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This study examined the nephrotic effect of Buchholzia coriacea formulated diet in sucrose-fed pregnant rats and their offspring. Buchholzia coriacea (B. coriacea) (family, capparidaceae) is a perennial plant commonly known as wonderful kola. Seeds were obtained from ogbete main market, Enugu state, identified, dried and grounded using a miller machine. 10% of the seed powder was used to formulate their diet. Thirty (240) adult female and six (6) adult male albino rats (180-250 g) were used in this study. High sucrose (20%) were given via drinking water to animals before, during and after pregnancy. Group A; Control normal was administered distilled water, Group B received sucrose + 10% Buchholzia Coriacea formulated diet (BCFD), Group C; untreated rats were administered sucrose and distilled water while Group D received 10% Buchholzia Coriacea formulated diet (BCFD) only. All animals were sacrificed following overnight fast by anaesthetic dos e of diethyl ether and cervical dislocation. Blood samples were obtained through cardiac puncture for the analysis of biochemical parameters. Results were represented as mean ± standard error of mean. SUC (20%) (untreated) significantly elevated urea levels (p<0.05); Creatinine (p<0.05) and LPO of the Kidney (p<0.05); (when compared with normal control group. However, following treatment with BCFD, the Urea, Creatinine and MDA level in treated rats were significantly reduced (p<0.05) when compared with the untreated group. Interestingly, all offspring showed reduced Urea level, Creatinine level and low MDA level in the Kidney except for the negative control whose offspring showed significant increase (p<0.05) in the parameters when compared with the normal group. In conclusion, this research suggests that buchholzia coriacea seeds has protective effect on the damage induced by high sucrose diet on the kidney of pregnant rats as well as their offsprings.
Table contents vi
List of figures vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of Study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 2
1.3 Objective of the Study 3
1.4 Significant of the study 3
CHAPTER TWO: INTRODUCTION
2.1.1 Use of wonderful kola 5
2.1.2 Taxonomy of wonderful kola 5
2.2 Hyperglycemia 6
2.2.1Causes of hyperglycemia 6
2.2.2 Signs and symptoms of Hyperglycemia 7
2.2.3 Tests That Diagnose Hyperglycemia 7
2.2.4 Treatment for hyperglycemia 8
2.2.5 Complication of hyperglycemia 8
2.2.6 Nephrons 9
2.2.7 Renal corpuscles 9
2.2.8 Renal tubule 9
2.4 Maternal Malnutrition and its Effect on Off springs 11
2.4.1 Over Nutrition 12
2.4.2 Effects of on the off springs 12
2.2.3 Causes of material malnutrition 13
2.2.4 Health risks for the baby 13
2.2.5 Prevention 14
2.5 Dietary Sucrose 15
2.5.1 Hydrolysis of sugar 16
2.2.5 Synthesis and Biosynthesis of sucrose. 16
2.6 The Effect of Sucrose on the kidney: 17
2.7 Diabetes Mellitus 18
2.7.2 Types of diabetes 19
2.7.2 Type 1 diabetes 19
2.7.3 Type 2 diabetes 19
2.7.4 Gestational diabetes 20
2.7.5 Pathophysiology 20
2.7.6 Type 2 diabetes 21
2.7.7 Blood glucose monitoring 22
2.7.8 New oral agents 22
2.8.1 Symptoms of Metabolic Syndrome 24
2.9 Oxidative Stress in Metabolic Syndrome 25
2.9.1 Oxidative stress 26
2.9.2 Oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease: 26
2.9.3 Oxidative Stress in Aging: 26
2.9.4 Oxidative Stress in Diabetes Mellitus: 27
2.10 Kidney Function Test 27
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Materials 30
3.1.1 Chemical and Reagents 30
3.1.2 Equipment 30
3.1.3 Biological Materials 30
3.2 Methods 30
184.108.40.206 Collection of Animal. 30
3.2.2 Handling of Animals 30
3.2.1: Preparation of diets 31
3.2.2: Biochemical Analyses 33
3.2.3 Statistical Analysis 31
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT
4.1: Kidney Function Tests 38
4.2 Lipid Peroxidation (Kidney) 39
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATIONS.
5.1 Discussion 41
1.1 Background of Study
Malnutrition during pregnancy creates health risks for both the pregnant woman her developing fetus. Not eating enough or eating too much can create health risks, for both the pregnant woman and her developing fetus over nutrition during pregnancy is common in developed countries.
Many woman experience increased appetite during pregnancy. This occurs partly because their hormonal balance is altered, but also because the growing fetus removes food by products from their blood. It is also possible for woman to consume too much during pregnancy and gain excessive weight.
Woman who over consume during pregnancy increase their risk of obesity i.e. woman who gain excessive weight during pregnancy often fail to lose weight after childbirth and risk becoming overweight or obese, pre-exclaims psiai.e a condition which occurs in late pregnancy and s characterized by high levels of protein in the urine, hypertension and excessive fluid in tissues, gestational diabetes. Macros Omnia (fetus over- growth) can occur because a pregnant woman over consumers for example, excessive transfer of glucose and other nutrients can occur in pregnant woman with diabetes. As the nutrition a fetus receives in the womb pregnancies the metabolic system to function later in life over nourished fetuses have an increased risk of obesity and associated metabolic condition 5 such as type 2 diabetes later in life.
There is also evidence of an increased risk of the infant experiencing polycythemias the abnormally high red blood cell concentration seizures.
Eating too much sugar during pregnancy could affect your child’s intelligence and memory (American Journal of preventative medicine) consuming too much sugar acids gain weight. This added to me naturally increasing pregnancy weight, can lead to obesity, which can complicate the delivery. It also leads to containing sugars can lead to the fatty liver syndrome. It can also affect the fetal metabolism in life ( B.Sc Pharm MD and Erick Yoshida, MD MHSc FRCPC). It increases the risk of preeclampsia, high sugar, high sugar intake influences the risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women (EUR JCLIN NUTR. 2012) Aug. 66(8) 920-5 doi:10.103/ESCN 2012.61. EPUB 2012 Jun 20).
Wonderful kola also known as (buchholzia seeds is quickly gaining popularity as it seems to be a cure to almost all ailments. It’s look stands out from the normal kola as it look like a root and not a fruit like the others.
This plant grows in different states including Congo, Nigeria, and others. This plant is known as evergreen, and its seeds are widely used in medicine. However, more frequently it is used in herbal medicine rather than traditional.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The consumption of added sugars (sucrose) over the last 200 years has increased exponentially and parallels the creased prevalence of chronic kidney disease. Data for animals and humans suggest that the consumption of added sugars leads to kidney damage and related metabolic derangements that increase cardiovascular risk. Importantly, the consumption of added sugars has been sound to induce insulin resistance and increase uric acid in humans, both of which increase the conversion of glucose and fructose via the payola pathway. The payola pathway has recently been implicated in the contrition and progression of kidney damage.
To mitigate this serious complications and a negative outcome of kidney disease, the plant Buccholzia coriacea can be used as therapeutic option readily available to cure the damage caused by high sucrose.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general of the, this study was to evaluate the biochemical/metabolic effect of sucrose on a sucrose fed pregnant rat and their offspring’s. The specific objectives are to
1.4 Significant of the study
This study will increase our understanding on the renal effect of buccholzia coriacea on the kidney function indices of a sucrose fed pregnant rats. It is hope that constituent compounds present in buchholzia coriacea would aid further scientific investigation while contributing to the drug discovery and development.
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