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The Project File Details
- Name: THE EFFECT OF ABORTION ON FEMALES
- Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
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- Length:  Pages
In medicine, an abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus. It is the loss of a pregnancy and does not refer to why that pregnancy was lost. It is the expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception before the fetus is viable. An estimated 44 million abortions are performed globally each year, with slightly under half of those performed unsafely (Sedgh et al., 2012). For most women, the decision to end a pregnancy (a very early pregnancy) is a complex and deliberative one. The reasons women give for ending a pregnancy underscore their understanding of the serious consequences of unplanned childbearing for themselves and their families. A pregnancy can be intentionally aborted in several ways. The manner selected often depends upon the gestational age of the embryo or fetus, which increases in size as the pregnancy progresses (Stubblefield, 2002; Bartlett et al., 2004).
Effects of abortion could be either Physical or Psychological. The physical effects could be Elevated Risk of Death, Cervical, Ovarian, and Liver Cancer, Uterine Perforation, Cervical Lacerations, Placenta Previa, Subsequent Pre-Term Deliveries and Other Complications of Labor, Handicapped Newborns in Later Pregnancies, Ectopic Pregnancy, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), Endometritis and some complications which include infection, bleeding, fever, second degree burns, chronic abdominal pain, vomiting, gastro-intestinal disturbances, and Rh sensitization.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|Abstract||ii – iii|
|Table of Contents||iv|
|1.1||Justification of the Study||7|
|1.2||Main Objective of the Study||7|
|2.1||History of Abortion||4|
|2.2||Reasons for Abortion||10|
|2.3||Types of Abortion||11|
2.3.2 Spontaneous 11
|2.3.3||Forms of abortion||13|
|2.4||Effects of Abortion||14|
|2.4.1||Physical Dangers Associated With Abortion||14|
|2.4.2||Psychological Risks Associated With Abortion||22|
|3.0||DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS||32|
Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by the removal or forcing out from the womb of a fetus or embryo before it is able to survive on its own. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is often called a miscarriage. It can also be purposely caused in which case it is known as an induced abortion. The term abortion most commonly refers to the induced abortion of a human pregnancy. The similar procedure after the fetus may be able to survive on its own is medically known as a “late termination of pregnancy” (Grimes and Stuart, 2010). In medicine, an abortion is the premature exit of the products of conception (the fetus, fetal membranes, and placenta) from the uterus. It is the loss of a pregnancy and does not refer to why that pregnancy was lost. It is the expulsion from the uterus of the products of conception before the fetus is viable. Abortion can either be spontaneous or induced. Spontaneous abortion occurs naturally while induced abortion is artificial in the sense that several procedures are employed in the deliberate interruption of pregnancy and prematurely removing the fetus. Modern medicine uses medications or surgical methods for induced abortion. The two medications mifepristone and prostaglandin are as effective as a surgical method in the first trimester (Kulier et al., 2011; Kapp et al., 2013). While the use of medications may be effective in the second trimester, surgical methods appear to have a lower risk of side effects (Wildschut et al., 2011). Birth control, including the pill and intrauterine devices can be started immediately after an abortion. Abortion in the developed world has a long history of being among the safest procedures in medicine when allowed by local law. Uncomplicated abortions do not cause either long term mental health or physical problems (Lohr et al., 2014). The World Health Organization recommends that this same level of safe and legal abortions be available to all women globally (WHO, 2012). Unsafe abortions, however, result in approximately 47,000 maternal deaths and 5 million hospital admissions per year globally (Shah and Ahman, 2009).
1.1 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
An estimated 44 million abortions are performed globally each year, with slightly under half of those performed unsafely (Sedgh et al., 2012). Rates of abortions have changed little between 2003 and 2008, after having previously spent decades declining as access to education regarding family planning and birth control improved. As of 2008, forty percent of the world’s women had access to legal induced abortions “without restriction as to reason”. There are; however, limits regarding how far along in pregnant they can be performed (Culwell et al.,
- MAIN OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of abortion on females.