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Project File Details


Original Author (Copyright Owner):

ACHU CHIAMAKA EVAN

3,000.00

The Project File Details

  • Name: THE CONTAMINATION OF SACHET AND BOTTLED WATER WITH PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN ONITSHA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE.
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [2,399 KB]
  • Length: [121] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the presence of water-borne protozoan parasites
in various packaged water samples in Onitsha South L.G.A., Anambra
State between March and July 2009. G. lamblia and E. histolytica were
identified using the wet mount technique and modified zeihl-neelson
staining technique was used to identify C. parvum. A total of 324 samples
were examined, 100 bottled water and 224 sachet water from 11 different
brands. The frequency and percentage of sachet water found
contaminated were 17 (7.59%) while bottled water were 5 (5%). G.
lamblia was the commonest parasitic protozoa isolated 11 (3.4%) while C.
parvum was the least, 4 (1.23%). The factors influencing the
contamination rate of the packaged water were determined but none of
these factors were statistically significant using chi-square analysis
(P<0.05). The presence of these protozoan parasites in packaged water
depends on improper processing and purification procedures, unhygienic
handling after production, small size of the pathogens which enable them
escape filtration, their resistance to physical water treatment agents and
disinfectants, poor storage facilities as well as proximity of the water point
to contamination sources.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page ………. ………. ………. ………. i Certification ………. ………. ………. ………. ii Dedication ………. ………. ………. ………. iii Acknowledgement …….. ………. ………. ………. iv List of tables ………. ………. ………. ………. v List of figures ………. ………. ………. ………. vi Table of Contents …….. ………. ………. ………. vii Abstract ……….. ………. ………. ………. ix

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction ………. ………. ………. 1 1.1 Objectives ………. ………. ………. 6

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 Literature Review……….. ………. ………. 8

2.1 Some of the water-borne protozoan parasites 9 2.1.1 Cryptosporidium parvum ………. ………. 9 2.1.2 Giardia lamblia ………. ………. ………. 18 2.1.3 Entamoeba histolytica ………. ………. 27

2.2 Factors that affect the contamination rate of drinking water 34 2.2.1 Water source ………. ………. ………. 34 2.2.2 The extent of treatment processes of water 36 2.2.3 Sanitary Habits ………. ………. 41

viii
CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Materials and methods ………. ………. 45 3.1 Study Area ………. ………. ………. 45 3.2 Water sampling ………. ………. ………. 48 3.3 Examination of sachet and bottled water ………. 49 3.3.1 Physical examination ………. ………. 49 3.3.2 Microscopic examination ………. ………. 50

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Result ………. ………. ………. 52

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Discussion ………. ………. ……….. 60 5.1 Contribution …….. ………. ……….. 71 5.2 Recommendation ………. ……….. 72 5.3 Conclusion …….. ………. ……….. 73

REFERENCES ……….. ………. ……….. 75

APPENDIX ……….. ………. ………. 100

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Generally, humans drink water that contains pathogens or contain
unacceptable levels of dissolved contaminants. Such waters are not
potable water and drinking or using them in cooking leads to wide
spread of acute and chronic illness. However, they are key determinants
of many microbial diseases with serious complications in immuno
competent and immuno-compromised individuals (Steiner et al., 1997).

Water must have some sufficient quality to serve as drinking water. A
potable water supply is one which is drinkable. Potable water also is
treated water that meets that quality standard for human consumption
and other uses (Agha, 2008). It may be packaged or unpackaged as the
case may be. Most table water today includes treated water that is
packaged in plastic bottles or sachets, popularly known as “pure water”.

The introduction of sachet and bottled water in Nigeria was to provide
safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public and
curb the magnitude of water related infection in the country. Although
2
this is a laudable idea, current trends seem to suggest that sachet
drinking water could be a route of the transmission of enteric pathogen
(Kwakye Nuako, 2007). This does not necessarily mean that bottled
water is 100% free from any pathogen. Recent investigation conducted
on the safety of drinking water in Lagos, Nigeria has shown that sachet
water especially from hawkers is not of good microbiological quality
(Dada, 2009). This observation was based on studies carried out on
water samples to ascertain the bacteriological quality of the water in
sachets, to identify contributory factors that determine the fate of
packaged water product as it moves from catchments to consumer and
to highly unharnessed opportunities for policy improvements that would
allow for sustained and improved regulation of the sachet water industry.
Also, investigation conducted on the safety of drinking water in Ghana
has shown that bottled water on the Ghanaian market is of good
microbiological quality while the quality of some factory bagged sachet
and hand-tied polythene-bagged drinking water was noted to be doubtful
(Obiri-Danso, 2003).

Lack of information on pathogenic organisms associated with drinking
water in our community creates some uncertainties in our understanding
of overall quality of drinking water (Kwakye Nuako, 2007). According to
3
Coker, 2004 he observed that in Lagos State many people depend on
water vendors to whom they pay heavily for provision of water to meet
daily domestic needs. People tend to consume sachet and bottled
drinking water because of its instant availability to quench appetite.
However, the high dependence of people on sachet water due to its low
price and instant availability to quench appetite and its low cost of
production on the side of the manufacturers brought about increase of
different brands of sachet water produced and marketed in Nigeria.

It is necessary to note that Nigeria as a country is challenged not only on
food stuff. However, the country is also facing drinking water scarcity, a
situation that has been identified for years. It is also important to note
that due to scarcity of water in most places, drinking water is got from
doubtful source which is major potential sources of water-borne
diseases. This is a great concern to many sectors in this present
administration as they try to implement strategies to meet the health
millennium development goals (MDGS) in 2015”, a former minister of
health said (Agha, 2008).

Protozoan organisms are ubiquitous and could be found in various
systems including water bodies common examples are Cryptosporidium
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parvum, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Microsporidia spp and
Cyclospora cayelenensis (Steiner et al, 1997, Maza et al 1997,
Koneman et al, 1992). The presence of these organisms in sources of
drinking water is partly due to four reasons. Firstly, these organisms are
indigenous pathogens found in most domestic animals; secondly the
degree of environmental contamination with their infective stages;
thirdly, their resistance to water purification process and finally
unhygienic handling of drinking water (Meisel et al., 1776; Le Chevallier
et al., 1991).

In developing countries, water–borne gastrointestinal parasitic
pathogens such as Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lambia and
Entamoeba histolytica are frequently associated with mobidity,
particularly in children (Bilal, 2003). These parasites are most common
cause of infection world wide (Pickering et al., 1984; Curry and Smith
1998; Tanyuksel et al., 2001). In developed nations, outbreaks of E.
histolytica infections have been caused by sewage contaminated water
supplies (Barwick et al., 1999). In Nigeria, an overall prevalence of
intestinal parasite (16%) was reported (Alakpa et al, 2002). However,
the most frequent intestinal parasite was Cryptosporidium parvum and
the least was Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. In the study to
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investigate the episode of giardiasis among the inhabitant of Abagana,
Nigeria, its detection in the natural water bodies and its relationship with
environmental factor, the overall prevalence of giadiasis among the
inhabitants was 18.5% (Obiukwu et al, 2008). A four year study on the
prevalence of blood and gastrointestinal parasites of man on (18) L.G.A
of Edo State, Nigeria revealed 4% and 3% for E. histolytica and Giardia
lamblia respectively (Mordi et al, 2007). Mbanugo et al (2005) in a study
conducted to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum
infections among children aged 0 – 15 years in Awka, metropolis,
Anambra State, Nigeria detected 14% of the children examined positive.

The Federal Ministry of Health in 2007 approved the Nigerian standard
for drinking water quality (NSDWQ) – NIS 554, 2007 in an attempt to
ensure that water meant for drinking meet the minimum quality standard
as recommended. The purposes are to safeguard the public from the
hazards of water pollution and contamination (Agha, 2008).

The National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control
(NAFDAC) is mandated to enforce compliance with internationally
defined drinking water guidelines, but regulation of the packaged water
industry aimed at a good assurance has remained a challenge to the
6
agency (C.A.M.O.N, 2007). NAFDAC regulations require full labeling to
be informative and accurate (USDA, 2005). The minimum labeling
requirements for regulated items involve a declaration of the products
brand name that must appear in bold letters, a complete “location”
address of the manufacturer and best use before expiring date, metric
volume and most importantly NAFDAC registration number (Dada,
2009).

In order to clarify the quality of packaged drinking water, there is an
urgent need for determination of parasites associated with drinking
water in these sachet and bottled water.

1.1 OBJECTIVES
The major objective is to ascertain the parasitological quality of sachet
and bottled water and to compare them.

These are the specific objectives:
— To investigate the presence of water-borne protozoan parasites in
different brands of sachet and bottled water in Onitsha South L.G.A,
7
Anambra State Nigeria .such as Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia
lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.

— To determine the factors influencing the contamination rate of
drinking water such as points of purchase, toilet–facilities of the water
packaging factory, source of raw water and its proximity to the
contamination source, location of the factory producing the packaged
water and sanitary habits of workers in packaged water producing
factories.

— To make appropriate recommendation aimed at regulating
packaged water companies.

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