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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON THE APPRAISAL OF MULTI-NATIONAL CORPORATION TO THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ( A CASE STUDY OF EXXON MOBIL OIL COMPANY, EKET) AKWA-IBOM STATE
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- Name: THE APPRAISAL OF MULTI-NATIONAL CORPORATION TO THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ( A CASE STUDY OF EXXON MOBIL OIL COMPANY, EKET) AKWA-IBOM STATE
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Multinational Corporation is now globally accepted business firms which have
adopted various cultures and take responsibility for her host community socially.
The appraisal of multinational corporation to the contribution of community
development became necessary to evaluate the extend of exploration carried out
by multinational corporations in Nigeria. A review of related literature was
carried out to give the study. The required theoretical background, available
statistics from the natural population commission indicate that Eket community
have an estimate of one thousand six hundred and ten people (101,610) and the
sample size is made up of hundred respondents (100),the method employed in
collecting data was the questionnaire. (4) Four hypotheses were formulated and
tested for the study using simple percentage (%) statistical method of data
analysis, on the basis of the analyses some findings were recorded as follows: It
was discovered that the multinational corporation rather abuse human right and
pollute environment instead of developing the host community. Following the
findings recorded some useful recommendation were proffered for the resolution
of the problems identified in the study. It suggested that in order to make the
people fell statistical; the firm has to provide much to the needs they want. To
also widen the scope of here social responsibility to provide employment and
hasten community development. It is concluded that is the law of the land is not
properly put into use; Multinational Corporation will not contribute towards the
development of her host community.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
Certification – – – – – – ii
Dedication – – – – – . – iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – V
Table of content – – – – – – vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study – – 1
1.2 Statement of the problem – – – 1
1.3 Objectives/purpose of the study – – – 4
1.4 Research question/hypothesis – – – – 4
1.5 Significance of the study – – – – – 5
1.6 Limitations of the study – 8
1.7 Definition of the terms – – – – – – 8
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical frame work for the study- – – – 11
2.2. Historical background – – – 11
2.3 Current literature on theories postulated alone – – 14
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design – – – – – 44
3.2 Sources of data – – – – – – – 44
3.2.1 Secondary sources – – – – — – 44
3.3 The population of the study – – – – 45
3.4 Sample design and population of the sample size. – 45
3.5 Methods of data collection – – – – – 46
3.5.1 Questionnaire design, Distribution and collection of
Responses- – – – – – – 46
3.5.2 Secondary method of data collection – – – 46
3.6 Methods of data Presentation and Analysis chapter
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND Analysis
4.1 Data presentation – – – – – – 48
4.1.2 Demographic characteristics – – 49
4.2 Presentation according to key research questions – 51
4.3 Analysis based on research hypothesis – – – 54
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS,
RECOMMENDATIONS, AND CONCLUSION.
5.1 Summary of Findings – – – – – – 57
5.2 Recommendations – – – – – – 57
5.3 Conclusions – – – – – – 57
References – – – 61
Appendix – – – – – – – – 63
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY:
Multinational Corporation is used by people both in the business and non
business sectors, to some people it means a Fairly big firm that has about five or
six branches in a state, while others see it as a big firm that has branches in all the
states or divisions of a country. According to Prasad & Shetty, (1976)
“Multinational corporations are firms that operate effectively under different
national sovereignties”. They further stress that multinational corporations are
such firms that must cope with wide variations in economic conditions, different
values and cultural systems and wide geographical separation.
This definition, multinational corporations are large firms that operate in different
parts of the world, but most of the times have one acclaimed headquarters,
situated in a place it was first established. There are various multinational
corporations both in Nigeria and abroad.
However, For the purpose of this research works, the researcher is using
Exxonmobil oil producing Nigeria at Eket, Akwa-Ibom State. it is of note to
mention that multinational corporations operating in foreign hands must respect
the tunes and dictates of the host government or face expropriation. By the nature
of their operation, multinational corporations must cope not only with more
complex organizational structure but with far more elaborate and sensitive
array of environment variables than domestic operations have these corporations
are seen as giants amongst economic entities and primarily because of their size,
economic power, efficiency, stability, dynamism, flexibility and quite often a
technological oligopoly. Elwood (1979), said that the size and scope of
multinational corporations within many developing nations often bring about
significant social changes that disrupt or counteract social programmes and goals
of host government.
Multinational corporations are known for their exploitative tendencies in
developing countries. There has been lots of accusation by concerned African
countries that these corporations are only out to suck dry the natural and human
resources of poor African countries without correspondingly compensating them
or showing appreciation in return. Despite the fact that these corporations exploit
these African countries and realize huge profits from their business operations, it
is difficult for saying they satisfy the yearnings and aspiration of the communities
where they operate in terms of business social responsibility.
Offlang (1980) asserts that, going by the concept of imperialism and dependency
as characterized by the exploitation of the developing countries by the west and
as manifested by the infiltration of western capital into poor African countries,
one can categorically say that the contribution of these multinational corporations
to the community development is not encouraging. This is evidenced by public
out-cry for compensation by
Communities where these corporation arc operating due to the 1ct that these
communities provide the needed raw materials for that operation.
At times these communities after waiting patiently for these. corporations to meet
their social demands without any response, take the law into their hands to show
Their resentments. It is note to stress that the oil producing communities are the
ones which are supposed to benefit more From Multinational Corporation involve
in oil exploration in such areas. Intact these oil exploration corporations should
provide lots of social amenities like pipe bore water, electricity, good roads,
recreational facilities and host of others to these communities. The corporation
social activities to these communities should extend to the areas of employment,
scholarship and other incentives.
In further expressing my view on the fact that the oil producing communities
should benefit more from oil exploration multinational corporations that are
operating in such of the pollution and other hazards caused these communities
due to oil drilling. These are cases, which due to oil spillage a lot of aquatic
animals die and the seawater becomes bad and poisonous thereby causing untold
hardship on such communities.
1.2. STATEMENTOFTHE PROBLEM
As a result of the hazards and exploitation of multinational corporations on the
communities in which they are operating, it is important for them to show a
serious concern in terms of being socially responsible to these communities.
However, it is difficult for one to. Say that a particular corporation
has contributed adequately to the development of a particular
Community because development encompasses many things ranging from the
provision of infrastructural facilities, employment, scholarships and .a lot more.
Communities cry out of neglect, lack of appreciation and insufficient
compensation by corporations that are operating in their areas.
The corporations on their pa refute- this claim by saying that they have
responded adequately to their social needs. The researcher also notice a problem
of disparity between the corporation and the community as to who have fulfill his
promise of providing social infrastructures and economic benefit (or) whether the
community is satisfied with what the corporation has so far done to the
The main objective of the research work is to appraise the contributions of
Multinational Corporation towards community development.
The specific objectives of the study are:
a. To analyse the difference in opinion between the corporations and host
b. To evaluate the level of social responsibility Carried out by Exxonmobil
Oil Producing Nigeria.Plc in Eket.
c. To determine to what extend Exxonmobil have Contributed towards the
development of Eket.
D To investigate what the corporation has actually done in the community in
terms of infrastructural growth.
e. To examine the benefit of Exxonmobil to the people of Eket.
f. To highlight the problems caused to Eket community and environment due
to the existence of Exxonmobil.
g. A suggestion that Exxonmobil should principally develop Eket as her host
1.4. SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on the contribution of Multinational Corporation to host
community when properly articulated, it will be of tremendous benefit to many
interest groups Exxonmobil and the people of Eket are at variance over the issue
of the firms satisfying them infrastructural and otherwise. The people feel the
corporation has not adequately compensated them and as such their yearnings
and aspirations are yet to be satisfied. The study would be useful to engender
efficient and effective human relation among stall ci the corporation and host
community, the study will help to discover the corporation and the people
because of the difference in their claims. This study will be useful to erase the
disparity, call for a compromise, and also counter the possibility of frequent
contribution between both parties.
However, the researcher is convinced that not only the people of Eket, the
government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria and staff of Exxonmdbil but also
the general leader would find this study valuable. The research work will be
beneficial to researchers and prospective researchers in the area of the study. It
will serve as a guide for future researches.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
This research study is to assess the contribution of multinational corporations to
community development by Exxonmobil to the people of Eket. It focuses
attention on the provision of social amenities and other forms of assistance the
firm assisted the people with, the study is limited to Eket Local Government Area
of Akwa-Ibom State, and covers the firms social responsibilities to the people.
Elwood, M. (1979) Accounting Problems of Multinationals Enterprise.
Lexington Books, D.C. Health and Co. U.S.A.
Ofiong, D.A. (1989) Community And Change in some traditional
Societies of Nigeria Ahmadu Bello University Press Ltd. Zaria, Nigeria.
Shetty, K. F & Prasad, S.B.: (1976), Air Introduction to Multinational
Management Prentice Had Inc. New Jersey.
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