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The study investigated the influence of work and occupational
stress on employee’s job satisfaction. Two hundred and fifty (250)
participants were used for the study. Two hypotheses involving
shift and non-shift work, high and low occupational stress were
tested. Two instruments were used to measure the variables of
A 2 x 2 factorial design was adopted resulting in the use of 2-way
ANOVA for data analysis. The result shows a statistically
significant influence of shift work on job satisfaction [F(1, 196) =
114.29, P<.01)]. For the second factor, the result was also
significant. Occupational stress exerted a significant influence on
job satisfaction [F(1, 196) = 22.02, P<.01).] There was also an
interaction influence of shift work and occupational stress on job
satisfaction [F(1, 196) = 10.24, P<.01).] The results were
discussed and suggestions made for further studies





TITLE PAGE – – – – – – – i
CERTIFICATION – – – – – – – ii
DEDICATION – – – – – – – – iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT – – – – – – iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS – – – – – – v – vi
LIST OF TABLE – – – – – – – vii
ABSTRACT – – – – – – – – viii
Statement of the Problems – – – – – 13-14
Purpose of the study – – – – – – 14
Operational Definitions of Terms – – – – 15
Theoretical review – – – – – – – 16-31
Empirical review – – – – – – – 31-44
Hypotheses – – – – – – – – 44
Participants – – – – – – – – 45-46
Instruments – – – – – – – – 46-47
Procedure – – – – – – – – 48
Design / Statistics – – – – – – – 49
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS: – – – – – 50-52
CHAPTER FIVE: – – – – – – – 53
Discussion of Results – – – – – – 53-54
Practical implications of the Results – – – – 56-57
Recommendation – – – – – – – 58-59
Summary & conclusion – – – – – – 59-60
REFERENCES – – – – – – – 61-71



In today’s technological and moving business world,
significant and growing percentage of the population work in
formal organizations (Heller and Hindle, 1988). People work
under a broad array of conditions. While many of these people
work indoors, others work outside. Some of these jobs require
exposure to intense heat, cold and/ or noise. Hence, while some
of these jobs involve high risk injury or illness, others carry low
risks. The average working time in the civil service, public and/or
private sector encompasses a major part of the individual’s life
span and occupies a period when physical and mental capacities
are fully utilized. Organizations are constantly evolving and the
nature of the services provided necessitates differential work
Here in Nigeria, not all the employees in different
organizations do perform the usual 8am to 4pm – five days – a
week. Police officers, military personnel, fire fighters, prison
warder, nurses, telephone operators among others, do provide
24-hours – a – day service. Muchinsky (1997), posits that in
industrial manufacturing companies, some
technologies/machine require constant monitoring and
operation. Hence, it becomes rational and practical to run these
machines continually by having different shift work systems
round the clock. He notes further that there are no uniform shift
hours, as various companies adopt different shifts.
Usually for nurses, a 24-hour-a-day is broken into three 8-
hour- work shifts as follows:
i. 7am to 2pm (day shift):
ii. 2pm to 10pm (swing or afternoon shift)’ and
iii. 10pm to 7am (night shift).
Muchinsky finally observes that some companies have employees
run only one shift, more so, as workers generally do not like the
afternoon and night shift. Consequently, many firms and
organizations do rotate the shift on weekly basis so as to carry all
the workers along.
Psychologists in industrial settings (Muchinsky, 1988), did and
still do investigate the degree to which workers’ job satisfactions
are affected by the shift work, and their abilities to cope with
these changes in work schedules.
Since it is the functions of the Nigeria Police Force to maintain
internal security here in Nigeria, enforce the laws and orders of
the law abiding citizens, arrest, investigate and charge/or
prosecute all the offenders in law courts; the police had since
adopted three shift work schedules covering from Sunday to
Saturday of every week. In order to cover all these duties and
police the country effectively, Udonsy 91976), outlines the shift
work schedules in this organization as follows:
(a) Morning shift, from 0600 hrs to 1400 hours;
(b) Afternoon shift, 1400 to 2200 hours; and
(c) Night shift. 2200 hours to 0600 hours.
It should be noted at this juncture that the first workers to
be initiated to this routine were not policemen, or even firemen,
but bakers. Industrialization and global warfare brought shift
work into the mainstream (Aveni, 1999). In other words,
estimates are that more than 25% of all workers in the U.S. and
Europe are now shift workers.
This proposal tends to investigate whether the police
personnel actually do have job satisfactions on their job; and/or
experience stress in their day to day hassles while working these
shifts. Aschoff (1978), in his work posits that shift workers
experience many problems ranging from physiological to social
adjustments; stressing that most physiological problems are
associated with interruptions of the circadian rhythm or internal
biological clock; that is to say, our bodies are “programmed” for a
certain time cycle. Hence, shift works have been observed to
interrupt the cycles of eating, sleeping and working hours; and
workers on these shift therefore, tend to experience physiological
In actual fact, the police personnel on these shift works are
mostly those on the lower ranks in this force. These are the
Inspectors of police, and the Rank and files (made up of
Sergeants, corporals and constables); who constitute the life wire
of this force. These rank brackets are those mostly running the
shift work systems; and are equally seen on the field from time to
time. These are the same group of police officers seen by the
general public either in their course of being arrested,
investigated, and/or probably, while being charged to or
prosecuted in law courts. In the course of their enforcing all
these laws of the Federation, states and local councils, these
officers tend to engage the riotous and unlawfully assembled
members of public in physical combat. Not only these, the
officers equally do engage the armed robbers in gun battles
during their tour of duties. This study therefore, tends to
investigate whether these police officers while enforcing all these
laws and more, will actually experience stress. Although,
researchers have come to agree that stress is found in every
organization, industries and in every day’s live of all human
existence; many factors have been advanced by theorists to affect
individual’s job satisfaction. Paramount amongst them is
occupational stress. Organizational changes coupled with
economic melt down and depression have produced its casualties
at both organizational and individual level resulting in stress and
conflict. According to cooper (2005), high incidence of stress
throughout organizations irrespective of job satisfaction and
involvement stress is individually analyzed and every employee
has a range of satisfaction which they can feel steady and safe.
For MCkenna (1999), stress entails any situation that is seen as
burdensome, threatening ambiguous or boring and is likely to
affect free flow of performance and satisfaction. A satisfied
employee who is committed and involved in his or her job should
not encounter stressful circumstances, but Mullins (1999)
argued that one potential source of work stress arises from role
incongruence and positional role conflict that are not compatible
with individual training and experience. Mbieli (2007), noted that
occupational stress could act to activate people into action with
possible positive behavioural consequences, stressing that the
physiological impact upon the person could come in inform of
headache, Muscular tensions, fatigue and hypertension. As a
complex psychological concept, occupational stress is
intrinsically tied into an individual employee’s perceptual system
and as such is seen as subjective phenomenon which influence
job satisfaction (Mullins, 1999).
In organization and service delivery as posited by Berkowitz,
Cochran and Fraser (1998), employee’s job satisfaction is the
attainment of value outcome that function to promote
involvement and the simplest level people would respond fairly
and positively to occupational stress in work environment that is
pleasant. Job stress phenomenon involves complicated
interactions between person and environment. There are two
central features of stress at work (1) dimension or characteristics
of the person and (2) the potential sources of stress at work
environment. The interactions of these two features of stress at
work, determine either coping or maladaptive behaviour and
stress related diseases (Copper and Marshal, 1996). Job stress
represents a complex assemblage of variables cognitions (beliefs
or knowledge), emotions (feelings and sentiments, or evolutions)
and behavoural tendencies, i.e absenteeism tardiness, tension,
fatigue and withdrawal since occupational stress is an unseen,
unobservable variable which can only be inferred from
behavioural responses it affects individual job involvement
resulting in job dissatisfaction. Research works have co me to
show that potential stressors these officers are likely to
encounter include: the occupation or job itself, environmental or
organizational stressors, as well as stressors external to the job
that may influence their effectiveness at work.
Muchinsky (1998) notes that exposure to conditions of
intense heat, cold and noise affect humans in various ways
leading to stress.
In industrial setting, Beehr and Newman (1998) posit that
there are wide individual differences associated with perception
of stress.
In life generally, a worker may feel stressed by a hectic work
schedule, while another may accept this as a challenge. Hence,
any stimulus (e.g work pace, noise, role pressure) that elicits a
stress response is a stressor. Stress occurs when the magnitude
of the stressor exceeds the individual’s capacity to resist. For
instance, workload is stressor or something that caused a person
to feel stressed when he thinks that he is unable to cope with the
large workload. Six sources of stress or occupational stressors,
were categorized in the occupational stress indicator (OSI) thus:
factors intrinsic to the job, management role, relationships with
others, career and achievement, organizational structure and
climate, and home/work interface. Cooper and Cartwright (1996)
reiterated that these are main sources of stress at work, arguing
that they are applicable to different occupations.
Warr (1987) categorized those concepts such as job
satisfaction, organizational commitment, job – related tension,
job related depression, job related burnout, and morale as jobrelated
well – being. The variables measuring well-being in the
present study include job satisfaction, physical and mental well –
being. Some studies using the OSI have demonstrated that
stressors at work are negatively related to workers’ job
satisfaction and well-being in western and Chinese societies
(Fotinatos-Ventouratos and Cooper 1998; Lu, Shiau, & Cooper,
1997; Bogg & Cooper, 1995; Robertson, Cooper & Williams,
1990, Siu, Cooper & Donald, 1997; Yu, Sparks & Cooper, 1998).
Doe instance, Fotinatos-Ventouratos and cooper (1998)
demonstrated that “organizational structure and climate” was a
significant predictor of job satisfaction among workers of different
social classes.
For people working in group and shifts like the police,
stressors need not exist in isolation. If they exist jointly, a worker
must contend with their additive or interactive effects. For police
work that involves constant exposure to heat, cold, danger and
working at difficult terrain, the employer in this millennium
2006, should see the urgent need to provide adequate and
special protective equipment like rain coats, sweaters, bullet
proof vests; to curb the potential hazards associated with the
work. Hence, police and other paramilitary organizations most
often, are exposed to situations that tasked their psychological
well-being and persistence daily work experience (Heady &
Wearing, 1992). Work conditions that required constant exposure
to dangers, according to Borg (1990) are stressful. Thus, it is
generally believed that policing is inherently stressful because of
the dangerous and unsavory tasks that are part of everyday
police work (Singler & Wilson, 1998) Thus, dealing with such
incidents as road transma, violent offenders, armed robbers,
vehicle snatchers, mobile set snatchers, uncompromising public,
poor public image, poor working conditions and distressed
victims might be stressful to police officers (Hart, 1994). Hart,
Wearing and Conn (1995) showed that the organizational context
in which the police operate is more distressing than the actual
job itself. This adverse work experiences result in psychological
distress and thus an absence of well-being; a view that is
typically adopted in the occupational literature (Quick, Murphy
and Hurrell, 1992). Again, the idea that psychological distress
and well- being lie on the same continuum which in the words of
Hart (1994) does not account for the fact that a person’s
psychological response to his work environment has affected
positively (morale) and negatively (depression, anxiety and
psychosomatic systems) dimensions.
Most reports and researches into police stress relied heavily
on single response and are not linked to other factors. This
researcher finds it necessary to integrate shift work and stress,
ad their impact on job performance amongst police officers. More
especially as most police shift workers develop ‘sleep debt’.
Hence, studies in the United State of America and Europe for
instance, indicate that shift workers get seven hours or less sleep
per week than their day-working counterparts. Further studies
also show that those working rotating shifts average only 5.5.
hours of sleep when work night hours. The aggregate loss is
sometimes, particularly recouped only on off-days. Thus, until
this compensation occurs, if it does at all, the mood and
performance of the shift workers is routinely affected.
Hence, Aveni (1999) states that sleep deprivation amongst
police shift workers must be considered a serious component of
another potential killer-job stress’. The cumulative effect of sleep
deprivation upon the shift-working policeman appears to
aggravate job stress, and/or, his ability to cope with it. Thus,
even more troubling is the prospect that the synergy of job stress
and chronic sleep indebtedness contribute mightily to a
diminished life expectancy of 73 years. While policemen on the
other hand, are said to have a life expectancy of 53-66 years,
depending on which research one decides to embrace. According
to National institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
in America, from studies of 22,000 workers across over 100
occupational groups; labourers, secretaries, lab, technicians,
first-line managers, waiters/waitresses and machine operators
belong to the most stressful occupations. In support of this
claim, Dipboye, smith and Howell (1994), posit that the helping
professions are also considered to be stressful, especially the job
of police officers, nurses and social workers. Hence, in a study of
more 2000 worker across 23 occupations French, Caplan, and
Harrison (1982), found occupational differences not only in the
amount of stress, but also in the type of stress experienced by
In Nigerian environment however, most workers (police
officers inclusive) are observed to experience one from of stressor
or the other, in their places of work. Hence, stress is seen here,
as a sign of active life which is absent, makes life become a
passive journey to boredom. Thus without stress, the
accompanying motivation and striving to accomplish life
ambition and conquer the environment become illusive (Nweze,
1995). Furthermore, there is mental and emotional homoeostasis
attained through the process of adaptation which the individual
applies to the external environment including such contexts as …
work, friendship through the manipulation of the environment or
the use of ego defense mechanisms (Ezeilo, 1995). Hence, the
conditions of stress that we experience often depend on the
outcome of the appraisals we make in our transactions with the
environment. Stress is however, a normal component of life,
which if in mild or moderate degrees; may be helpful as a
constructive force, which mobilizes our resources to achieve
effectiveness and well-being. According to Ifeagwazi (1995), stress
appears a prevalent clinical problem and a concomitant of all
clinical pathologies. Hence, chronic emotional stress can lead to
such psycho-physiological illnesses as ulcer, asthma, cancer,
hypertension (the forerunner of stroke) and heart diseases.
Consequently, the cost of stress in terms of human suffering
social and occupational impairment and illness are enormous.
Great number of variables may interact to affect workers’
job satisfaction in Nigeria Police Force. Bohle and Tilley’s (1998)
found that shift workers’ attitudes were significant predicator,
affecting satisfaction; because of rigidity of sleeping habits and
vigour – as the ability to overcome drowsiness. Negative attitudes
to shift work have also been linked to elevated physical and
psychological symptoms.
Certain factors therefore, cause organizations and
industries to adopts shift work schedules for their personnel.
Reasons mostly adduced in such circumstances, are mainly to
cover the operational costs, which should result from shutting
down the machines in these industries. This is usually estimated
to cost millions, if not billions of naira before these engines are
started once again. In the same vein, the cost of running only one
shift work in Nigeria Police Force shall be enormous, considering
the fact that the police station houses all the detained suspects
at any given time, the police arms and ammunitions, all the vital
exhibits in connection with cases under investigations, and all
other vital documents/property belonging to the government.
Based on this, the welfare and job satisfaction of the police
may be affected by this unusual work schedule.
Thus, these research problems will addressed in this study:
1. Does shift work affect the job satisfaction of police
2. Does stress associated with the work affect the job
satisfaction of police officers?
It is a common knowledge that here in Nigerian Civil/Public
service, workers tend to be dissatisfied with all variables
contributing to job satisfaction. The purpose of this study is
therefore, to:
1. Examine the influence of shit work on job satisfaction of
2. Examine the influence of on job satisfaction among
Shift Work: Means the rotatory deployment of officers on
weekly basis to:
a. morning duty – from 0600 hours to 1400 hours;
b. afternoon duty – from 1400 hours to 2200 hours: and
c. night shift – from 2200 hours to 0600 hours – from Sunday
through Saturday.
Stress: Means pressure from an adverse environment that
imposes unusual demands on officers while on shift work.
Job satisfaction: Refers to officers attitudes or orientations
toward their job. Job dissatisfaction on the other hand, is the
negative attitudes of officers towards their jobs.
Police officers: Here means the Inspectors, and rank and file
members of Nigeria Police Force.
Inspectors, Rank and File Members of the Force: are the noncommissioned
officers in this force.