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  • Name: THE EFFECTS OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY ON STUDENT’S LEARNING AND ACHIEVEMENT: (A CASE STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF SOKOTO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, SOKOTO.)
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ABSTRACT

The study investigated the effects of Information and Communication Technology on Students learning and achievement. The respondents used for the study were one hundred and twenty (120) learners and teachers randomly selected from six Senior Secondary Schools of Sokoto North local government in Sokoto state.   Five null hypothesis were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. The instrument used for the study was a structured questionnaire administered to the selected Senior Secondary Schools. The data collected were analyzed using simple percentage, frequency and chi-square. The research findings indicated that ICT have great impact on students learning and achievement. Also the introduction of ICT makes classroom interaction so interesting for the students and supplement teachers technique. Some of the tested hypotheses of the study confirmed that ICT have great impact to the teaching learning processes and also attested that pupils and teachers who experienced greater positive effect from ICT are the ones who use ICT the most often. Based on the findings suggestions and recommendations were made. That ICT facilities should be made available to all Secondary Schools, and teachers that are not ICT compliance should be encouraged to study further in order to meet up with the new demand.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page ……………………………………………………………………..i Certification ….……………………………………………………………….ii Dedication …………………………………………………………………….iii Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………….iv Abstract ………………………………………………………………………..v Table of Content ……………………………………………………………….vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1 Background to the Study ……………………………………………………………1

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………2

 

1.3 Research Questions …………………………………………………………………..3

 

1.4 Objective of the Study ………………………………………………………………4

 

1.5 Research Hypotheses ………………………………………………………………..4-5

 

1.6 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………5

 

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study ………………………………………………….6

 

Definition of Terms …………………………………………………………………6-8

 

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………9

 

 

2.1 Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………………..9-14

 

 

2.2 Brief History of Sokoto State ………………………………………………………14-15

 

2.3 Brief History of Sokoto North Local Government Area …………………………..15

 

 

2.4 ICT in Education ……………………………………………………………………15-20

 

 

2.5 Positive Effect of ICT on the Learning and Achievement of the Learner …………20-25

 

 

2.6 Proposed Government’s Policies on ICT in Education and Implementation Strategies

 

 

……………………………………………………………………………………………25-31

 

 

2.7 Barriers and Solutions in Selection and Utilization of ICT materials ……………….31-33

 

CHAPTER THREE

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

3.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………….34

 

 

3.1 Research Design ………………………………………………………………………..34

 

 

3.2 Population of the study …………………………………………………………………35

 

 

3.3 Sampling and Sampling Techniques …………………………………………………..35

 

 

3.4 Instrumentation ………………………………………………………………………..36

 

 

3.5 Validity of the Instrument …………………………………………………………….36

 

 

3.6 Reliability of the Instrument ………………………………………………………….36

 

 

3.7 Method of Data Collection ……………………………………………………………36

 

 

3.8 Method of Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………..36

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

 

 

4.0 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………….37

 

 

4.1 Analysis of Personal Data (Teachers) …………………………………………………37-38

 

 

4.2 Analysis of Personal Data (Learners)………………………………………………….38-39

 

 

4.3 Data Analysis………………………………………………………………………….39-47

 

CHAPTER FIVE

 

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

 

5.0 Summary ………………………………………………………………………………48

 

 

5.1 Summary of the Major Findings ………………………………………………………..48-49

 

 

5.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………..50

 

 

5.3 Recommendation ………………………………………………………………………50-51

 

 

5.4 Suggestion for Further Study …………………………………………………………..51

 

 

References…………………………………………………………………………..52

 

 

Appendix …………………………………

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background to the Study

 

 

Throughout the globe, Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) have been welcomed widely as having the potential to increase access to learning by helping to overcome barriers such as those of cost, time or space. The uses of ICTs are encouraged by most government of the world. European countries have fostered effective and proper integration of ICTs in all form of their education.  In Nigeria, the unavoidable demand for ICT in education has made it imperative for both the teachers and the learners to utilize technology as it has positive outcome to learning. Government has also deemed it necessary to incorporate ICT to education in their yearning policy to progress and meet up the vision 2020.

 

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has become the principal driver of economic development and social change in the world. Though, technology alone can only be a prime mover, not a driver of development. Further, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) uses in developing countries are seen as effective ways to improve the population’s life and well- being. In particular, ICT applications on the education system might change the future of the underdeveloped   world   fundamentally   through   the   connections   to   ‘the   flat   world’   i.e., globalization (Friedman, 2005).

 

Following the new global demand, ICT support education-based have been the foci for grooming the 21st  century manpower because of its potential to innovate, accelerate, enrich and deepen skills. Its effectiveness to student performance motivates and enables them to help relate school experiences to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change (Yusuf, 2005).

 

The prospect of ICT to teaching and learning designated the use of ICT devices such as computers, with different software, internet, overhead projector, interactive whiteboard, radio, television, telephony etc. All these are put in place to compliment and supplement teaching and learning. Profoundly, it supports student self-learning and reduced teachers’ work in the classroom while compensating the industrialized needed manpower of 21st century.

 

However, there are various problems which create barriers to people owning and using ICT. These problems among others includes illiteracy, cultural barrier, lack of computer skills and technological know-how, lack of access to computer or computer network as a result of a digital device, no internet access, lack of significant usage opportunities, background to increasing information and structural equality and the likes of others which shall be discussed in the barriers and solution to the use of ICT.

 

This study tries to look at the effects of ICT on student learning and achievement and the application of ICT in classroom with the problems militating against the proper application of ICT in secondary schools of Sokoto North local government.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

 

The use of Information and Communication Technology could be a catalyst for enhancing quality of education in the globalization age, if it is properly acquired and carefully utilized. Moreover, some students acquainted to the use of ICTs often remarks that teachers are no longer needed to communicate the formal curriculum due to the information they acquired in the phantom curriculum or internet sources; such as computers, smart mobile phones, radio, TV and tapes, etc., some teachers have incorporated the use of ICTs to enhance instruction.

 

While others become more confused of their role to facilitate this development; due to their inadequate knowledge of ICTs.  And mostly students exposed to ICTs in senior secondary class, don’t even know the proper way to utilize ICTs, as they exhausted much of their time when going through this technology on the social-media; like Facebook, online gaming, twitter, 2go, whatsapp, netlog, LinkedIn and the host of others. Some do not even have access to the ICTs materials in their schools and at home let alone of going through them, due to government recklessness over ICT policy.

 

Thus, the purpose of this research is to look into the aforementioned areas in order to confirm their effects on students learning and achievement in senior secondary school of Sokoto north local government.

 

1.3 Research Questions

 

The zeal and intent disposed by the researcher of this work created the necessity for him to ask questions. These questions that are to be asked will form the core and basis of this research. It includes:

 

  1. i. Is ICT facilities accessible to the students in the Senior Secondary Schools in Sokoto

 

North Local Government?

 

  1. ii. What is the impact of ‘computer literacy’ instruction in Secondary Schools in Sokoto

 

North Local Government?

 

iii.      How does exposure to and use of ICTs in the Sokoto North Secondary Schools affect students’ learning?

  1. What are the barriers to ICT utilization in Sokoto North Secondary Schools?

 

  1. How can we determine proper utilization of ICT facilities for the Students in the

 

Sokoto North Secondary classes?

 

These questions have prompted me in the study of ICT and its efficacy to education and will serve as the base for other researchers who are interested in searching for proper way in which ICT have been or could have impacted on education in Nigeria.

 

1.4 Objectives of the Study

 

Considering the background to this study, the main objective of this study is to ascertain the Effects      of   Information   and   Communication   Technology   on   Student’s   Learning   and Achievement. The Specific Objectives are:

 

  1. i. To investigate  the  level  of  availability  of  ICT  facilities,  in  the  public  and  private

 

Secondary Schools of Sokoto North Local Government.

 

  1. ii. To find out the impact of ICT, on the student’s learning and achievement in secondary

 

Schools of Sokoto North Local Government.

 

iii.      To find out how proper acquisition and utilization of ICTs in schools can enhanced the learning of the students in the Senior Secondary classes.

  1. To highlight barriers of ICT integration in Secondary School of Sokoto North Local

 

Government.

 

  1. To give recommendations on the basis of the evidence available in order to create favorable framework conditions for effective ICT integration as well as future fields of actions in Sokoto North Local Government and the nation at large.

1.5 Hypotheses

 

  1. i. There is  no  significant  correlation  between  students  learning  achievement  and  the availability of ICT in Senior Secondary Schools.
  2. ii. There is no significant relationship between students learning achievement and the use of

 

ICT.

 

iii.      There  is  no  significant  correlation  between  proper  acquisition  of  ICT  and  Students learning achievement.

  1. There is no significant relationship between barriers of ICT utilization and Students learning.
  2. There is  no  significant  correlation  between  proper  utilization  of  ICT  facilities  and teaching learning processes.

1.6 Significance of the Study

 

The use of ICT has become a global phenomenon as it cuts across all area of human life. The use of ICT to some extent brought about development in the modern world. Education is one of those areas where ICT is being used. This study is a very important one, as it gives an insight into the importance which education attached to the use of ICT. The study also exposes the impact of ICT on student learning achievement following the demands of new global order.

 

The success of this research will immeasurably benefit several sets of people including:-

 

 

  1. i. Teachers,  students,   curriculum   planners,   educational   administrators   and   policy form
  2. ii. The study will bestow the teachers in the selection and application of ICT in their classroom teaching and augments the student in their learning process, providing them other alternatives to classroom

iii.      They will therefore be encouraged to develop positive attitudes to teaching and learning through the use of ICT materials in and outside the classroom as it has positive impact on the academic achievements of the learners.

  1. The policy formulators and educational administrators are fundamental stakeholders of the educational management and administration. These areas will benefit immensely

 

from this research. It will help direct the focus of policy formulators and guide them in formulating policy on ICT in education.

 

Other stakeholders of education in Nigeria, such as parents, government and society at large, will also find this research very useful.

 

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

 

This research was conducted in Sokoto north local government, Sokoto. Sokoto North comprises of ten established Public and Private Schools of which there are both boarding and day Schools, but as a result of some constraint bordering on financial, time, transport and among others the work set to limit its effort to some six selected secondary schools in the Sokoto north local government. It tries to look at the effect of Information and Communication Technology on learning and achievement of students in the selected schools.

 

Definition of Terms

 

To avoid distortion and misinterpretation of words, there is need for me to define some concepts used in this work.

 

Effect: Means something that power

 

 

 

ICT: Stands for “Information and Communication Technologies.” ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT), and is defined, for the purposes of this primer, as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information.” These technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony.

 

Education: Is defined as a process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially, at a school or university according to Oxford dictionary.

 

Teaching:  Is  the  process  of  carrying  out  those  activities  that  experience  has  shown  to  be effective in getting students to learn.

 

Learning: Is a measurable and relatively permanent change in behavior   through experience, instruction, or study. There are various ways of facilitating learning, but for the purpose of this study Electronic learning or e-learning is considered. It refers to Internet-based networked computer-enhanced learning.

 

Student Learning outcome/ achievement: Student learning outcomes are defined in terms of the knowledge, skills, and abilities that students have attained as a result of their involvement in a particular set of educational experiences. While achievement here refers to academic achievement connoting, excellence in all academic disciplines, in class as well as in extracurricular       activities.    It    includes    excellence    in    behavior,    sporting,    confidence, communication, pronunciation, skills, punctuality, Arts, culture, and the like.

 

Computer Literacy: Implies level of familiarity with the basic hardware and software (and now Internet) concepts that allows one to use personal computers for data entry, word processing, spreadsheets, and electronic communications.

 

Interactive whiteboard:   An interactive whiteboard (IWB) is a large interactive display that connects to a computer. A projector projects the computer’s desktop onto the board’s surface where users control the computer using a pen, finger, stylus, or other device. The board is typically mounted to a wall or floor stand.

 

Information age: The period beginning around 1970 and noted for the abundant publication, consumption, and manipulation of information, especially by computers and computer networks.

 

Globalization: Simply refers to processes that promote world-wide exchanges of national and cultural resources. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise of the Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence of economic, and cultural activities.

 

Government policy: Is the general principles by which a government is guided in its management of public affairs, or the legislative

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