Motivation represents an employee’s desire and commitment, which is manifested as job performance. That is, job in high motivation (intrinsic) and hygiene (extrinsic) factors leads to high performance and few complaints among employees. The purpose of this study was to examine the Effect of Motivation factors on Teachers’ Performance in Nigeria Secondary school administrations; A Case of Public Secondary Schools in Ezza L.G.A. Ebonyi state. A descriptive research design which incorporated quantitative and qualitative approaches was adopted to investigate motivation factors that influence teacher’s performance. A survey was carried out with 148 respondents including ordinary teachers, department teachers and head teachers in public secondary schools in Ezza L.G.A., Ebonyi state. In addition, in depth interviews were carried out with head teachers. Data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics of SPSS package. The study revealed that the motivation for persons to join the teaching profession was job security and absence of job alternatives but salary was a low consideration. The study further revealed that the majority of teachers were motivated by intrinsic factors, while a small percentage by extrinsic factors despite the fact that salary was inadequate. Furthermore, although not all extrinsic motivation factors (such as free meals, regular salary payment, leave of absence, free accommodation and weekly allowances) were available to teachers, the majority of teachers were concerned more about the inadequacy of current salary levels to meet their basic needs. The study recommends immediate increase the salary of secondary school teachers to match increases in the cost of living, provision of accommodation to teachers and strengthening of supervision. The study also suggests areas for research and these included but not limiting to investigation of innovative teachers’ motivation strategies, students’ satisfaction with relation to teachers’ performance and extension of the same study of other regions in Nigeria before generalization of results.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The efficient and effective management of any organization lies in the abilities of the top management, to put in place measures that would ensure constant greater productivity and a comfortable working relationship between management and the subordinates. Consequently, motivation has often been an effective tool used by managers and administrators to boost productivity and commitment among members of staff in any organization.
The word “motivation’’ according to R’eem (2011) is derived from the Latin word ‘motus’ a form of verb ‘movere’ which means to move, influence affect and excite. Strivastava and Bhatia (2019:18), defined motivation as an action that triggers, propels and directs human behaviour and how this behaviour is preserved to achieve a particular goal. Mostly in secondary schools, principals are main administrators of staff and students, the motivational strategies and the ways they are employed by the administrators can impact positively or negatively on the attainment of the organizational goals depending on the administrative and managerial style of the principal.
Since teachers are the most important factors in determining the quality of education that students receives. Teachers’ motivation has an important effect on students their satisfaction and fulfillment for this reason, teachers are to be given proper care so as to bring out their best in delivering their services hence human resources are considered the most important factor of production. Teachers are vital component of school administration that is why, the Federal government of Nigeria made it clear in her National Policy on Education FRN (2004), that the purpose of teacher education should be to produce highly motivated, conscious and efficient classroom teachers. The Federal Government of Nigeria introduced training programmes, workshops, seminar that will enhance the motivation of staff for better success.
In most cases, when teachers are motivated, they perform better than when they are not. Oguru (2000) opined that, there are two types of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to self generated factors that influence people to behave in a particular way e.g responsibility, freedom to act, scope to use and develop skills and abilities, interesting and challenging task and opportunity for advancement. While extrinsic motivation can be defined as what is done to people to motivate them in areas of their work, for example, rewards like increased pay, praise or promotion etc. Obi (2003) stated that, a well motivated and flexible work force can be achieved by a coherent approach to developing strategies in the area of raising teachers’ salaries without stream lining the payment system. When this is done, it will provide an environment that is conducive for the satisfaction of various needs of teachers as to be dedicated in performing their task of teaching as well as empowering them to give high quality outputs and avoid wastage in terms of dropouts, carryover and failures by students as the case may be. It is a fact that, without dedicated, satisfied and motivated teachers, there will be no base for support and stability of education.
According to Ogbonnaya (2005), education is the bedrock of all developments. As such, the importance of education to a nation’s development cannot be over emphasized so also the importance of teachers who are the pillars in the stability and sustainability of education. But it is quite unfortunate that the contemporary teachers keep complaining of poor conditions of service and lack of status in the society and that could be attributed to irregular payment, lack of fringe benefits, lack of promotion and other awards or appraisal that should be given to them to make life better. It is a fact that Nigerian society attaches no value to teachers that is why most parents do not want their children to join teaching profession. They are seen by their counterparts as, people who are poor and wretched. However, staff motivation as a tool can be defined as a method of course of action, or an instrument by which an act can be accomplished. It is an instrument used in performance of operation.
In addition, effectiveness generally refers to the extent to which the organization realized its goals or achieved its purpose for establishment. It is about doing the right thing in the teaching process so that at the end of the teaching, the objectives of the lessons are achieved. (Awotu-Efobo, 1999). The right thing in administrative process could only be done if teachers are motivated to attend to their regular duties.
Staff motivation strategies currently existing in secondary schools and the ideal motivational measures for school administrations are what this work wants to determine.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The public outcry of the poor standard of education in Nigeria has been attributed to the poor performance of teachers. Poor performance of teachers have been attributed to a number of factors, which include lack of proper motivation, low payment of salaries, premature departure from teaching, attracting the least qualified and lack of commitment to job, since those with high qualification will see teaching in secondary schools as under employment. Some of the qualified teachers have sought for greener pasture in oil companies, banking and production industries where salaries, fringe benefits and general conditions are better. The implication of all these is that poor motivation of teachers has led to many other problems within the secondary school administrative system ranging from wide and high rate of examination malpractice to poor learning achievement, high rate of teachers’ indiscipline, low teachers’ morale and students’ poor attitude towards studies to mention but a few. As such, if this ugly trend is not properly investigated immediately, it will lead to increase in school dropout, unemployment, consistent poor performance of teachers and students. It is in the light of the above that this study tends to examine the assessment of teachers’ motivation as a tool for effective secondary school administration in Ezza North L.G.A. of Ebonyi State.
1.3 PUROPSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers’ motivation as a tool for effective secondary school administration. The study specifically seeks to:
- Determine the effectiveness of secondary school teachers’ based on intrinsic motivation in Ezza North L.G.A. of Ebonyi State.
- Ascertain the effectiveness of secondary school teachers’ based on extrinsic motivation.
- Identify the type of intrinsic motivation available for teachers’ effectiveness in secondary school in Ezza North L.G.A of Ebonyi State.
- Examine the factors militating against the effectiveness of teachers’ motivation in secondary schools in Ezza North L.G.A. of Ebonyi State.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The benefits that accrue from this study are many. Specifically, teachers, students, government and the society will all benefit from this study.
Teachers will benefit from this study, when their employers are engulfed with the knowledge of the findings of the study, by being more responsive in providing incentives and other benefits which will strengthen their understanding and vision of the organization by contributing effectively.
Students will benefit from the findings of this study because the effectiveness of the teacher will make learning effective on the side of the students which will bring about success in school and in the society in general
Government will be well informed with the understanding that being the employers of labour, they need to provide the necessary things that are needed by the employers. It will help government to achieve the objectives of secondary education as stated on the National Policy on Education.
The society will benefit maximally in that the development, high productivity and greater output generation will come from students because of the accumulated knowledge inculcated in them. Parents and guardian shall equally benefit from the resources spent on their children in school because; it will significantly come back to them at the long-run. Society at large will be deposited with skillful, creative, qualitative, productive and high technical manpower that will bring about growth in the economy and development in the society.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study focuses on the teacheers’ motivation as a tool for effective secondary school administration in Ezza North L.G.A, Ebonyi State. With the aim of determining the effectiveness of secondary school teachers based on intrinsic motivation, effectiveness of secondary schools teachers’ based on extrinsic motivation, the intrinsic motivation available for teachers’ effectiveness in secondary schools in Ezza North L.G.A. and factors militating against the effectiveness of teachers’ motivation in secondary schools in Ezza North L.G.A Ebonyi State
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
From the objectives of the study, the following research questions shall guide the study:
- Why is effectiveness of secondary school teachers base on intrinsic motivation in Ezza North L.G.A?
- Why is effectiveness of secondary school teachers base on extrinsic motivation?
- What are the intrinsic motivations available for teachers’ effectiveness in secondary school in Ezza Noth L.G.A?
- What are factors militating against the effectiveness of teachers’ motivation in secondary schools in Ezza North L.G.A?
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
The dissertation was organized into five chapters: Chapter One presents background information to the study, a statement of the research problem, objectives of the study and research questions, justification and significance of the study, scope and delimitation of the study and conceptual framework. Chapter two is about a review of the extant literature that consists of the theoretical and empirical review on employee motivation and performance. Chapter three explains the research methodology used in this research. Chapter four provides a presentation and discussion of the research findings. Finally, Chapter five presents, the summary, conclusions and recommendations from the study.
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