses and allow more companies to import bulk cement. But this can
only be a short-team measure.

The minister of commerce and industry, Mr. Charles Ugwu as at 2007 had
even recommended as a last resort, the importation of bagged cement as a
temporary relief measure. But this could frustrate existing local bagging
firms, lead to the loss of jobs and open the gates for an undesirable cement
armada. Nothing should be done to frustrate local investments in bagging
and cement production. However the challenge before government is to
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initiate and encourage an importation regime that will balance the need to
satisfy the country’s immediate requirement for cement, with the necessity
to protect local manufacturers. So far the country has made appreciable
progress in local manufacturing. Government should be careful not to
compromise installed local capacity.
A greater challenge for government is perhaps the need to break an
apparent monotony in the cement industry.
Why should a country of our size and population have only five companies
producing and / or importing cement? Even among five, one or two are
more favored by the government. This has not helped the country, and
there is nothing to suggest that it ever will.
October 2007, the United States based Nigerian policy institute (NPI)
reported that importation of a 50kg bag of cement into the country costs
#350, against the tag of #1350 put on the same by local manufacturers.
There is apparently a problem here that government should address if the
short-term measure of importation is to make any difference.

Government should encourage more investors in the cement industry. It
should promptly reissue expired import license either to their previous
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holders or to new comers with proven ability to deliver. Failure to so act will
only compound the problem of availability and high prices. But there should
be a dead line to end the reliance on imports. The entire nation is
interested in a long-term policy that can maximize local potential for cement
manufacturing, provide jobs and stimulate the economy.

1.3 RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVE.
The aim of this research is to study cement utilization within the study
area Enugu State Nigeria within the following objectives:
 To assess the sustainability of cement supply with respect to
demand.
 To investigate supply emanating from importation as well as
production within the country.
 To establish the shortfalls of cement supply from Nigeria cement
factory.
 To investigate alternatives to cement utilizations in Enugu State
construction industries.

1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
xxi

The subject of this study is on sustainable cement in Enugu State
construction industry. The study will investigate the existing distribution and
the general consumption by the users.

The study also looks at the shortfalls of cement supply, its causes and
possible remedies as well as alternative to the use of cement in Enugu
State. If other locally produced materials can substitute for cement, then
the effect of cement utilization on the environment. How this is to be
reduced as well as alternative route to producing cement without a harmful
effect.
There were limitations to information concerning the quantity of cement
produced within the country because the dealers only this products in bags
and may not be able to tell if it was imported in bulk and then bagged;
equally much publication was not made on the same matter. There was no
up to date information of production consumption and importation of
cement in Nigeria as this comes may be at the end of every two years. The
dealers on cement or say the distributors do not have required information
on importation.

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
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The need for sustainability in cement utilization in Nigeria cannot be over
emphasized. This study serves as an avenue to research through what
others have written or researched on this topic as well as to update it and
to make my own contributions. To give room to cement users to look out for
alternatives to cement use, how to meet with the increasing demands and
also walk on reducing the ill effect on the environment. There are so many
local materials that can be used either in cement production or as an
alternative to cement it self. Therefore this should open the eyes of the
manufactures to see a way of resolving the shortfalls in the industry.

1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
These are the research questions that form the basis of this study;
 What are the various sources of cement supply within the state?
 What are the short falls in local production?
 What is the quantity of cement brought into Enugu State and the
cement sold?
 What are the reasons for the short falls in supply experienced?
 What are the effects of cement utilization on the environment?
 Are there available alternatives to the use of cement in construction in
Enugu State?

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