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Background to the Study
Teaching at any level requires that the students be exposed to some form of simulation. Adekunle (2008) in Dr. (Mrs.) E. O. Okobia (2011) noted that teaching resources means anything that can assist the teacher in promoting teaching and learning. When the students are given the chance to learn through more senses than one, they can learn faster and easier.
According to Nwafor. C.E. and Eze, S.O (2014) instructional materials refer to materials that are used to facilitate teaching and learning. It enables the teacher communicate ideas or concepts with ease as they appeal to many senses at a time. The learner can see, touch, smell or taste thereby making learning more meaningful. This agrees with the Chinese proverb that state: I hear, I forget, I see, I remember, and I do, I understand.
The use of instructional materials provides the teacher with interesting and compelling platforms for conveying information since they motivate learners to learn more. Furthermore the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of a given topic.
Larson (2001) quoted Lane (1994) who noted that the use of electronically mediated instruction to duplicate the traditional face to face classroom has resulted in a shift from teacher- to student-centred classes. In this situation the responsibility for learning is shifted to the students. The teacher facilitates the learning by acting as a coach, resource guide and companion in learning. The use of instructional materials does not only encourage teachers and students to work collaboratively but also results in more cooperative learning activities among the students. Ikerionwu (2000) refers to instructional materials as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. Similarly, Ezegbe (1994) classified them into two as visual materials, made up of reading and non-reading materials and audio-visual materials comprising electrically operated and non-electrically operated materials. Business studies is a subject that depends on the use of a number of resources.
Osakwe and Itedjere (1993) summarized these resources as textual like books, audio-visual and human resources. They stated that these resources are either used individually or collectively in any meaningful teaching and learning situation. The purpose of instructional materials is to promote efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning. Incorporating these tools and materials present, support and reinforces teaching. According to Aduwa-Ogiegbaen and Imogie (2005) these materials and resources including audio tape recorders, video tape recorders, slide projectors, opaque projectors, over-head projectors, still pictures, programmed instruction, filmstrips, maps, chart, graphs and many more offer a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination to meet different teaching and learning experiences.
Other investigators including Jimoh (2009), Yeager (2000), Nwanyanwu (1999), Bozimo (1992) and Ogbondah (2008) have similarly emphasized the importance of instructional materials and resources in the effective delivery of business studies lessons in secondary schools. These views have been corroborated by international investigators including Bolick, Berson, Coutts and Heinecke (2003), Killen (2006), Dahar and Faize (2011). Bolick, Berson, Coutts and Heinecke (2003) observed that while some educators are fascinated by the potential of instructional materials in enhancing teaching and learning, other teachers lagged behind in using instructional materials to teach. However, achieving these laudable goals of conscientious utilization of instructional materials and resources in business studies teaching and learning has been very challenging in developing countries such as Nigeria. As noted by Garuba (2003), the Nigerian teacher operates from a deficient environment where teaching and learning is seriously impoverished particularly in the rural set up. And even in the urban areas only few schools are connected to the national grid while virtually all the rural schools do not enjoy basic facilities like pipe borne water and electricity.
Instructional materials are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information to students in the educational process (Bradley et al. 2005). Among these items are textbooks, charts, magazines, newspapers, pictures, recordings, slides, transparencies and many more. The use of instructional materials in secondary schools has been widely researched and the findings indicate that the benefits of using them are immense. The integration of instructional materials in classroom practice is believed to bolster the quality of instruction by fostering student-centred pedagogies (Abdo and Semela 2010). Furthermore, according to Mateer et al. (2012) the use of relevant instructional media in the classroom is invaluable since it engages students, aids their retention of knowledge, motivates interest in the subject matter and helps to illustrate the relevance of many concepts taught.
Community institutions, people and businesses are a rich reservoir of instructional materials for Business Studies teachers because such materials can be sourced from local magazines, newspapers, government publications or the internet with minimum expenditure of time, energy and money. Business documents such as source documents (in Accounting), financial reports, bank withdrawal and deposit slips, consumer protection pamphlets and many more can be gathered from the business community for use in collaborative classroom activities. Today, free internet teaching resources have become a very important tool to impart education. Many government and private organisations have created internet-enabled free teaching resource materials that can be accessed anywhere by both teachers and students (Borrington 2004). The use of community resources in teaching can make students appreciate the local and international relevance of what they learn in school while affording them the opportunity to apply
Business Studies theory in context. This is supported by Chew (2008), who, in her study on the development of localised instructional materialsin Hong Kong, came to the conclusion that teaching and learning in business education could be enhanced to a great extent by using instructional resources based on local contexts, because such resources would be more authentic and more relevant to students’ needs.
This study therefore aims to study the extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching to learning of business education in junior secondary school in Nigeria using Ijebu-North Local Government as a case of study.
Statement of Problem
Since the inception of the National Junior Secondary School Business Studies Curriculum in Nigeria, few studies have been devoted to evaluating the availability and utilization of instructional materials and resources in the teaching of business studies in the Junior Secondary Schools of Nigeria. At the threshold of the new millennium, business studies teachers face both old and new challenges and need to evolve strategies to engage learners in activities that are active, meaningful and challenging.
It has been said that instructional materials has objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learners. According to Bradley et al. (2005), instructional materials are print and non-print items that are designed to impart information to students in the educational process. Also, according Chew (2008), teaching and learning in business education could be enhanced to a great extent by using instructional resources based on local contexts, because such resources would be more authentic and more relevant to students’ needs.
Therefore these have brought to recognition the essentiality of instructional materials in teaching and learning of business studies, hence this research work is designed to examine the extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching to learning of business education in junior secondary school using Ijebu-North Local Government as a case of Study.
Aims and Objectives of the Study
The following are the aims and objectives of this research work:
Significance of the Study
This study will be useful to professionals, counsellors, teachers, students and curriculum developers. It will enlighten them on the extent of use of instructional materials in the teaching to learning of business studies and even bring into awareness how important it is to both the teachers’ teaching effectiveness and the students’ academic performance.
The following are the research question of this study:
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