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Number of Pages: 201

 

ABSTRACT

For a long time there have been women who have written a lot about
the situation of women. Some of these women writers used many
dimensions in looking into the problems of women, some look into the
problem from cultural, religious, political, educational, economic, social and
other aspects of life. Using the above factors, the position of women is at the
lowest ebb, in fact in certain areas women are even considered as subhuman.
Consequently, since the research is gender oriented towards
understanding the vexation of women in Hausa films, it is vital to delve into
history so as to place the research on its proper base.
Feminist’s views are taken into consideration in order to find out the
factors that push women into these difficult conditions. In this research
Hausa films are taken as a case study. These films have portrayed the
difficult conditions into which women have found themselves. Hausa films
were taken as a case study, because of the gap into research in the position
of women in Hausa films. Most of the researchers have concentrated on
male and other literary genres despite the fact that researches on women are
needed. Even Hausa films as literary genres deal with some social problems
especially those dealing with women.
xii
To make the research balanced, the work probes into so many areas
like feminist’s views and historical situation of women’s rights from the
ignorant (jahiliyya) period to the present century. Furthermore, the role and
contribution of women to the development of Hausa films are taken into
consideration.
To achieve the set goal, the research looks at how Hausa films
emerged. Then information is provided on the meaning of vexation and its
genres. Moreover, the factors that throw women into difficulties such as the
co-existance among married couples (husband and wife) and rivalry between
co-wives, among mother-in-law and daughter in-law and between sisters-inlaw.
Finally, information is provided from the Hausa films on how girls
fall into trouble or difficult conditions in their lives.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Taken Bincike—————————————————————— I
Declaration——————————————————————— II
Certification——————————————————————– III
Sadaukarwa——————————————————————– IV
Godiya————————————————————————– V
Tsakure————————————————————————– VIII
Abstract————————————————————————- X
Babi Na Farko: Shimfixa
1.0.Gabatarwa—————————————————————– 1
1.1.Tarihin Samuwar Fina-Finan Hausa——————————– 7
1.2. Dalilin Bincike———————————————————– 13
1.3. Manufar Bincike———————————- ———————– 14
1.4. Muhimmancin Bincike————————————————- 15
1.5. Iyakar Bincike———————————————————— 16
1.6. Hanyoyin Gudanar da Bincike————————————— 17
1.7.Naxewa——————————————————————— 22
Babi Na Biyu: Ayyukan Da Suka Gabata
2.0. Gabatarwa—————————————————————- 24
xiv
2.1.1 Matsayin Mace Kafin Bayyanar Musulunci——————— 25
2.1.2. Matsayin Mace Bayan Zuwan Musulunci————— ——- 30
2.1.3. Matsayin Mace A Zamanin Yau (2012)————————- 33
2.1.4. Matsayin Mata Da Gudummawarsu A Fina-Finan Hausa—35
2.2. Nazarce-Nazarce A Kan Fina-Finan Hausa——————— 38
2.2.1. Littattafai————————————————————— 38
2.2.2. Kundayen Bincike—————————————————- 39
2.2.3. Maqaloli/ Mujallu—————————————————– 45
2.3. Nazarce-Nazarce Dangane Da Mata—————————— 50
2.3.1 Littattafai————————————————————— 50
2.3.2 Kundaye—————————————————————– 55
2.3.3. Muqaloli/ Mujallu—————————————————— 61
2.4. Kammalawa————————————————————– 64
Babi Na Uku: Takaicin Mata A Zamantakewar Iyali
3.0. Gabatarwa—————————————————————- 66
3.1. Ma’anar Takaici——————————————————— 66
3.2. Nau’o’in Takaici——————————————————— 67
3.2.1. Fushi——————————————————————— 67
3.2.2. Haushi—————————————————————- 69
xv
3.2.3. Qunci——————————————————————– 69
3.2.4. Wulaqanci————————————————————– 70
3.3. Takaicin Mata A Zamantakewar Iyali—————————— 71
3.3.1 Yanayin Zamantakewa Tsakanin Miji Da Mata—————- 72
3.3.2 Kishi———————————————————————- 81
3.3.2.1 Kishi Tsakanin Kishiyoyi—————————————— 84
3.3.2.2 Kishin Uwar Miji—————————————————– 92
3.3.2.3 Kishin Sauri/Faccala———————————————– 101
3.4. Rashin Haihuwa——————————————————— 106
3.5. Haihuwar ‘Ya’ya Mata————————————————- 112
3.6. Kammalawa————————————————————– 118
Babi Na Huxu: Takaicin Yaran Mata
4.0.Gabatarwa—————————————————————– 120
4.1. Kwaxayi Da Son Abin Duniya—————————————- 120
4.2. Quntatawar Matar Uba Ga ‘Ya’yan Miji————————— 125
4.3. Auren Dole—————————————————————- 130
4.4. Yaudarar Samari Ga ‘Yammata—————————————137
4.5. Kammalawa————————————————————– 142
xvi
Babi Na Biyar: Naxewa
5.0 Gabatarwa—————————————— ———————– 143
5.1. Kammalawa————————————— ———————- 143
5.2. Shawarwari————————————————————— 150
Manazarta—————————————————————– 152
Rataye——————————————————————— 164

 

CHAPTER ONE

BABI NA FARKO : SHIMFIXA
1.0 Gabatarwa
Masana adabin Hausa sun yarda kalmar adabi ta samo asali ne
daga harshen Larabci (Yahaya 1973 da Xangambo 1985 da Gusau
1991 da sauransu). Daga Larabci kalmar ita ce adab ko adb (tilo) ko
d’ab (jam’i) wasu kuma suna ganin daga addaba (tilo) ko adab (jam’i)
aka sami asali na kalmar. A Larabce, ta hanyar lugga, kalmar na iya
zama: fasaha, qwarewa, halaye kyawawa, shirya liyafa da sauransu
(Gusau, 2011). A wajen Hausawa, manazarta adabin Hausa sun
bayyana ma’anar adabi ta fannin ilimi ta hanyoyi daban-dabam,
misali, Yahaya “Ad a(1b9i 7w3)a tcae wbaa bybaa yri : hanya ce da xan’Adam yake yin
amfani da ita don ya sadar da abubuwan da suka shafi
rayuwarsa da ta ‘yan’uwansa (iyali ko dangi ko qasarsa)
ga su ‘yan’uwan ko wasu dabam. Abubuwan da yakan bi
ya sadar xin nan kuwa sukan shafi wani abu ne da ya
daxaxa masa zuciya ko wanda ya sosa masa rai ko
wanda ya shafi siyasa ko addini ko wayar da kai wato
Adabi abu nileim qia”.g agge, tsararre a kan wani tunani na musamman da
gabatar da shi da harshe mai zalaqa. Ashe shi adabi zubi ne mai jan
2
mai daxi, wani lokaci kuma mai xaci, mai bayyana farin ciki ko ban
ko ban takaici. Abu ne mai jefa jin daxi ko tsoro, ko sanya nadama ko
ko gamsuwa ko girsuwa. Haka kuma yakan qunshi kwaikwayo a
sauwara tunani ta yadda za a tsara aukuwar wani abu ko a yi
faruwarsa. Matanonin adabi suna yi wa rayuwa hannunka-mai-sanda
koyar da darussa iri-iri da yin ishara da nuni cikin nishaxi ta yadda za
mutane bisa rayuwa tagari kuma a shiryar da su zuwa ga tafarkin
(Gusau, 2011: 5-6). Adabin Hausa ya yi ta samun qare-qare waxanda
nashewa su haxe su zama xaya. Waxannan qare-qare da adabi ya
same su ne a dalilin shigowar manyan al’ummun nan guda biyu, wato
Larabawa a wajen qarni na 13 zuwa na 14 da kuma Turawa a wajen
19.
Daga cikin abubuwan da adabin Hausa ya qaru da su ya kuma
gaba a kai, sun haxa da fim. Shi kuwa fim ya samu ne a sanadiyyar ci
da wasan kwaikwayo. Bisa al’ada, duk wani abin da za a gudanar,
musamman abin da ya shafi adabi, ko na waqa, ko zube ko wasan
kwaikwayo, ya dace a ce yana da dalili ko sanadin yin sa. Domin su
bayyana halayyar al’ummarsu ta hanyar lura da abubuwan da ke
cikinta, su kuma yi qoqarin faxakar da sauran jama’a. Fina-finan
3
Hausa ba wai hakanan kara-zube ake yin su ba, akwai manufa da
kuma hujja da
ta sa ake yin su. Halayyar da al’umma suka kasance ciki ita ke yin
tasiri a cikin fina-finansu. Wato masu shirya fina-finai za su xauki
wani hali da al’umma ta sami kanta ciki idan mai kyau ne su nuna
hakan, idan ma aka sami akasin haka, haka za su bayyana, don yin
kira ga al’umma da a yi gyara.
Kowace al’umma ta duniya tana da wasu tanade-tanade da
tsarabe-tsarabe da ta yi domin tafiyar da rayuwarta ta yau da kullum,
waxannan tanade-tanade su ke jagorancin yadda rayuwa baki xaya
za ta kasance tun daga haihuwa har tsufa zuwa mutuwa. Waxannan
abubuwan sun shafi xabi’u da al’adu da tarbiyya da zamantakewa da
kuma al’amarin ci gaban al’umma, kamar neman ilimi da sha’anin
siyasa da aure da haihuwa da sauran al’amauran rayuwa na yau da
kullumW. axannan al’amuran zamantakewa da na ci gaban al’umma
dogara ne bisa irin matsayin da al’umma ta ba mace. Saboda Allah
shirya cewa rayuwa ta duniya da lahira ba ta namiji ne shi kaxai ba,
mace da namiji ce su biyu. Hasali ma dai ita rayuwa ba ta yiwuwa sai
haxuwar biyun, domin rayuwar duniya kamar tsuntsu ce, da mace da
4
su ne fuka-fukansa guda biyu. Don haka idan al’umma ta ba mace
kula da ita, ta kuma mutunta ta, to sai al’ummar ta ci gaba, kuma
yi daxi, domin idan mata suka sami natsuwa, tarbiyya za ta inganta,
mata su ne tushen tarbiyya. Idan kuwa aka sami akasin haka, to sai
ta ci baya kuma a sami tavarvarewar tarbiyya.
Tun a da can har zuwa yanzu mata ba su da ta cewa, wai
varawo a hannun mata. Matan sun daxe suna cikin quncin rayuwa
da matsi da takura da shiga halin qaqa-nika-yi. Duk da cewa su ne
iyayen al’umma kuma mataimakan mazan a fannonin rayuwa dabadabam,
amma kuma ana xaukar su kamar qananan yara, wani
lokacin ma ana xaukar su kamar bayi, suke fuskantar azaba iri-iri da
wahalhalu, daga qarshe kuma, a yi watsi da su (Badamasiy, 1998 :
1). Tsawon lokuta mata sun sha gwagwarmaya domin yunqurin
fitar da kansu daga cikin quncin rayuwa. A qasashen yamma, kamar
Faransa da Birtaniya an yi ta samun mata ‘yan gwagwarmaya,
waxanda suka fi mai da hankali wurin ganin mata sun sami ‘yanci,
musamman daidaito ga haqqinsu, da ba wa mata ‘yancin mallakar
dukiya da ba su damar samun albashi daidai da maza da ‘yancin jefa
quri’a da sauransu.
5
A qasashen Hausa ma, an xauki mata a matsayin raunana, ba
a cika ba su ilimi ba . Kuma al’umma sun amince maza su ne ke
jagorancin komai, domin Musulunci ma maza ya ba shugabanci.
Kamar yadda ya zo a cikin Al-qur’ani mai girma:
“Maza masu tsayuwa ne a kan mata, saboda abin da
Allah Ya fifita sashensu da shi a kan sashe, kuma saboda
abin da suka ciyar daga dukiyoyinsu…….”(suratu Nisa’i
A vangaayare tna g3i4d)a. maigida shi ne da iko a kan kowa da komai na
gidan, duk yadda ya ce, haka za a yi. A fagen sana’a ma, maza ne
suka mamaye, domin suke yin mafi yawancin sana’o’i. A fagen mulki
da sauran abubuwan rayuwa maza ne kan gaba, su mata na kulle a
gida, suna bautar aure. Wannan matsayi na mata ya taimaka wajen
barin su a baya, da kuma xaukar su a matsayin raunana a cikin
al’umma. Har ma ana ganin mace ba ta iya fitar da kanta daga
matsala balle ta fitar da wani, duk kuwa da cewa ba dole ne hakan ya
kasance ba, shi ya sa wasu ke cewa sai mace ta kai shekara arba’in
sannan qwaqwalwarta ke kai matsayin ta tunkiya, wanda wannan an
san irin takun saqar nan ne da ke aukuwa tsakanin jinsuna, ba wai
don haka tabbas ba ne (Ibrahim, 2009 : 19).
6
Akwai nau’o’in zamantakewar al’umma daban-dabam da suka
haxa da zamantakewar miji da mata da zamantakewa tsakanin
kishiyoyi da ta tsakanin suruka da sarakuwa da tsakanin faccaloli da
makamantansu. A irin wannan zamantakewa wani lokaci akan sami
‘yan rigingimu da hatsaniya da kan faru tsakanin mutanen da ke
zaune da juna. A sanadiyyar haka, wani lokacin akan jefa matar da
abin ya shafa cikin qunci da Abubuwan da ke jefa dmaamtau wcaik idna ttaakkaaiiccii .s una da yawa, kaxan
daga ciki su ne, yanayin zamantakewa tsakaninsu da mazaje, da
kishi da rashin haihuwa da haihuwar ‘ya’ya mata da auren dole da
quntatawar matar uba da kwaxayi da yaudara. Waxannan abubuwan
takaici su za a duba a wannan aiki.
Ganin cewa akwai bambancin da kan wanzu tsakanin jinsin
namiji da jinsin mace ta vangaren matsaloli ko abubuwan da kan sa
su takaici, binciken ya ga ya dace a fara da fahimtar yadda wannan
taqaddama ta jinsi ta samo asali, da yadda take taimakawa wajen
gina raKyaulmwar m ajitnas. i ta samo asali daga harshen Larabci. Daga
kalmar ita ce jinsu ko al-jinsu (tilo), ajnas ko junus (jam’i). A Larabce,
kalmar na nufin dangin wani abu, wato kalmar jinsun ta fi kalmar
Nau’i kaxan ne daga jinsun. Haka kuma, ana cewa mujanasa wato,
7
kamanceceniya ko dangantaka, sannan ana cewa tanjiinsun wato
dangantakar wani abu da wani ko kuma a kamanta su (Ar-razi :101).
wasu malamai kamar na falsafa idan suka ce jinsi suna nufin tarin
masu nau’i daban-dabam, misali dabbobi, jinsi guda ne, a cikin
jinsin kuma za a iya ware wani nau’i, misali, jinsin mutum ( Al-
Wasid :140).
A harshen Hausa kuwa jinsi shi ne fanni ko iri ko bambancin
halitta (Bargery, 1934: 506). Ko bambancin mace da namiji ko kuma
bambancin mace da namiji na kalmomi a Nahawu (Qamusun Hausa,
2006). Maganar jinsi ta wuce bambancin halitta kawai, ta haxa da
bambance-bambancen da ake samu ta vangaren abubuwan da
al’umma ke shatawa a al’adance a kan yadda ya kamata mata ko
maza su kasance. Haka kuma, waxannan qa’idojin sun shafi kowane
vangare na rayuwa, kamar yanayin zamantakewa na yau da kullum
da makamantansu. Har wa yau, waxannan tsare-tsare na al’ada su
ne suke haifar da matsalar xaukakar wani jinsi a kan wani ko
danniyar da ake yi wa jinsin mata a cikin wata al’umma. Haka kuma
ana bayyana jinsi a matsayin tsare-tsaren al’umma a kan xabi’u da
ayyuka da matsayin da ake ganin ya dace da maza da waxanda suka
fi dacewa da mata (Riley, 1997 : 2-6).
8
Jinsi abu ne wanda mutum kan iya zava wa kansa (De Beauvair,
1949). Wato irin rayuwar da mutum ya zavar wa kansa ita ce ke nuna
jinsinsa, ba yadda aka halicce shi ba.
Duk idan aka haxa ra’ayoyin masana dangane da ma’anar jinsi,
wannan bincike zai iya cewa, jinsi na nufin bambancin da ke akwai
tsakanin namiji da mace ta fuskar halitta da kuma bambancin rawar
da kowane vangare yake takawa ta fuskar al’ada da xabi’a da wasu
vangaWroarirniy raary juinwsai .k uwa, ta wanzu ne a sanadiyyar ra’ayi ko aqidar
cewa, akwai bambanci ko fifiko tsakanin namiji da mace a cikin
(Jennifer, 1985: 6). Daidaiton jinsi kuwa, bai wuce bai wa mata damar
kamace su ba, domin su sami ‘yancin kai a fagen ilimi da kiwon lafiya
siyasa da sha’anin gudanar da rayuwa na yau da kullum, da kuma
faxa a ji (Ibrahim, 2009 : 2). Alal haqiqa, jinsin mata na da matuqar
muhimmanci a tsakanin al’umma waxanda kusan ma iya cewa,
mutum ba ta yiwuwa sai da mace. Kuma sai da macen al’amuran
sukan tafi yadda yake buqata. Ya zama dole sai da mace gida yakan
gida, sannan namiji yakan cika namiji. Don haka ne ma ake yi wa
kirari da ‘mata iyayen giji, in ba ku ba gida, in kun yi yawa gida ya
suka fi bayar da gudummawa ga al’umma musamman ta vangaren
9
yara. Su suka fi xaukar kaso mafi yawa wajen xawainiya da sadaukar
tare da yin qoqari wajen tarbiyya. Shi ya sa ma aka ce idan an
mace xaya, tamkar an ilimantar da al’umma ne.
Saboda la’akari da irin muhimmancin da mata ke da shi a
wajen shekarar 1960 zuwa 1975 Majalisar Xinkin Duniya ta vullo da
wani shiri mai taken ‘shekarar mata’. Sannan aka yi wani babban taro
wanda yake shi ne irinsa na huxu da aka tava yi a kan mata duk
duniya, a birnin Beijing na qasar Sin, wanda aka yi masa laqabi da
‘Taron Beijing’ a shekarar 1995, wanda ya sami mahalarta daga
ko’ina cikin duniya, ya kuma yanke shawara a kan sha’anin daidaita
jinsi na in-ba-ka-yi-ba-ni-wuri. Tun daga wannan taro ne maganar
daidaiton jinsi take a bakin kowa; ‘yan jarida ne ko masana ko
manazarta ko marubuta (Wannan ka-ce-na-cIber adhaim a, k2e0 0y9i : k4a1n). wariyar jinsi, shi ya sa
wannan bincike ya xauki wani fanni daga cikin abubuwan da suka
shafi mata don gudanar da bincike a kansa, ta yadda binciken kan iya
bayar da gudummawa a kan abin da ya shafi rayuwar matan
Hausawa.
1.1 Tarihin Samuwar Fina-Finan Hausa
10
Fim tantagaryar kimiyya da fasaha ce kuma rayuwar xan’Adam
ce ake nunawa. Fim yana xauke da tarihi da xabi’un jama’a da
muhallinsu da abincinsu da kuma suturarsu musamman bisa
harshensu da tsarinsu na rayuwa da hanyoyin tunaninsa da kuma
falsafar rayuwar mutanen da ake yin fim xin don su. Har ila yau, fim
hanya ce ta sanarwa da ilimantarwa da jan hankali da nishaxantarwa
da faxakarwa da yaxa manufa da tallatawa (Gidan Dabino da wani,
200B4a: b3u3 2s)h. akka, za a iya cewa fina-finan Hausa ‘yan bana-bakwai
ne, idan aka kwatanta su da sauran fina-finan, musamman na
Turanci da na Canis. Domin farkon samuwar fina-finan Hausa abu
ne da ya faru a qarshen qarni na 20. Amma tun farkon abin da ya
xora tubalin samuwar fina-finai shi ne wasan kwaikwayo. Shi kuwa
wasan kwaikwayo ya samu ne bayan Turawan mulkin mallaka sun
zo, sun kafu, sun kuma yi nisa wajen shimfixa tsare-tsarensu da suka
shaTfi umnu klkai fdina ziluimwia dna Tsauruarawnas, uH (aInuuswaaw,a 2 0s0u9n)a. d a nasu hanyoyin da
na gargajiya da suke aiwatarwa ta fuskoki daban-dabam. Haka kuma
wasannin gargajiya masu tarin yawa da suke qunshe da kwaikwayon
halayyar rayuwar Hausawa da xabi’unsu. Ire-iren waxannan wasanni
11
haxa da wasan tashe da wasan gauta da wasan kalankuwa da
da kuma wasan bori (Adamu, 2002).
Bayan wasannin kwaikwayo na gargajiya, an sami rubucerubuce
na zube da waqoqi bayan zuwan Turawa a qarni na 20.
Wasan kwaikwayo shi ne ya zo a makare, amma bincike ya nuna an
sami rubutaccen wasan kwaikwayo na farko a cikin tsohuwar hanyar
rubutun Hausa na Muhammadu Agigi na Haji Ahmad Muskwani,
Kano a shekarar 1902 (Abbas, 2008 : 44).
Majigi shi ne hoton farko da Hausawa suka fara cin karo da shi
kafin sauran hotuna da ake nunawa. An fara nuna majigi ta hanyar
sanya allon kallo a saman mota (Bargery, 1934). Hotuna ne masu
motsi da ake nunawa a farin bango ta hanyar harba su da wata
na’ura ta wutar lantarki mai hasken gaske (Qamusun Hausa, 2006).
Hoton majigi na farko da aka fara nuna wa Hausawa shi ne na
Larai, wanda ma’aikatar yaxa labarai ta Arewa ta shirya a shekarar
domin wayar da kan Hausawa a kan noman zamani, musamman
da gwamnatin wancan lokaci take so a noma, kamar gyaxa da
cikin shirin aka nuna Baban Larai ya yi amfani da shawarwarin
gona ya noma gyaxa kuma ta yi kyau sosai inda ya sayar ya sami
12
kuxi masu yawa. Kuma mutanen qauyensu suka yi koyi da shi
(Inuwa, 2009).
Daga nan sai Ma’aikatar Yaxa Labarai ta Arewa ta ci gaba da
nuna wa jama’a majigi, inda aka nuna majigin Xan’arewa a London.
Wannan majigi an shirya shi ne domin wayar wa da ‘yan Arewa
kansu, kan yadda za su zauna a London, idan sun je kwas ko karatu.
A cikin majigin an nuna yadda za su gudanar da rayuwarsu da kuma
yadda za su yi hulxa da wasu mutane da ba su saba da su ba,
sannan aka nuna musu yadda za su zauna da waxannan mutane
cikin kwanciyar Sai kuma hmaanjkigailni dSah aluihmu aUnma.a r wanda Ma’aikatar Yaxa Labarai
ta shirya a shekarar 1976 domin nuna wa mutanen Afirka a bikin
nuna al’adun baqaqen fata, wasan asalinsa rubutun zube ne aka
mayar da shi majigi kuma shi ne majigi na farko da aka tava yi mai
tsawo da ya xauki sama da awa xaya, sannan ya qayatar da gaske
(ChamDoa, g2a0 0n5a n: 3k6u)m. a sai majigin Kulva Na Varna da Umar Xanjuma
rubuta, sai kuma majigin Magana Jari Ce da Abubakar Imam ya
Duk su ma rubutun zube ne aka mayar da su majigi. Ire-iren
hotunan majigi su suka ja hankalin sarakuna da talakawan gari suka
13
sha’awarsu ta kallon hoton majigi domin koyon kiwon lafiya da noma
sauran al’amuran duniya.
Kamar yadda bayani ya gabata, duk waxancan fina-finai an
nuna su ne ta hanyar majigi. Daga 1980 zuwa 1990 an sami
bunqasar qungiyoyin wasannin kwaikwayo na dave a manyan birane
suna nuna wasan kwaikwayo ana xauka ana nunawa a gidajen
talabijin na tarayya da ke jihohin Arewa kafin a sami gidajen talabijin
na jihohi. Misali an yi su Tambari da Karambana waxanda qungiyar su
Qasimu Yero take shiryawa da Samanja Mazan Fama wanda su
Usman Baba Pategi (Samanja) da Idon Matambayi daga Sakkwato da
Qarquzu na Bodara daga Jos da Gaskiya Dokin Qarfe daga Maiduguri
da Taskira da Karo da Goma da Ba’are duk daga Kano, dukkan
waxannan shirye-shirye ne na NTA da suke a Wasannin kwaikwayo a wancan lokaci s wuna xsaanmnia kna jirhvouhwia. sosai
a wajen Hausawa musamman saboda faxakarwa da nishaxantarwa
da suke yi wa al’umma.
A wajen qarshen shekarar 1990 aka fara nuna wasannin
waxanda suka shafi zamananci. A CTV 67 Kano an nuna Bakan Gizo
Hadarin Qasa da Farin Wata waxanda ma’aikatan talabijin ne suka
su. Vullar waxannan wasanni da karvuwarsu a wurin jama’a a Kano
14
tunanin mayar da wasan kwaikwayo sana’a. Kuma, daga nan ne aka
shirya wasanni a kaset-kaset na bidiyo ana sayarwa, kuma daga
lokaci ne aka fara amfani da kalmar fim.
Daga nan, sai qungiyoyin marubuta littattafai da na wasan
kwaikwayo na dandali da na motsa jiki (kareti) suka yi hovvasa, inda
suka fara jarraba shirya fim ba tare da wasu ma’aikata qwararru ba.
Irin waxannan qungiyoyi sun haxa da qungiyar wasan kwaikwayo ta
Gyaranya da Black Eagle da Dynamic Fighters da Tumbin Giwa da
sauransu. Qungiyar Tumbin Giwa ta gudanar da fina-finai guda biyu a
Kano. Xaya an yi shi ne da sigar fim xin qasar Sin wato China, wato
ta faxace-faxace, xayan kuma an yi shi kamar na Indiya wato yadda
suke rawa da waqa amma dukkansu an yi su da Hausa ne (Inuwa,
2009).S annan an sami kamfanonin shirya fina-finai irin su qungiyar
Giwa ta shirya fim mai suna Turmin Danya. Kamfanin Kwabon Masoyi
suka shirya fim mai suna Kwabon Masoyi a 1993, sannan a shekarar
suka sake shirya Gimbiya Fatima. Daga nan sai kamfanin Gidan
suka shirya In da so da qauna a shekarar 1994. Haka kuma akwai
qungiya a Birnin Kudu wadda ta shirya wani fim mai suna Wata Rana
shekarar 1995, sannan sai qungiyar jigon Hausa ta shirya fim xin
15
Duk a shekarar ne Yakasai Drama Association ta shirya fim xin
Danja da sauransu. Samar da waxannan fina-finai da wasunsu shi ne
ginshiqin da ya kawo ci gaba har aka riqa yin fim xin haxin gwuiwa.
baya ma sai mutum xaya ya xauki nauyin yin fim ba tare da wani ba. (
Garba, 2009).
A cikin shekarar 1998 ne masu shirya fina-finai suka yunquro,
suka kafa qungiya ta masu wannan harkar domin su yi magana da
Tmuunr ydaa xgaay aw.a nnan lokaci sana’ar shirya fim ta bunqasa, kuma ga shi
qofar shiga wannan sana’ar a buxe take, sai aka dinga tururuwa
cikinta, maza da mata, saboda amfanin da ake ganin masu wannan
sana’a sun fara samu. Gaskiya ne, wannan sana’a ta samar wa
matasa da dama aiki, maza da mata sun zama ‘yan wasa da masu
shiryawa da masu ba da umarni da masu xaukan nauyi, masu
waqoqi da masu kwalliya da masu xaukan hoto da ‘yan kasuwa da
sauranWsua.n nan sana’a ta haxa mutane iri-iri, kuma kowa yana da
tasa wadda ta shigo da shi wannan sana’a. Da wannan sana’a ta
suka yi mata rijista suka sa mata suna Kanywood Industry, wato
masu shirya fina-finan Hausa. A qarqashin wannan industiri akwai
kamfanonin da suke shirya fina-finai kuma cibiyar wannan qungiya
16
Kano. Kamfanoni sun haxa da na Kaduna da Abuja da Sakkwato da
Maiduguri da sauran wurare. Akwai dalilai masu yawa da suka
wajen samun nasarar gudanar da fina-finan Hausa da suka haxa da
aikin yi ga matasa da yawaitar ‘yan sakandare ko masu ilimi da
talabijin da bidiyo ‘yan Kwatano(kwance) da sha’awar son kallon fina-
Hausa a wajen matan aure.
1. 2. Dalilin Bincike
Babu shakka, daga cikin dalilan gudanar da wannan bincike,
shi ne an fahimci cewa akwai ayyuka muhimmai waxanda ke da
alaqa da wannan bincike. Sai dai kamar yadda binciken ya nuna,
duk ayyukan da aka yi ba su dubi irin waxannan matsaloli na mata
ba, ba su kuma dubi fina-finan Hausa ba. Maimakon haka sun fi
karkata kan sauran sassan adabin Hausa da sauran vangarorin
rayuwWa. ani dalilin da ya qara qarfafa gwiwar a yi wannan bincike shi
ne don qara fito da martaba da muhimmancin mata ga al’umma,
wanda shi ya jawo hankalin masu shirya fina-finan Hausa har suke
tavo abin da ya shafi mata.
17
Har wa yau, an haqiqance cewa, ba a cika ba halin da mata ke
ciki muhimmanci ba a fagen bincike, duk kuwa da cewa matan na
fama da abubuwan takaici irin na zamantakewar iyali da rashin
haihuwa da rashin abinci da kishi da rikice-rikice da ‘yan’uwan miji
da auren Haq diqoale, dbaa sbauu rkaon suta. ntama, a cikin fina-finan Hausa akwai
abubuwan da suke qoqarin faxakar da al’umma dangane da
abubuwan takaicin mata. Tsoma takaicin da mata ke fama da shi a
fina-finan Hausa da masu shirya fina-finan ke yi a cikin fina–finansu
ya ba da dama a yi bincike don gano ire-iren takaicin da suka qunsa.
1. 3. Manufar Bincike
Masu shirya fina-finan Hausa ba a bar su a baya ba wajen
jejjefa ire-iren abubuwan takaicin da mata ke fama da su cikin
ayyukansu. Qudurin wannan aiki ne ya bi diddigin waxannan finafinai
waxanda aka yi tun daga shekarar 1995 zuwa wannan lokaci,
domin nuna wa duniya cewa, masu shirya fina-finan Hausa na yin
hovvasa wajen samar da kuma raya wani vangare na adabin Hausa.
18
Kamar yadda masana adabi suke cewa, ‘adabi madubin
rayuwar al’umma’, don haka duk wani aiki da aka yi na adabi, zai
zama wani tsani na binciko wani abu na wannan al’ummar da aka yi
aikin a kanta. Don haka, yana xaya daga cikin manufar wannan aiki,
ya bayyana waxannan abubuwa ga al’umma domin a magance
wahalhalun da mata ke fama da
su. Jawo hankalin masana da manazarta don a gudanar da bincike a
kan abin da ya shafi al’umma, musamman al’amarin da ya shafi
mata.
1. 4. Muhimmancin Bincike
Wannnan bincike da ya shafi takaicin mata na da muhimmanci
qwarai, kasancewarsa wani yanki daga cikin katafaren fagen adabi
wanda ke tafiya da wannan zamani, saboda haka aikin zai amfanar
da masu aikace-aikace a kan harkokin mata a fannonin ilimi daban dabamB.
i nciken har wayau na da muhimmanci domin zai zaburar da
mata kan su zage dantse wajen guje wa duk wani abu da zai iya
kawo vatanci ga rayuwarsu a idon jama’a.
19
Haka kuma maza waxanda ba su xauki mata da kima ba za su
amfana da wannan nazari domin zai sa su dawo kan hanya su ba
mata kima da daraja, su kuma tausaya musu.
Al’umma ko manazarta adabi za su san gudummawar da finafinan
Hausa ke bayarwa ga al’umma. Sannan su ma masu shirya
fina-finan zai ba su qwarin gwiwa wajen qara fito da sababbin finafinai
waxanda al’umma za su amfana da su.
Sannan zai amfanar da malamai na sashen nazarin harsuna
wajen ba xalibai da masu yin nazari, musamman a kan abin da ya
shafi mata da kuma fina-finan Hausa qarin manazarta.
1. 5. Iyakar Bincike
Wannan nazari zai dubi fina-finan Hausa ne waxanda aka
kan absihni rdya ay a shafi rayuwar matan Hausawa. Fina –finan Hausa da
shirya don nuna hoton rayuwar mata, ba duka binciken zai iya
an taqaita a kan fina-finai guda talatin kawai kamar yadda za a ga
a cikin aikin, da kuma manazarta. Binciken ya qunshi shekarar 1995
2012. Dalili kuwa shi ne, daga shekarar 1995 ne fina-finan Hausa
yin yawa. Har zuwa yau xin nan kuwa ana ta yin fina-finai waxanda
kalle su, za a ga akwai abubuwan da za a nazarta a cikinsu. don
20
binciken zai taqaita a iya wannan lokaci. Sai dai za a yi qoqari wajen
an biya buqatar manufar wannan bincike ta fuskar zaqulo muhimman
finan da suka yi fice, kuma suka sami karvuwa ga jama’a.
Sannan fina-finan da za a duba, ba na kamfani xaya ba ne,
ko furodusa xaya ba, fina-finai ne na kamfanoni da furodusoshi
mabambamta, da suka fito daga garuruwan Hausawa daban-dabam
kamar Kano, da Kaduna, da Jos da sauransu.
1. 6. Hanyoyin Gudanar Da Bincike
Wannan bincike ya zavi nagartattun hanyoyin da zai yi amfani
da su domin samun ingantattun bayanai game da wannan aiki.
Waxannan hanyoyi sun haxa da:
Ziyartar xakunan karatu na manyan jami’o’in Arewacin Nijeriya,
domin binciko ayyukan da masana da manazarta suka gabatar a kan
mata da kuma fina-finan Hausa.
Har ila yau, an ziyarci shagunan sayar da fina-finan
Haumsuas adma mkaunm naa w urin masu shirya fina-finan Hausa, domin nemo
fina-finai da za a yi aiki da su.
Daga qarshe an zauna an kalli duk fina-finan da aka kalato, aka
kuma tsettsefe abin da aka kalla domin a samu damar fito da
bayanai.
21
An gina wannan bincike a kan ra’in matantaka. Wannan ra’in
wani yunquri ne na wasu tsirarun mutane, da ke qoqarin ganin an
daidaita matsayin maza da mata ta fuskar siyasa da tattalin arziki da
zamantakewa da sauran fannoni rayuwa.
Tsawon tarihi mata sun sha gwagwarmaya a qasashe da lokuta
daban-dabam domin yunqurin fitar da kansu daga cikin quncin
rayuwa da matsi da takura da shiga halin qaqa-nika-yi. A qasashen
Faransa da Birtaniya , an yi ta samun mata ‘yan gwagwarmaya,
waxanda suka fi mai da hankali wurin ganin mata sun sami ‘yanci
musamman daidaito ga haqqinsu, bai wa mata ‘yancin mallakar
dukiya da ba su damar samun albashi daidai da maza da ‘yancin jefa
quri’a. Ire-iren waxannan ‘yan gwagwarmaya su ake kira masu kare
‘yancinB amyaatna . ra’in Markisanci wanxanda ke fafutar ganin an sami
tsakanin mutane a cikin al’umma ta fuskar tattalin arziki, wani sharhin
aka samu na zamani shi ne na waxanda ke fafutukar kare ’yancin
Fafutukar kare ‘yancin mata na da dogon tarihi wato dai tun tsohuwar
Daular Girka, musamman idan aka yi la’akari da aikin fitattun mata na
Daular Girka kamar wata mata mai suna Sappho da kuma wasan
kwaikwayon da Aristophanes ta rubuta nai suna Lysistrata a inda aka
22
mata sun karve ragamar babbar fadar Girka mai suna Acropolis. A
wasa an nuna mata sun fi maza qwarancewa sun kuma yi amfani da
matancinsu wurin kawo qarshen wani gagarumin yaqi da ya mamaye
wato yaqin da aka yi wa laqabi da yaqin Peloponesiya (De Beauvoir,
De Beauvoir ta ci gaba da bayyana cewa, gwagwarmayar
neman ‘yancin mata ta kanno kai a qasar Faransa a cikin littafin
marubuci Chaucer mai suna Wife of Bath wanda aka nuna qwarewar
da ta fi ta dukkan mazaje biyar da jarumar littafin ta aura.
Haka kuma a lokacin farfaxo da ilimi a nahiyar Turai akwai
mata da suka rubuta rubutattun waqoqi, kamar su Catherine Des
Roches da suka fito daga qasashen Faransa da Ingila.
Tsakanin qarni na biyar zuwa na goma sha biyar wato, tsakazamani
an sami mata da suka fafata da mazaje wurin neman
kamar dai su Christine De Pisan. A qarni na goma sha bakwai
rubutattun waqoqi irin su Alphra Behn da Anne Bradstreet suka yi fice
wurin sana’ar rubuce-rubuce waxanda maza suka yi wa katutu.
juya-hali na Faransa, Mary Wollstonecraft ta yi kira da a samar wa
‘yancin da juyin-juya- hali ya samar cikin Faransa. Akwai jerin mata
dama da suka bayyana a Turai da Amurka kamar su Madam De
23
Brontes da Jane Austen da George Elliot da Elizabath Barret
Magaret Muller da kuma Emily Dickinso, inda har aka sami Virginia
da Simon De Bauvoir suka rubuta muqala, ‘Mata Masu Abin Al’ajabi’ a
shekarar 1963. Wannan ya jawo kafuwar babbar qungiyar mata ta
Amurka a shekarar 1966 (Woolf,1929:50).
A watan Mayu na shekarar 1968 aka sami babbar
gwagwarmayar neman ‘yancin mata, a qasar Faransa wadda ta
haifar da zanga-zanga da qone-qone, a sakamakon tunzura da
ma’aikata da xalibai mata suka yi. Hakan ya haifar da abubuwa da
dama wanda ya jawo gagarumin canji dangane da al’amuran da ke
faruwa kan mata. ’Yan gwagwarmaya irin su Jackques Derida,
Jackques Lacan, Annie Leckevit da kuma Helenine Cixons sun ba da
gudummawa sosai wajen fito da assasa rubuce-rubuce a kan ‘yancin
mata aA qdauska rt sFaawraons wa.a xannan lokuta da suka shuxe, an hana mata
ilimi da kuma mallakar dukiya musamman kuxi. Haka kuma matan
sun sha fama da gwagwarmaya bisa danniyar maza da dogaro da
mazan. Kai har da maza marubuta da suka xauki duk wani rubutu na
‘ya maAc eg aal imbiant srauybiunc seh-rausbhuacnecni. maza a qasar Birtaniya, ana bai wa
matsayi qasqantacce ko kuma a bayyana su a matsayin sakarkaru
24
tunani, misali, maqalar Michelet mai suna Woman, the Relative Being.
dai abin ya ci gaba da kasancewa har zuwa qarni na ishirin lokacin
suka fara gwagwarmaya a dunqule kuma a tsare. Mata sun yi
a fannoni da dama da suka haxa da sake rubuta tarihin marubuta
haxa da marubuta mata, da bambance-bambance tsakanin maza da
gudummawar mata wurin rubutu.
Mata dai sun sami kansu a halin qaqa-nika-yi ganin yadda maza suka
mamaye fannin rubutu. Don haka, sai mata marubuta a qasar ta Birtaniya, suka
shiga tunanin shin za su ci gaba da rubuce-rubuce kan jigon da maza ke yi? Wato
littattafansu su qunshi labaran yaqe-yaqe da jaruntaka da tafiye-tafiye masu cike
da hatsari. Ko kuwa za su qirqiri nasu jigon ne kamar soyayya da qauna da kishi
da sauransu?
Wasu matan ‘yan gwagwarmaya na ganin a ci gaba da rubutu
tamkar maza, wasu kuma na ganin matan su mayar da hankali kan
abin da ya shafi rayuwarsu.
Haka dai abin ya ci gaba da kasancewa, inda za a bayyana
nasarorin ‘yan gwagwarmayar samar wa mata ‘yanci har da cewa
sun yi rubutu bisa rayuwarsu da qwarancewarsu da kuma abin da ya
shafi ‘ya’ya mata da matsalolinsu.
25
Abin fahimta a nan shi ne ‘yan gwagwarmayar mata na da
alaqa da aqidar Markisanci, kamar irin su Hegel da Schopenhuer da
Bergson da sauransu.
Gwagwarmayar samar wa mata ‘yanci ta qunshi qasashe da
al’ummomi daban-daban. Alal misali, mata marubuta daga qasashen
Larabawa kamar Fatima Mernissi da Laila Ahmad sun fi mai da
hankali ne ga al’adun qasashensu wajen neman ‘yancin mata. Haka
ma mata baqaqen fata ‘yan Amirka kamar Alice Parker. Na yankin
Asiya ma kamar su Gayatri Spiraka su ma dai sun mayar da kai ne
ga al’adun qasashensu. Kodayake akwai irin waxannan ‘yan
gwagwarmaya a qasar Hausa, amma har yanzu gwagwarmayarsu ba
ta kanAka nmaan ,b bai.n ciken na ganin ba wai daidaiton jinsi tsakanin maza
irin na mata ‘yan gwagwarmayar Turai ake magana ba, illa dai abin
ne a kyautata wa mata. Sannan a kiyaye dukkan haqqoqin da Allah
Ya ce a ba su daidai gwargwado, wato mata su sami kulawa
daga wajen mazaje. Su sami ilimi da kiwon lafiya, da abinci
sami sana’ar yi don rage fatara. Sannan a ba su damar zavin mijin
Al’umma kuma ko dangin miji su daina addabar mata kan wasu
26
ba su suke da ikon yi ba. Waxannan abubuwa su ne suke damun
Hausawa ba wai ba su dama su yi gogayya da maza ba.
Tasirin abubuwan da aka yi bayani su suke taimakawa wajen
bai wa masu shirya fina-finan Hausa haske wajen shirya fina-finansu.
Duk da cewa akasarin masu shirya fina-finan Hausa sukan qirqiro fim
ne, amma ana samun nason wani al’amari da ya shafi rayuwar mai
shirya fim xin ko wasu na kusa da shi ko kuma ya shafi rayuwar
al’umma baki xaya. An sami tabbacin wannan zance a yayin
gudanar da wannan bincike, da aka zanta da masu shirya fina-finan
Hausa. Sun bayyana cewa, wasu fina-finan Hausa suna shirya su ne
saboda wani abu da ya faru gare su ko kuma ya faru ga wani, sai su
shirya fim a kansa don su faxakar kamar 1.7. Naxewa fim xin kishiyata.
A wannan Babi, bayanan da suka gabata sun nuna yadda fina-
Hausa ke da manufa da kuma hujja da ta sa ake aiwatar da su. Daga
manufar tasu har da qoqarin fito da martabar mace ga al’umma. Sai
aka dubi tarihin samuwar fina-finan Hausa. Sannan aka xan yi tsokaci
jinsi, wariyar jinsi da kuma daidaiton jinsi wanda fage ne mai wuyar
iyakancewa, mai kuma nauyi, ba ma ga al’ummar Hausawa ba kaxai,
ga sauran al’ummu. Saboda tun farko an riga an ba mata wani
27
masu rauni a kowane irin al’amari kamar yadda bayanai suka gabata
wajen mata ‘yan gwagwarmayar neman ‘yanci a faxin duniya. Bayan
babin ya zo da dalilin da ya haddasa wannan bincike da
kuma manufar da ake so a cim ma idan an kammala binciken, sai
da binciken ya bi har ya cim ma manufarsa.

 

 

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