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Original Author (Copyright Owner): HUNKUYI, ADAMU YARO

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ABSTRACT

This thesis entitled “Tashen Macikule a Matsayin Wasan Kwaikwayo na Musamman a {asar Zazzau”, portrays „tashen macikule‟ as dramatic and also went ahead to indicate its uniqueness among other Hausa traditional drama. The study has successfully shows how „tashen macikule‟ differ from all kind of Hausa plays and even among its group of „wasannin tashe‟ by giving a critical out look of dramatic features that characterised all plays as drama and how the play „ tashe macukule‟ distinguishes itself among its group members(wasannin tashe). At the end, the study was able to establish and confirm that the play was of zazzau origin and its uniqueness among other wasannin tashe in various grounds.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

{umshiya Title Page………………………………………………………………………………………….i Takardar Amincewa…………………………………………………………………………iii Godiya…………………………………………………………………………………………….iv Sadaukarwa……………………………………………………………………………………..vi Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………vii Tsakure…………………………………………………………………………………………viii {umshiya……………………………………………………………………………………….vi BABI NA 1: Gabatarwa. 1.0 Shimfi]a…………………………………………………………………………………1 1.1 Manufar Bincike………………………………………………………………………1 1.2 Dalilin Bincike…………………………………………………………………………3 1.3 Farfajiyar Bincike…………………………………………………………………….3 1.4 Hasashen Bincike …………………………………………………………………….4 1.5 Mahimmancin Bincike………………………………………………………………4 1.6 Hanyoyin Bincike…………………………………………………………………….5 1.7 Na]ewa……………………………………………………………………………………7 BABI NA 2: Bitar Ayyukan Da Suka Gabata. 2.0 Shimfi]a………………………………………………………………………………….8 2.1 Ayyukan da Suka Gabata…………………………………………………………..8
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2.2 Ma`anar Wasan Kwaikwayo…………………………………………………….11 2.3 Asali da Tarihin Wasan Kwaikwayo………………………………………….17 2.4 Rabe-raben Wasan Kwaikwayo………………………………………………..37 2.5 Siffofin Wasan Kwaikwayo……………………………………………………..43 2.5.1 Salo…………………………………………………………………………………….43 2.5.2 Salon Sarrafa Harshe……………………………………………………………..44 2.5.3 Ma‟anar Jigo…………………………………………………………………………45 2.6 Ma‟anar Tashe………………………………………………………………………..47 2.7 Rabe-raben Wasannin Tashe…………………………………………………….50 2.8 Dangantakar Tashe da Addinin Musulunci…………………………………52 2.9 Na]ewa………………………………………………………………………………….56 BABI NA 3: Tashen Macukule a Matsayin Wasan Kwaikwayo 3.0 Shimfi]a.. ……………………………………………………………………………..57 3.1 Tashen Macukule: Ma‟ana da Asali…………………………………………..57 3.2 Yadda Tashen Macukule ya Zama Wasan Kwaikwayo………………..64 3.2.1 Jigo………………………………………………………………………………………64 3.2.2 Zubin Wasa…………………………………………………………………………..64 3.2.3 |ad da Kama…………………………………………………………………………65 3.2.4 Tufafin Wasa………………………………………………………………………..65 3.2.5 „Yan Wasa…………………………………………………………………………..65
3.2.6 Harshen „Yan Wasa…………………………………………………………….66
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3.3 Dangantakar Hausawa da Ma}wabtansu……………………………………68 3.3.1 Dangantakar Hausawa da Dakarkari…………………………………………70 3.3.2 Dangantakar Hausawa da Gwarawa…………………………………………72 3.4 Kwatancin Tashen Macukule da Wasu Kininsa…………………………..74 3.4.1 Kwatancin Tashen Macukule da Wasan Kalankuwa……………………74 3.4.2 Kwatancin Tashen Macukule da Wasan Gauta……………………………75 3.5 Lokutan aiwatar da Tashen Macikule………………………………………..76 3.6 Na]ewa………………………………………………………………………………….80 BABI NA 4: Salo Da Jigon Tashen Macukule. 4.0 Shimfi]a………………………………………………………………………………..82 4.1 Salon Tashen Macukule…………………………………………………………..82 4.2 Salon Sarrafa Harshe……………………………………………………………….83 4.2.1 Kwalliya ……………………………………………………………………………….84 4.2.2 Gagara Gwari…………………………………………………………………………85 4.2.3 Karin Zazzaganci …………………………………………………………………..86 4.2.4 Aron Harshe ………………………………………………………………………….87 4.3 Jigon Tashen Macukule……………………………………………………………89 4.3.1 Yabo …………………………………………………………………………………….92 4.3.2 Siyasa …………………………………………………………………………………..94 4.3.3 Ta‟aziyya ……………………………………………………………………………..96
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4.3.4 Garga]i ………………………………………………………………………………..98 4.3.5 Taskar Tarihi …………………………………………………………………………98 4.3.6 Habaici …………………………………………………………………………………99 4.4.Wasan Tashen Macukule a Matsayin Wasan Tashe na Musamman..102 4.4.1 Zubin Wasa…………………………………………………………………………104 4.4.2 Jigo…………………………………………………………………………………….105 4.4.3 Salo……………………………………………………………………………………105 4.4.4 Taurari……………………………………………………………………………….107 4.4.5 Kayan Wasa……………………………………………………………………….109 4.5 Matsayin Tashen Macukule a Yau…………………………………………..110 4.5 Na]ewa……………………………………………………………………………….113 BABI NA 5: Kammalawa 5.0 Shimfi]a ……………………………………………………………………………114 5.1 Na]ewa………………………………………………………………………………..114 5.2 Kammalawa………………………………………………………………………….117 5.3 Shawarwari…………………………………………………………………………..119 Manazarta …………………………………………………………………………………….120 RATAYE NA 1:JuyeTashen Macukule na Audu Kwamandan Gwari Jushi Zariya…126 RATAYE NA 2:JuyeTashen Macukule na Audu Kwamandan Gwari Jushi Zariya1.129 RATAYE NA 3: Sunayen Wa]anda aka yi hira da su.
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1. Malam Yakubu Adamu, wani Malamin Makarantar Allo ne [an kimanin shekara 82, mazaunin wani }auye ne mai suna kyaudai a Arewa da Zariya cikin {aramar Hukumar Kudan. An zanta da shi ranar 6/8/2008.
2. Malam Sallau Nomau, wani Manomi ne mai kimanin shekaru 78, mazaunin wani }auye mai suna Doka cikin {aramar Hukumar Soba gaba da Zariya. An yi hira da shi a ranar 6/10/2008.
3. Malam Garke Ibrahim, wani tsohon [an haya ne mai kimanin shekara 69, haifaffen Katanga cikin {aramar Hukumar Kudan, mazaunin{ofar Gayan cikin Birnin Zariya. An yi hira da shi a ranar 11/9/2008.
4. Alhaji Audu Kwamandan Gwari, wani Malamin Makarantar Allo ne mai kimanin shekaru 68, haifaffen Unguwar Jushi a Sabon Garin Zariya. An yi hira da shi a ranar 4/10/2008 da 1/4/2012.
5. Malam Audu mai Masaki, wani dattijo ne [an kimanin shekara 78, mai sana‟ar Magungunan Gargajiya, haifaffen Jihar Kano, mazaunin Muciya ta cikin Sabon Garin Zariya. Audu mai Masaki abokin Alhaji Mu‟azu Indagi ne, sun yi zama tare a Zariya na tsawon shekaru 35 kafin ya koma Kano inda Allah Ya yi masa rasuwa. An yi hira da shi a ranar 1/6/2012
6. Malam Dano Adamu, wani lebura ne [an kimanin shekara 48, bai bayyana asalinsa ba,sai dai mazaunin garin Hun}uyi ne, Barema(leburanci) ne sana‟arsa. An yi hira da shi a ranar 29/7/2008.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

BABI NA [AYA : GABATARWA. 1.0 Shimfi]a: Wasan tashe dai wani wasa ne da ke da tsawon tarihi wanda har ma ba a iya cewa ga takamaiman lokacin da aka fara gudanar da wasan ba. Haka kuma ba za a ce ga ainihin wanda ya fara gudanar da shi a }asar Hausan ba, wadda ita ce cibiyar da ake gudanar da wa]annan wasannin tashe. Wannan aiki zai mai da hankali kan tabbatar da kasancewar wasan tashe wasa ne na musamman. Masana da manazarta wasan kwaikwayo irin su Yahaya(1978) da Abdullahi(1986) da Dangambo(1981) da Ogunbiyi (1981) da Bashir (2002) sun gudanar da bincike da dama a kan wannan nau‟in tashe a kan asalin tashe, da yanayinsa da nau‟o‟insa da rabe-rabensa dangane da jinsin taurari da jigoginsa da na dangantakarsa da rayuwar Bahaushe, da sauransu da dama. 1.1 Manufar Bincike Kowane bincike da ]an Adam ya sa gaba a rayuwarsa, yana da manufa wadda ita ce take nuna abubuwan da za a bincika. Kamar yadda masu bincike suka bambanta, haka manufofinsu suka bambanta. Wannan kuwa ba sabon abu ba ne.
Tashe, wasan kwaikwayo ne wanda Hausawa suke yi a watan Azumi. Hanyoyin da ake bi don aiwatar da shi sun bambanta daga gari
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zuwa gari. Alal misali, a kan sami „yan bambance-bambance tsakanin tashen da ake yi a Kano da kuma wanda ake yi a Zariya. Don haka, babbar manufar wannan bincike ita ce tabbatar da tashen macukule a matsayin wasan kwaikwayo na musamman a }asar Zazzau. Haka kuma, kasancewar }asar Zazzau birnin ilimi, binciken zai fayyace tasirin addini a kan wasan tashen macukule. Binciken zai nuna tasirin ba}in al‟adu a kan wasan tashen macukule a }asar Zazzau. Haka kuma, binciken zai nuna bambance-bambancen da ke tsakanin tashen macukule da wasannin kwaikwayo „yan loto-loto irin su wasan gauta da wasan giwa-sha-laka da wasan kalankuwa da kuma na yau da kullum irin su wasan langa da wasan tirke da wasan „yar-tsana. Wa]annan bambance-bambance da ke tsakanin wa]ancan wasannin kwaikwayo da na wasannin tashe irinsu, Tsoho da Gemu da Ga Mairama ga Daudu da Tashen Macukule su za su tabbatar da wasan tashe a matsayin wasan kwaikwayo na musamman, tare da fayyace wasan tashe a matsayinsa na musamman a tsakanin „yan uwansa wasannin tashe ta hanyar yanayin Zubi ko Tsari da |adda kama ko kayan wasa da Taurari da Salo da Jigo.
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1.2 Dalilin bincike: Babban dalilin gudanar da wannan bincike shi ne tantancewa da adana wannan muhimmin wasan tashe wanda a iyaka sanin mai bincike babu wani bincike da aka gudanar a kan sa, ballantana a tantance matsayinsa, tare da warware }umshiyarsa a tsakanin sauran wasannin tashe. Wani dalilin binciken shi ne na nuna asalin wasan macukule. Wannan aiki zai fayyace cewa ainihin wasan tashen macukule wasa ne mai asalin Zazzaganci. 1.3 Farfajiyar Bincike: Nazarin tashe fage ne mai fa]i wanda ya }unshi siga da muhalli da jinsi da jigogi mabambanta da ke ]auke da al‟adun jama‟a daban daban daga ~angarorin }asar Hausa. Sai dai duk da haka, nahiyar ta yi tarayya da juna ta fuskar lokaci da muhalli da kuma taurarin gudanar da wasan tashe. Wannan ne ya sa aka iyakance ko ta}aita muhallin binciken zuwa }asar Zazzau domin a sami damar gudanar da ingantaccen bincike da zai zamo abin alfahari kuma abin kwatance. Sannan a samar da jagora ga masu sha‟awar fa]a]a bincike a ~angaren.
Wannan aiki zai nazarci wasannin tashen macukulen da yara matasa kan gudanar da kuma tashen macukule na Audu Kwamandan Gwari.
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Wannan aiki zai ta}aita ne daga lokacin samun „yancin kan Nijeriya zuwa yau. 1.4 Hasashen Bincike: Wannan bincike na da hasashen tantance matsayi da mahimmancin wasan tashen a }asar Zazzau. Shin ko akwai tasirin addinin musulunci a cikinsa? Shin Wasan Macukule yana da wani tsari ne ko salo na musamman? Shin ko Wasan Macukule da]a]]e ne kamar sauran wasannin tashe? Shin ko akwai tasirin ba}in al‟adu a cikin Wasan Macukule? Shin ko Wasan tashen macukule zai iya zama wani fitaccen wasa a cikin wasannin tashe? 1.5 Mahimmancin Bincike: Yin amanna da cewa dukkan wani aiki da ]an Adam kan gudanar a cikin harkokinsa na yau da kullum musamman a fagen ilmi na da muhimmanci irin nasa. Wannan aiki kamar sauran ayyukan masana da manazarta adabi yana da mahimmanci, kamar haka: Tunanin irin rawar da al‟adu kan taka a fagen rainon yara da tarbiyarsu da irin tasirin ba}in al‟adu da tsoron ~acewar al‟adun, ya sa aka yun}ura wajen wannan bincike da nufin adana al‟adun da wasan tashen Macukule ya }unsa domin „yan baya.
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Bahaushe mutum ne mai fasahar harshe da iya }ir}ira da kwaikwayo, wannan aiki zai tabbatar wa duniya ta hanyar amfani da wannan wasan tashe cewa bahaushe ba a baya yake ba wajen adana wa da rainon al‟ummarsa. Ana fata ya zama wani kundin tarihin da ya taskace dangantakar Hausawa da Gwarawa. Ya taimaka a magance }arancin litattafan da suka tarke wasannin kwaikwayo na gargajiya da hikimomin cikinsu a ]akunan karatu da makarantun da ake da su. Zai zaburar da manazarta wajen za}ulo hikimomi da fasahar da ke jibge cikin wasannin gargajiya (tashe). Manazarta Tarihi za su amfana da wannan aiki matu}a, masamman yadda wasan ya taskace wasu al‟amuran tarihi wa]anda suka faru a }asar Zazzau. Misali yadda ya taskace matsalar neman shari‟a a }asar Zazzau. Haka kuma da yadda ya taskace tarihin siyasar jihar Kano, misali rikicin jam‟iyar PRP tsakanin Gwamna Abubakar Rimi da Sabo Bakin Zuwo. 1.6 Hanyoyin Bincike 1.6.1 Ziyartar ]akunan karatu: Yayin wannan bincike an ziyarci ]akunan karatu da nufin samun wasu bayanai ko sharhi kan tashe. Wasu littattafan ma na wasan kwaikwayo ne.
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Haka kuma an duba kundayen bincike, wato na neman digiri tun daga na uku da na biyu da na ]aya kai harma na neman shedar takardar malanta mai daraja ta ]aya da nufin fahimtar gudunmuwar masana da almajiran Adabi a wannan fage na tashe musamman da nufin samun }arin haske kan yadda ake gudanar da wasan tashen macukule. Yayin gudanar da bincike har-ila-yau an nazarci mujallu da }asidu da jaridu masu ]auke da bayanai masu ji~i da wasanin kwaikwayo da tashe da ma tashen macukule shi kansa. 1.6.2 Sauraron Kafafen ya]a Labarai: Kafafen ya]a labarai na ]aya daga cikin mahimman hanyoyin da aka bi don gudanar da wannan bincike. A watan Azumi musamman da ce wa ya kai goma ga wata, a kan saurari gidajen Radiyon Tarayya na Kaduna da na Jihar Kaduna da Nagarta Radiyo da sauransu wa]anda kan sanya faya-fayan tashen su Audu Kwamandan Gwari da Mu‟azu Indagi da sauransu a lokacin tashe. Haka kuma an kalli gidajen talabijin na tarayya Kaduna da na Zariya. 1.6.3 Kallon Masu Yin Tashen Macukule:
Yayin yin wannan bincike, an kalli masu yin tashe a lokacin da suke gudanar da shi a lokuta da dama. Haka kuma an sami damar kallon masu yin tashen macukule. Misali: tashen macukule na Malam Audu [andun}ule
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wani lebura mutumin Kano da na Sani [angaye wani almajirin makarantar Allo mutumin Unguwar Bala cikin gundumar Hunkuyi da sauransu da dama. 1.6.4 Hira da Jama’a: Yayin gudanar da wannan bincike, an gana da dattawa wa]anda suka taka muhimmiyar rawa a zamanin da suke yara wajen aiwatar da tashe game da yadda suke gudanar da tashen a zamaninsu da kuma irin matsayin da al‟umma ta ba shi a jiya tare kuma da neman sanin yadda suke ganin matsayin tashen a yau. 1.7 Na]ewa: A ta}aice, wannan babi ya yi bayanin muhallin wannan aiki da nufin samar da ingantaccen sakamako abin tun}aho. Binciken na da hasashen nuna wasan tashe a matsayin wasan kwaikwayon Hausa na musamman a Zariya. A }arshe, wannan babin ya ambaci mahimmancin binciken da dalilin binciken. Har wa yau babin ya nuna duk hanyoyin da za a bi domin gudanar da ingantaccen aiki.

 

 

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