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Human Resource Management is one of the factors that determine organisation’s performance and it is used by quite a large number of organisations to increase the productivity of employees which also increases the organisation’s total productivity and enhances the organisation’s efficiency and effectiveness. The study examined the impact of human resource management on organisation’s performance. To achieve this, a public survey was adopted and data were obtained through the distribution of rate scale questionnaire and oral interviews. The sample for this study comprises of employees from MTN Nigeria, Access Bank, Fidelity Bank, Wema Bank, Forte Oil Plc and African Petroleum Oilfield Services Limited (a subsidiary of Forte Oil Plc) and also from Mutual House Insurance company. Frequency Tables and charts were used to represent the bio data and responses from respondent, Regression was used in testing the hypotheses. The results therefore, reveal that there is a significant relationship between human resource management and organisation’s performance as human resource management was divided into human resource policies, employee welfare, employee participation and employee training and satisfaction. This study concludes that four major factors are responsible for the success of human resource management in improving organisation’s performance which includes the implementation of human resource policies, inclusion of the investment and value of employee’s remuneration in the organisation’s culture, employee participation and employee training and satisfaction. The study recommends that organisations should try as much as possible to implement human resource policies put in place by them and there should be a periodic review and assessments (performance appraisal) for employees in the organisation



Title Page i
Approval page ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Abstract v
Table of Contents vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 3
1.3 Objectives of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Research Hypotheses 5
1.6 Assumptions to the Study 6
1.7 Significance of the Study 6
1.8 Scope of the Study 7
1.9 Limitations of the Study 8
1.10 Organisation of the Study 8
1.11 Definitions of terms 8
References 9
Literature Review
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Conceptual Framework 10
2.1.1 Nature of Human Resource Management 12
2.1.2 Rationale for Strategic Human Resource Management 14
2.1.3 Human Resource Development in Nigeria 18
2.1.4 Evolution and Development of Human Resource Management 19
2.1.5 Strategic Human Resource Management Model 19
2.1.6 Human Resource Management Activities 25
2.1.7 Human Resource Policies 29
2.1.8 Importance of Human Resource Policies 36
2.1.9 Organisational Performance 38
2.1.10 Human Resource Management 40
2.1.11 Importance of Human Resource Management to Organisations 43
2.2 Theoretical framework 44
2.2.1 Organisation Life Cycle Theory 45
2.2.2 Role behaviour Theory 45
2.2.3 Resource Dependency Theory 45
2.2.4 Institutional Theory 46
2.2.5 Transaction Cost Theory 47
2.2.6 Comparative Cost Theory 47
2.2.7 General System Theory 48
2.2.8 Human Capital Theory 48
2.2.9 Strategic Contingency Theory 49
2.2.10 Organisation Change Theory 50
2.2.11 Organisation Learning Theory 50
2.3 Empirical Review 53
2.4 Current Trends in Thinking ` 60
References 62
3.0 Introduction 68
3.1 Research Design 68
3.2 Research Population 69
3.3 Sample and Sampling technique (s) 69
3.4 Research Instrument (s) 70
3.5 Validity and Reliability of instruments 70
3.6 Method (s) of data collection 70
3.7 Data validation 71
3.8 Data Presentation and Analysis Techniques 72
3.8.1 Model Specification 72
Data Presentation and Analysis
4.0 Introduction 73
4.1 Return of Questionnaire 73
4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Demographic Characteristics 74
4.3 Data analysis ( Test of Hypothesis) 82
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.0 Introduction 96
5.1 Summary of Findings 96
5.2 Discussion of Findings 97
5.3 Conclusion 99
5.4 Recommendations 100
5.5 Contribution to Knowledge 101
5.6 Areas of Further Research 101



1.1 Background to the Study

In today‟s increasingly competitive business environment, organisations keep evolving ways of ensuring their continued survival and improving organisational performance on a sustained basis. Human resources are considered the most important asset of an organization, but very few organizations are able to fully harness its potential. Pfeffer (1994) argued that human capital has long been held to be a critical resource in most firms. Lado and Wilson (1994, p. 701) define a human resource system “. . . as a set of distinct but interrelated activities, functions, and processes that are directed at attracting, developing, and maintaining (or disposing of) a firm‟s human resources. Companies are now trying to add value with their human resources and human resource (HR) department has been set up in order to manage their human capital, where as organisation in last decade, managed their human capital through personnel department which is only a small division of the company. The process of managing the human capital is called human resource management (HRM). Traditionally, management of this system has gained more attention from service organizations than from manufacturing organizations. However, to enhance operational performance, effectively managing this system is equally important in both types of organizations. Needless to say, sophisticated technologies and innovative manufacturing practices alone can do very little to enhance operational performance unless the requisite human resource management (HRM) practices are in place to form a consistent socio-technical system. For this reason, manufacturing organizations need to carefully evaluate their existing HRM practices and modify them, if needed, so that employees can effectively contribute to operational performance improvement. This lack of attention is surprising when one considers human
resources‟ critical role in achieving superior performance in competitive priorities, such as low cost, quality, delivery, flexibility, and innovation.
Nigerian organizations have started realising the importance of HRM. Cheah et al. (2003) stated that Nigerian managers realised that HRM had to be effective to bring about organisational stability and harmony. Besides, they also stated that the diversity of the composition of the modern workforce in Nigeria requires more appropriate and imaginative HRM solutions. As several scholars have noted that managing people is more difficult than managing technology and capital (Barney, 1991; Lado & Wilson, 1994), principally, in a country like Nigeria which is a developing country with more labour than capital, failure in managing human capital and maintaining the harmony within an organisation will create fatal problems to the organisations.
Nigerian government has envisioned as a developed nation by 2020. Government has also recognised that human resource management can play an important role for the said vision. Managing human resources has become critical to the success at all companies, large and small, regardless of industry (Ulrich, 1997). Stavrou-Costea (2005) also argued that the effective human resource management can be the main factor for the success of a firm. Today the most of the companies believed that without efficient HRM programmes and activities companies would not achieved and sustained effectively (Schuler, 2000). Consequently most of the organisations, domestic companies and multinational companies in Nigeria nowadays tend to focus more on HRM and also treated HRM as a key of success. In as much as the policies are there, the organisations still do not implement them.
Considering the need for HRM practices, Effective Human Resources Management (HRM) provides a means, through which an organisation attracts, retain, develop, motivate and adequately compensate employees for a sustained growth and increased competitiveness.
Thus, this research is expected to become, in an important part, a meaningful guideline for human resource management practitioners and other stakeholders to see the critical role of Human Resources Management in the success or failure of companies and ensuring the efficient and effective functioning of companies as against their competitors.

1.2 Statement Of The Research Problem
The increasing competitive business environment has made every business to strive towards the improvement of organisational performance in all aspects, human resource management is one of them and in absence of it, problems could arise.
The following are problems identified with this research work:
1. Strategic human resource policies put in place and failure to implement these policies by the management has contributed to poor performance in companies in Nigeria.
2. Weak organisational culture, disregard for the value of workers‟ remuneration and resistant to change the overall culture of the organisation by the management has led to poor performance in companies in Nigeria.
3. lack of involvement of the employees in decision making, quality circles and team work in organisations led to poor human resource management which also affects organisational performance in Nigeria.
4. Negligence on the part of board of directors and laziness on the part of the human resource manager in the performance of their responsibilities to the organisation in selecting the right
person for the right job, job training and job satisfaction has contributed to poor human resource management and ultimately poor performance in organisations in Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study
Generally, this study seeks to explore the relationship between human resource management and organisational performance.
The specific objectives are set out as follows:
1.To examine the impact of different human resource policies on organisation‟s performance and find out why organisations hesitate to implement them in Nigeria .
2.To review organisation‟s culture and whether the investment and value of workers‟ remuneration are fitted into organisation‟s performance criteria in Nigeria.
3. To facilitate employee involvement and participation in decision making quality circles and team work all of which contributes to effective performance of organisations in Nigeria.
4. To examine the responsibilities of the board of directors and human resource managers in the areas of job selection, job training and job satisfaction which contributes to good human resource management and performance in organisations in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions
1. Do human resource policies affect organisation‟s performance in Nigeria?
2. To what extent is the investment and valve of employees‟ remuneration included in the organisation‟s culture and its impact on organisation‟s performance in Nigeria?
3. Do employees actively participate in decision making, quality circles and team work in organisations to improve its performance in Nigeria?
4. To what extent does the responsibility of the board of directors and human resource managers in the areas of job selection, job training and job satisfaction contribute to
good human resource management and effective performance of organisations in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The questions asked above lead to hypothesis, which will be tested on whether good human resource management leads to effective and efficient organisation‟s performance.
The hypotheses of the research are stated as follows:
Research hypothesis 1:
H0: Human resource policies do not affect organisation‟s performance in Nigeria?
H1: Human resource policies do affect organisation‟s performance in Nigeria?
Research hypothesis 2:
H0: Inclusion of the investment and valve of employees‟ remuneration in the organisation


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