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ABSTRACT

The study was conducted on communities along Lamurde floodplain between Latitude 8˚52’0” and 8˚56’6” and Longitude11˚19’0” and 11˚22’8”. The study areaoverlain the shallow well fieldswhere public water supply system and main private water vending were extracted to service the entire Jalingo city. Sample points were selected among the few available functional water points during the month of April when dry season was at its peak. Seventeen water points were randomly sampled,assessed and quantified for sanitary risk using standardized checklists. Biophysicochemical constituentsof the water samples were also conducted using international standard methods of water samplings and analytical application principles. The sanitary inspection identified different degree of sanitary risk factor at the sample points, with a common practice at the dug wellsource where fetching tools were left in pools of stagnant water. All the sample points quantifiedwith high sanitary risk were noted with faecal coliforms. There were significant differences between faecal coliform counts (F2,14= 17.31; p = 1.64 x 10 -4) in the dry season and (F2,14= 5.39; p = 8.54 x 10 -4) in the wet season at 95% confidence level along borehole, tube well and dug well sources. Nitrate contaminations were localized to sources closed to either pit latrines or solid waste dumpsites. No effect between nitrate concentrations (F2,14=1.75; p =0.21) in the dry season and (F2,14 =1.65; p =0.23) in the wet season 95% confidence level along the boreholes, tube wells and dug wells. The summary of the analysis indicated that fecal and chloride contaminations were widespread over borehole, tube well and dug well water sources while all other chemical contaminations were localized.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
Title page
i
Declaration
ii
Certification
iii
Dedication
iv
Acknowledgement
v
Glossary
vii
Abstract
viii
Table of Contents
ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1
Background of the study
1
1.2
Statement of the research problem
3
1.3
Aim and objectives of the study
3
1.4
Significant of the study
4
1.5
Limitation of the Study
4
1.6
Description,existing water supply and sanitation practice in the study area
5
1.6.1
Description
5
1.6.2
Existing water supply system
5
1.6.3
The sanitationstatus
7
CHAPTER ONE: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1
Sources of water
8
2.1.1
Surface water sources
8
x
2.1.2
Ground or subsurface water sources
9
2.2
Water quality, standard and health implication
10
2.2.1
Water quality
10
2.2.2
Water quality standard
12
2.2.3
Health implication
13
2.3
Community impact, water supply and sanitation
14
2.3.1
Community impact
14
2.3.2
Water supply
16
2.3.3
Sanitation
18
2.4
Sources and pathway of water pollution
20
2.4.1
Point sources of pollution
20
2.4.2
Non-point sources of pollution
20
2.5
Groundwater pollution
21
2.6
Groundwater pollution due to seasonal changes
22
2.7
Related studies on sanitation practices and groundwater pollution
23
2.8
Parameters for drinking water quality
25
2.8.1
Physical quality
25
2.8.2
Bacteriological quality
27
2.8.3
Chemical quality
28
CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1
Materials
37
3.1.1
Materials and equipment used at the field
37
3.1.2
Equipment/reagents used in the laboratory
37
xi
3.2
Methods
39
3.2.1
Sanitary survey
39
3.2.2
Administering of questionnaire
48
3.3
Water sampling and biophysicochemical quality analyses
48
3.3.1
Water sampling
48
3.3.2
Analyses of biophysicochemical quality parameters
50
3.4
Data analysis
54
3.4.1
One way analysis of variance
54
3.4.2
Regression analysis
55
3.4.3
Analysis of dependent (proxy) parameters
55
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1
Water facilities, pollution sources and sanitary risk factors
56
4.1.1
Types of water facilities and pollution sources
56
4.1.2
Quantifying of risk factors at the sample points
58
4.2
Analysis of questionnaire
61
4.3
Contamination of sample points by faecal coliforms and turbidity
63
4.3.1
Impact of faecal coliforms and turbidity
63
4.3.2
Localised contamination of faecal coliforms
65
4.3.3
Variation of faecal coliform along borehole, tube and dug well sources
67
4.3.4
Proxy correlation and seasonal variation in turbidity and faecal coliform
69
4.4
Nitrate, nitrite and ammonia contaminations
71
4.4.1
Impact of temperature, pH and DO nitrate, nitrite and ammonia
71
4.4.2
Localised contamination of nitrate along borehole, tube and dug wells
73
xii
4.4.3
Seasonal variation in nitrate nitrite, ammonia, DO, pH and temperature
73
4.4.4
Spatial variations of nitrate along borehole, tube and dug well sources
75
4.5
Chloride, fluoride, sulphate and Zinc contaminations
77
4.5.1
Impact of chloride, fluoride, sulphate and Zinc
77
4.5.2
Spatial and seasonal variation in chloride, fluoride, sulphate and zinc
79
4.5.3
Strength of association between TDS and chloride; TDS and fluoride
81
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1
Summary
82
5.2
Conclusion
84
5.2
Recommendations
85
Contribution to Knowledge
86
References
87
Appendices
94

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The soil formation has the capacity of self-cleaning and equilibrium maintenance of groundwater quality to preserve its quality so that every generation finds it the same as the one before it (Bhatia, 2002). However, with man’s expanded population and his quest to develop industrial and agricultural sectors to provide food and other basic amenities to the increasing population, there has been enormous amount of wastes generated and released with varying compositions onto the environment on a continuous basis. The contaminants arising from these wastes may be carried from the sources by infiltrating water through long distances to the groundwater table before natural processes such as adsorption, biodegradation, radioactive decay, ion exchange and dispersion could remove them. Studies have shown that Nigeria urban groundwater quality is influenced by geology and geochemistry of the environment, rate of urbanization, industrialization, landfill/dumpsite leachates and effect of seasons (Ocheriet al., 2014).
In urban settings, the risk of groundwater contamination are likely to be most significant, due to the higher density of contaminant sources, issues of contaminant legacy and greater concentrations of anthropogenic activity (Sorensen and Pedly, 2015). Additionally, as the impervious and un-vegetated ground of urban developmental areas have little or no retention during rains, human and animal wastes are flushed into the river systems polluting urban water supplies, rivers and coastal waters (Mafutaet al., 2011). Principal water contaminants arising from poor community sanitation practices include but not limited to faecal matters, nitrate and chloride. Faecal contamination may occur because there are no community facilities for waste disposal, because collection and treatment facilities are inadequate or improperly operated, or because on-site sanitation facilities (such as latrines) drain directly into aquifers (Bartram and Ballance, 1996). Ammonia in the environment mainly results from
2
feedlot and the use of manures in agriculture, or from on-site sanitation or leaking sewer. Ammonia in water could also be an indicator of sewage pollution (WHO, 2006). Chloride is abundant in human faeces; its presence in water is an indication of faecal contamination.
Of primary concern is the quality of groundwater exploited for drinking as well as other domestic purposes. Many human bacteria and virus are transmitted through faecal contaminated groundwater supply, making them waterborne. High prevalence of diarrhoea among children and infant can be traced to use of unsafe water and unhygienic practice (Bradford et al., 2013). Heavy metals enter groundwater through natural leaching from the rock or runoff from industrial wastes and pollution fallout of pervious surface of roads, motors parks and commercial areas, which percolate down, into groundwater tables. They persist in the environments and tend to accumulate in soils, sediments and biota. Heavy metals can cause neurological disorder and any contact with water with highly polluted heavy metals can result in skin irritation (Davis and Susan, 2004).
This concern has attracted overwhelming studies on the quality status of groundwater abstracted from shallow wells and deep wells for human consumption in urban areas of the country (Ocheri et al., 2014). Jalingo, which is one of the fast growing cities in Nigeria, is not exceptional. The urban abstraction wells are mainly within the informal congested city limit with wells and boreholes constructed close to pit latrines. The solid wastes management and pollution control within the city is characterized by insufficient methods of collection, transfer and storage, insufficient coverage of the collection system and uncontrolled disposal of the waste (Yavini and Musa, 2013).
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Although groundwater is not easily contaminated, once this occurs it is difficult to remediate, and in the developing world such as the Nigerian cities, such remediation may prove practically
3
impossible (Morris et al., 2003).The communities in the study area are relying on shallow groundwater source for drinking water supply. The rising concerned of possible contamination of the water sources include but not limited to the following:
i. Its ground is becoming impervious and un-vegetateddue to expanding growth and development leading to flooding of the water points.
ii. Household dug wells and boreholesare either poorly designed and constructed or dilapidated, creating local pathways for pollution.
iii. Family latrines are often sited less than 10m away from functional water points due to lack of space or knowledge of its impact.
iv. Management and disposal of solid waste, faeces, and wastewater in and around the households are inadequate and incomplete and solid wasteare frequently dumped at the environments of water points or along floodplains where public water supply andprivate water vending are extracted.
In light of these,it become necessary to assess the community sanitation practices at the environments of the sample points and to identify which aquifer systems and settings are most vulnerable to degradation because the replacement cost of a failing local aquifer will be high and its loss may be fatal asthere is currently no substitute.
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of the study is to assess the impact of sanitation practices on water quality in selected communities in Jalingo, Taraba State, Nigeria.
The specific objectives of the study were as follows:
i. The examinationof community sanitation practices at the environment of the existing drinking water points in Nukkai, Roadblock, MayoGwoi, Magami, AngwanSarki and old abattoir
4
ii. The analyses of biophysicochemical quality parameters of the drinking water qualities, which are peculiar to the closest contamination sources
iii. The use of statistical tools to investigate the results ofbiophysicochemical quality parameters to establish whether or not contaminations are localised or widespread, and the indicators that help interpret the scale of contaminations
1.4 Significance of the Study
i. The study wouldcreate awareness for the communities to ensure theenvironments of the water fetching points are protected from contamination threat.
ii. The results of the findings will serve as a guide to water managers, policy makers and the public who might desire to carry out further studies or to government and stakeholders in decision making.
iii. It would provide groundwater quality data for the communities.
1.5 Limitation of the Research
i. The study was limited to some parts of the urban development areas along the River Lamurde and Mayogwoifloodplains where major city’s aquifers underlie and on those water sources that were not seasonal.
ii. The investigations of the sanitary survey relied on observations made at the sites at the time of the study and on information provided by owners and users of the water facilities.
iii. The analyses of water quality parameters were limited to those parameters that were peculiar to the observed contamination sources close to water sample points.
1.6 Description,Existing Water Supply and Sanitary Practices in the Study Area
1.6.1 Description
The study area is located at North-Eastern Nigeria between Latitude of 8o52”N and 8o56”N and Longitude11o19”E and 11o23”E. The area is drainedRiverMayogwoiandRiverLamurde (Figure
5
1.1), which took their sources from the mountain ranges in Yorro Local Government Area, formed a confluence at Nukkai and emptied into the Benue river system at Tau Village (Oruonye, 2015). The relief of the study area consists of undulating plains. Its wavelike topography according to Morris et al, (2003) may produce thin mantle of weathered materials with the infiltrating water from high ground discharging to springs forming on the lower slopes. The streams are seen overflowing with almost all the wells being filled to brim during the raining season. Dry season begins in month of November and lasts until March, leading to dryness of almost all the dug wells, except some few ones, which might be sited on deep weathered zone or along fractured pathways that lead to deep weathered zone.
1.6.2 Existing water supply system
River Lamurde has extensive floodplain on both sides with large groundwater reservoirs (evidences of water farm at Magami and Nukkai). The existing public water supply system and a distribution network was extracted from the floodplain was installed with a capacity of 6,500m3 per day, which was reduced to 2,735m3 per day, and additionally increased to 4,900m3 per day in 2007, while the population of the city has already overwhelmed the public water facilities (Siam,2002). The rapid growth and development in the City has put the existing public water supply under pressure, compelling the populace to rely on hand pump boreholes, tube wells and open dug wells for drinking water sources.
6
Figure1.1: Topographical map of the study area (Modified from Google Earth Image)
1.6.3 The sanitation status
7
The northern bank of River Lamurde is heavily occupied by family household compounds despite the increasing devastating effects of recent floods in the area, while the southern bank is intensively cultivatedwith continual application of fertilizers (Oruonye, 2011). There are other anthropogenic activities such as cemetery, laundries and free-range animals within the watershed. The Valley of Lamurde River is dotted with ox-bow lakes, resulting from depositional activities (Kwesabaet al., 2014). The residents are living in unplanned settlements; while the solid waste management and pollution control are characterized by insufficient methods of collection, transfer and storage; insufficient coverage of the collection systems and uncontrolled disposal of the solid waste (Yavini and Musa, 2013). Many household compounds have private family dug wells and tube wells which are constructed very close to family pit latrines and garbage pits due to lack of space or the knowledge of its impact; a common practice in many parts of world (UNICEF, 2008). Most of the water and on-site sanitation facilities are poorly constructed and are rarely well sealed. Pujari et al. (2011) suggested that on-site sanitation programme in hard rock areas with shallow water tablessuch as Jalingo City should be discouraged due to presence of fractured in the underlying rocks that might render the water source vulnerable to pollution from the on-site sanitation systems.

 

 

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