THE EFFECT OF COST OF ROOF ON THE TOTAL COST OF A BUILDING. A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED BUILDINGS IN AWKA SOUTH- ANAMBRA STATE

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OGBUEFI AUGUSTINA.O

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  • Name: THE EFFECT OF COST OF ROOF ON THE TOTAL COST OF A BUILDING. A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED BUILDINGS IN AWKA SOUTH- ANAMBRA STATE
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ABSTRACT

The research looked at the effect of cost of roof on the total cost of a building (A
case study of some selected buildings in Awka South, Anambra).It determines the
attributes that effect the cost of roof, it finds out type of roofs and their cost
implications and also examine the cost of the roof on the total cost of a building.
Practicing Quantity Surveyor were consulted and their experiences on various
types of roof were shared and compared. These experiences were used in fixing
prices to the unpriced bill of quantities given to them. Data so collected were
subjected to analysis: Bill of Quantities was used in presenting the cost of different
types of roof design as it affects the total cost.
The following findings and recommendation were made:  On cost alone, low pitch roof is cheaper to construct than a higher
pitch roof. Concrete flat roof of the same size and shape were found to
be costlier than the previously stated roof types.  Adequate attention should be given at the design stage when deciding
on the geometrical shape of roofs because complex design in roof
leads to in crease in cost of roof.  Architect and Quantity Surveyors should critically examine the effect
of any particular type of roof design before specifying them,
especially where cost is the critical factor in a building project.  To improve on duration of roof covering, the material should be
adequately protected from rust by use of anti- rust and in the case of
aluminum, it must be stucco embossed or baked but not spray painted.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page…………………………………………………………….i Title page…………………………………………………………….. ii
Certification……………………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgement ………………………………………………..…..iv
Dedication……………………………………………………………..v
Table of content ………………………………………………………vi-viii
Abstract………………………………………………………………..x

vii

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
1.1 Background of study………………………………………….1-2
1.2 Aim of study……………………………………………….……3
1.3 Objective of study…………………………………….…………3
1.4 Significant of study……………………………………………..3
1.5 Scope and limitation……………………………………….…….3

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2 Introduction……………………………………………………….4
2.0 Roof ……………………………………………………………4-6
2.1 Roof classifications…………………………………………….6 -18
2.2 Roof finishes ………………………………………………..…18-28
2.3 Functional requirement of roof…………………………………28-29
2.4 Roof members ……………………………………………….…30-32
2.5 Cost consideration ……………………………………………..32-34

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLGY 3.1 Design of study…………………………………………………..35
3.2 Area of study …………………………………………………….35
3.3 Population of study ………………………………………………35
3.4 Instrument of data collection………………………………………36
3.5 Method of data analysis……………………………………………36-37
viii

CHAPTER FOUR
ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY

4.1 Factor that influence roof cost………………………………. 38
4.1.1 Shape ……………………………………………………. 38
4.1.2 Slope …………………………39-40
4.1.3 Material………………. ..……………………………….….41-42
4.3 Roof environmental design considerations………………..….42-46
4.4 Presentation and analysis of data…………………………..….47-67
4.4.1Comparison of cost using different roof covering on pitch roof..68 -71

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Conclusion ……………………………………………………72
5.2 Recommendation ……………………………………………..73-74
Bibliography………………………………………………………75
Appendix………………………………………………………….76-84

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The overall building cost of both private and public buildings are important as it is
the summation of all the building element cost. Douglas and Peter (1980) believe
that the total expenditure on the development of a project will be much higher than
the net cost (of production) of the building fabric, necessitating financiers and
stake holder in the industry need to know the total cost of fabric within a short time
from the giving brief while contractors are concerned on how cost is allotted within
the building.

A Quantity surveyor whose work is to cost the materials for the building will know
which material that is relevant to that particular building, and remove those that are
not relevant in order to reduce cost. He must bear in mind that the effective
development of project depends on the estimated total cost of that project.
Efficiency in execution and completion on time would be expedited by comparison
of the cost of materials, time and labor with respect to various elements of building
project especially the roof element.

Building material and components constitute between 50-60% of the total cost of
construction input. Building materials and components for buildings must be
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properly selected to comply with standard and specifications. Many materials are
satisfactory in some condition but not in others. However their choice will be
governed by the ability of the materials to withstand the effect of climate and fulfill
their design function, with respect to maintenance and overall economic
implication. With this Architects should be careful during the design stage to
avoid making wrongly selection of material for example if wrong roof covering
was selected during design stage, the cost of the roof construction may be lower
but the maintenance cost will be higher and the roof may not last long. To achieve
quality roof, the Architects should have in mind the quality of the material they are
specifying so that the material should be such that can withstand the effect of
climate on the total cost of the building project.

The Prime Consultant who is responsible for obtaining the necessary approvals
from appropriate authorities, designing of the work and other important steps,
should ensure that his design is not for aesthetics but for functionality because
some designers may fail to realize that their design can be too complex for site
conditions and can present problems of buildability. For example, the choice of
complicated roof design or concrete flat roof may pose more construction,
maintenance problem and higher cost of construction than design that specified
simple pitched roof.

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1.2 AIM
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of cost of roof on the total cost of a
building in Awka South Local Government Area.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY.
The objectives of this study are:
1. To determine attributes that affect the cost of roof
2. To find out type of roofs and their costs implications.
3. To examine the cost of the roof elements to the total cost of a building.

1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The versatility in roof design implies that roofs vary as variety of designs thus
affecting the total cost of the building. This should therefore advise careful
selection of design and materials for roof structure.

1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
The study is based on a building design with a selected range of differing roof
designs. A comparison is thus made of the varying total building cost to prove the
hypothesis.