After 1990, the Slovak Republic saw an emergence of a negative attitude towards technical education at primary schools. However, since the beginning of the 21st century the Government has been aware of the unfavourable development of technical education in Slovakia, and according to its autumn 2012 policy statement, it considered “education, science, research and innovation, information and digitization to be essential pillars of the knowledge-based society and economy”. This statement also indicated support for strengthening of education focused natural sciences and engineering. One of its main preconditions would be innovation of educational programs at different levels of the educational system in accordance with the requirements of pedagogical practice and in line with current needs of the labour market. Therefore, it will support the education leading to the development of job skills of primary school pupils to ensure professional orientation of students, particularly at secondary vocational schools. The importance of technical education for the overall development of children is discussed in relation to the preparation of students to study at secondary vocational schools. A successful completion of topics in the subject of Technology at primary schools (PS) is a prerequisite for an easier transition of pupils to secondary vocational schools.
1.1 Background to the study
Technical and Vocational Education and Training has been regarded as the bedrock to sustainable technology development programs in entrepreneurship, occupational professionalism, self-reliance, poverty alleviation, wealth creation and others. Consequently, Technical and Vocational Education and Training focus on specific trades that prepares an individual to be self-reliant and suitable for employment. Ajokporise (2010) posits that Technical and Vocational Education and Training focuses on specific trades such as automobile repairs, welding and fabrication, plumbing and pipefitting, electrical craftsmanship, hair dressing, tailoring, barbing among others. Furthermore, Ojimba (2012) stated that the contributions of Technical and Vocational Education and Training range from mechanical/automobile technology, electrical and electronic technology, building, woodwork technology, metalwork technology and others.
Anaele, Adelakun, Dem-Isaiah and Barfa, 2014,maintained that Technical and Vocational Education and Training is a type of education that provides trainees with relevant skills, knowledge and attitudes that is necessary for employment Also, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (2012) in Nwachukwu (2014) defined Technical and Vocational Education and Training as “a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process including, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life”. In
this context, Technical and Vocational Education and Training could be defined as that type of education that is systematically organized to train individuals to be practically oriented for paid or self-employment. It is worthy of note that the technological progress of any nation is dependent largely on the technical and vocational training facilities and experiences acquired and follow ups. Adah (2007) said that the introduction of the technical and vocational subjects in the 6-3-3-4 system propels the demand for technical and vocational teachers hence the establishment of many technical teacher education programs to National Certificate of Education (NCE) and above.
Umunadi (2013) summarily defined TVET as education for work. It prepares individuals to be gainfully employed. TVET system cannot be separated from the world of work, as the main goal of TVET is to develop occupational competence and enable its graduates to meet the requirement of their future work places. According to Dokubo and Dokubo (2013) TVET prepares individuals in acquisition of skills and job position in skill areas. Also in Yusuf and Soyemi (2012) TVET is meant to equip people with the technical and professional skills needed for industrial development as well as social progress of any country. Okafor (2011) stated that TVET plays an important role in manpower development and job creation in Nigeria. TVET manpower development is the formal or non-formal training and dexterity given to an individual in relation to the requirements of any nation for industrial and technological security or development visa-vise national development. TVET is a dividing force of human capital development and a catalyst to sustainable livelihood and economic development for developing nations such as Nigeria. That is the more reason the federal government of Nigeria (FGN) accepted vocational education as part of her educational curriculum in Nigerian schools. The objectives of vocational education in the national policy on education (NPE) of the federal government of Nigeria (FGN, 2004) are to:
- Provide skills, knowledge and attitude in the sciences, technology and the applied sciences, technology and business particularly at craft, advanced craft and technical levels.
- Provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agriculture, commercial and economic development.
- Give training and impart the necessary skills to individuals who shall be self reliant economically. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) teachers refers to individuals who are trained in the relevant institutions on how to teach technical and vocational subjects and relevant skills to students or learners. These teachers are trained in Nigeria in institutions like the federal colleges of education (technical). The establishment of technical and vocational teacher training institution in Nigeria hinges on the need for adequate and effective TVET teachers and manpower in the educational sector.
Effectiveness is a requirement in any profession of endeavor in life. It means achieving the required results. In teaching profession, effectiveness stands strong in the evaluation of teacher’s performance. Danielson, (2010) outlines measures relating to effective teaching; he organized them into four domains. The domains are planning and preparation, the classroom environment, instruction and professional responsibilities. Other variables that can be used as criteria for assessing the teaching effectiveness can be grouped in four clusters as follows: personality traits, professional display, competence and product.
It is a common assumption to attribute falling standards in TVET education to teacher’s ineffectiveness and vice-versa. Teacher’s effectiveness is the ability of teachers to make adequate preparation with respect to the required knowledge and skill as well as methodology. Hang (2009) asserted that “it’s not rocket science”, the better the teacher teaches the better the students learn. Teacher’s effectiveness can be understood by studying the models of instruction that capture and define what it is that the effective teacher know and do. This involves a deep understanding of subject matter learning theory and student’s differences, planning, and classroom instructional strategies, knowing individual students and assessment of students understanding and proficiency with learning outcomes. They also include a teacher’s ability to reflect, collaborate with colleagues and continue ongoing professional development. In addition the national board for professional teaching standards (NBPTS) also offers direction for what an effective teacher should know and be able to do and has merit in guiding school districts to formulate their own model of teacher effectiveness.
In spite of the fact that there was international assistance, the need for intensive local trainings of technical and vocational teachers led to the establishment of nine federal secondary schools in 1989 in addition to the national technical teachers colleges (NTTC) now Federal college of education (Technical) in Akoka, Yaba, Lagos in 1980 and also in Omoku Rivers State etc. this emerging necessity gave birth to technical vocational institutions hence the need to train competent and skilled teachers in the technical and vocational sub-sector of the Nigerian educational system. Training and re-training in the field of technical and vocational education is very necessary in a fast growing technical and scientific global world, where there is out-smarting in the scientific and technological breakthroughs. Technical and vocational teacher education is anchored on the training of the needed teachers who are competent in practical skills, knowledge and attitude for service delivery in the educational sector and specifically in secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The Federal Government of Nigeria in 2004 indicated that technical and vocational education is used as a comprehensive term referring to those aspect of the educational process involving in addition to general education the study of technologies and related sciences and the acquisition of practical skills, attitude understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in the sector of economy and social life (NPE 2004). So by implication, various institutions and programs that offers technical and vocational education such as Apprenticeship, Business Studies, Agricultural Science, ICT, Home Economics, Metal work, Wood work and so on and programs for teachers who work in polytechnics and colleges of education and allied tertiary institutions are all embedded in the policy of productivity and technological growth. The role of the teacher is essential to all aspect of economic development as the end implementer of the educational curriculum. Owing to the fact that the Federal Government of Nigeria recognizes the crucial roles of the technical and vocational institutions and specifically the teachers in the secondary schools as a source of supply of essential skilled manpower for the industries and for self employment as well as technical and vocational teachers, it sadden to note and worthy of concern that despite the laudable policies of the Government of Nigeria and that of the State, teachers in the secondary schools do not dissipate their full potential with respect to their training in teachers colleges and re-training programs.
Ideally the effectiveness of the technical college teacher can be evaluated from the point of view of the product (students). In other words, the acquisition of practical skills by students of secondary schools is a function of effective teachers all things being equal. Conversely graduates of secondary schools today remained essentially devoid of practical skills in different trades (Kumazhege and Ogunsola, 2010). The implication is that secondary schools are graduating students with inadequate or complete lack of practical skills in the various trade areas. This portrays a bleak future for the teachers and the attainment of the lofty goals of the national policy on education, of making technical college graduates “immediately employable”. No wonder despite the four secondary schools in the state there is still a good number of unemployable graduates from secondary schools roaming the streets. It is on this base that the researcher wants to investigate the impact of constraints of TVET on teacher’s effectiveness in secondary schools in Rivers State. Researchers of recent times and in the contemporaries have traced the ill-preparedness of our technical college graduates to ineffectiveness of TVET teachers thou this may be subject to argument by some individuals but on the whole TVET teachers cannot be completely exonerated from the so called “half-baked” graduates from the secondary schools in Rivers State. Essentially the improvement of economy of any nation depends largely on its manpower development, in other words it’s the amount of practical skills, knowledge and attitudes impacted to the learner by the teacher. Logically therefore the failure of students to acquire practical skills from the secondary schools can be attributed to ineffectiveness of TVET teachers and this ineffectiveness cannot be without constraints which made the researcher to find out some of the possible constraints of the technical teachers in the secondary schools in Rivers State and its impacts on the teachers effectiveness in the classroom and workshops, (Ayomike 2014, Nworgu and Nwanoruo 2011). The federal Government of Nigeria over time has put in meaningful effort in the development of teachers in the nations educational sector, the secondary schools seem to lead
the way in this development. The establishment of Technical and vocational teacher training institutions hinges on the need for effective and adequate technical teacher and manpower in the educational sector. This was envisaged as a panacea to technological competence in the educational system and reduction in unemployment market, yet up till now there are high visible constraints such as poor funding, no allowances for TVET teachers, no promotions etc. in the secondary schools in the country and Rivers State in particular, (Uwaifo and Uwaifo, 2009).
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose is to identify the importance of technical education training of secondary school students in teaching and learning. It will further show th impacts of the constraints of TVET on teacher’s effectiveness in class room and workshop situation in secondary schools in Rivers State. Specifically the study intends to:
- Ascertain the constraints of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in secondary schools in Rivers State.
- To find out the impact of TVET constraints on teachers classroom instruction delivery in secondary schools.
- To examine the impact of TVET constraints on teachers workshop instruction delivery in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided this study:
- What are the constraints of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in secondary schools in Rivers State?
- What is the impact of TVET constraints on teacher’s classroom instruction delivery in secondary schools?
- What is the impact of TVET constraints on teacher’s workshop instruction delivery in secondary schools?
1.5 Significant of the study
This is relevant and importance to the Lecturers, Students, and Government in any way. Helping to expose and Evaluates some Factors Affecting the Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education subjects in secondary schools. It helps to stimulated all financial and facilities support which before, how had been denied Vocational and Technical Education course in secondary schools.
A major relevance was the likelihood of serving as guide to curriculum planners in selecting and organizing appropriate content materials and methodology, aids, and the scope of Vocational and Technical Education programmes for enhancing economic development of Nigeria.
The study helps the Lecturers to adopt better method of teaching so as to enhance the performance of students in their courses. It also helps the students to find meaning in studying Vocational and Technical Education courses and make them to more familiar with modern machinery. In the same way, this study helps the Government and Parents to know where it is wanting and enable them to supply the necessary infrastructure, materials and equipment for the success of Effective Teaching and Learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses in secondary schools.
Conclusively, it exposed the parents to know the brilliancy and self-confidence of their children in school as one of the factors affecting learning opportunities in school.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study focuses in the importance of technical education training of secondary school students in teaching and learning. In these schools, emphasis was placed on teach-students relationship. Government was able to detect the problems that are affecting the effective teaching and learning of Vocational and Technical Education courses such as funding, facilities, staff training and retention, staff situation e.t.c and was help in improving the curriculum in order to carry out the innovation of the effective teaching and learning in the institution.
1.7 Definition of terms
Vocational Education: – Is the ability to use one’s skills to gainfully and displays one’s intellectual and economic horizon well enough to be able to tackle very effectively many of economic problems confronting individuals and society at large.
Education: – It is the process of enabling individuals to live as useful and acceptable members of a society.
Technical Education:– Is more science-oriented with emphasis on the application of scientific and mathematics principle as applied in such fields as engineering, electronics, electrical, mechanical and automobile trades.
ICT: – Information and Communication Technology
Teaching: – Is a way of guiding students in securing the amount of quality of experience which will provide the optimum development of their potential as human being.
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