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The influence of strike action on employee‟s performance and productivity. Strike generally could be defined as the refusal to work by employees of an establishment to protest from certain inadequacies in their conditions of service. Strike is a work stoppage caused by mass refusal of employee to work. To solve this research problem, the workers should be given their pride of place and be put in the “hall of fames” because the workers are the light house of the world who should be given their salaries promptly, given them incentives, make sure they are satisfied job-wise so as to be more dedicated thereby producing good giants who will uplift the tone of the nation within and outside the nation. The society itself could solve this contemporary problem of strikes, the financial gain is not coming in thousand; frustration is being meted to the workers from the citizenry. The design of the study used for this study was survey design. The population put together is 12,000 and the sample size is 746. The instrument used for data collection is the questionnaire and interview. The instrument for data analysis is Chi-square method of testing of hypothesis and simple percentages of analyzing the tables.
Title page – – – – – – – – – – i Approval page – – – – – – – – ii Dedication – – – – – – – – – – iii Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – iv Abstract – – – – – – – – – – v Table of contents – – – – – – ix List of contents – – – – – – – – – iix CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the study – – – – – – – 4 1.2 Statement of Research Problem – – – – – 7 1.3 Objectives of the study – – – – – – – 8 1.4 Significance of the study – – – – – – – 9 1.5 Scope of the study – – – – – – – – 9 1.6 Limitations of the study – – – – – – – 10 1.7 Research questions – – – – – – – – 11 1.8 Statement of the hypothesis – – – – – – 11 1.9 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – – 12 1.10 Theoretical frame work – – – – – – – 11 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – 13 CHAPTER THREE: RESREACH DESIGN METHODOLOGY – 42 3.1 Design of the study – – – – – – – 42 3.2 Area of the study – – – – – – – – 42 3.3 Population of study – – – – – – – – 43 3.4 Sampling procedure – – – – – – – 44 3.5 The sample – – – – – – – – – 45
3.6 Research instrument – – – – – – – 45 3.7 Data collection – – – – – – – – 46 3.8 Method of data analysis – – – – – – – 46 3.9 procedure for testing of hypothesis – – – – – 46 CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 47 CHAPTER FIVE: Summary Of Findings, Discussions, Conclusion, Recommendations, Implication, Limitations.
5.1 Summary of findings – – – – – – – 78 5.2 Discussions – – – – – – – – – 78 5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – 80 5.4 Recommendation – – – – – – – – 81 5.5 Implication – – – – – – – – – 82 5.6 Limitation – – – – – – – – – 84 5.7 Suggestions for further study – – – – – – 85
BIBLIOGRAPHY – – – – – – – – 86 Appendices – – – – – – – – – 87 Questionnaire – – – – – – – – – 88
Strike generally could be defined as the refusal to work by
employees of an establishment to protest for certain inadequacies in
their conditions of service.
Strike is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of
employees to work. Strike usually takes place in response to
In most countries, they were quickly made illegal as factory
owners hand political power than workers. Most Western countries
partially legalized striking in the 19th or ea 20th centuries.
Strikes are sometimes used to put pressure on government to
change policies. It will also be noted that strike is not peculiar to
universities alone but to other organizations or pressure groups
1. Nigeria labour Congress (NLC)
2. Nigeria Bar Association (NBA)
3. Nigeria Union of Journalist (NUJ)
4. Nigeria Medical Association (NMA)
Higher Institutions that are liable to embank on strike actions
1. The Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUNU)
2. The National Association of Nigeria Students (NANS)
3. The Academic Staff Union of Polytechnics (ASUP)
4. The Academic Staff Union of College of Education etc
When strike occurs in an organization, workers suffer most and in
this way, the Nigeria working system has been thoroughly
There is no way to remedy this situation apart from the
individual employees concerned to stand up and demand for their
Although, strike may create temporary difficulties for workers in the
sense that it will stop their work and without their work, they won`t
earn a living. this situation of our country Nigeria will not be fully
developed because they will be back of or less production because
of the strike action management has not put its priorities right. it is
in protest of these misplaced priorities and inadequacies that these
management and Nigeria union of worker. ie the Nigeria labour
In most cases, the employers and the employees would have
explored all avenues for dialogue and strike becomes the last option
for the settlement of disputes.
Before the introduction of strike among Nigeria worker in the
years 1963 by PA Imodu, the authorities have always worked in
peace and harmony with their privilege to work as an employee in
any organization because they always had great expectations both
the senior and the junior staff worked happily together as members
of the same community and guided by a sense of mission to
promote and preserve their working performance.
Today, the issue of strike in our country has been so rampant
that the government will have to do something urgently so as not to
Jeopardize the interest of the employees on how to improve their
performance and productivity in their place of work. But before the
emergence of union, there had been spontaneous strike and
protests against poor conditions of work in several African
In the strike that took place in sierra-leane in 1874. In
Senegal, rail road workers had frequently engaged in sporadic
strikes against the dehumanizing conditions of work.
In practice, however, it has been difficult to separate strike
from other forms of expression of industrial dispute as employers
lock out workers and workers them-selves embank on strike action.
it is or useful to view both phenomena as part and parcel of the
conflict situation, not as opposite. rarely does a strike occur over a
single issue for an obvious cause may be linked with several others
issues that are not immediately apparent to the observation that
have caused dis-satisfaction because solutions to them have been
long in coming. The actual occurrence of a strike depends on
several factors including prevailing circumstance. This also goes to
show that few strikes occur spontaneously especially as there is no
way of guaranteeing that a strike action instead of other forms of
strike action would be decided upon by worker involved.
1.2 BRIFY HISTORY OF CASE STUDY
The University of Nigeria, commonly referred to UNN, is a Federal
University located in Nuskka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Founded in
1955 and formally opened on 7th October 1960, the University of
Nigeria has four campuses-Nuskka, Enugu and Ituku-Ozalla
Located in Enugu State and one in Aba, Abia State Nigeria.
The University of Nigeria was the first full fledges indigenous
and first autonomous educational system. it is the first land-grant
university in African and one of the five elite universities in the
country. The university has 15 faculties and 102 academic
departments. The university offers 211 undergraduate programmers
and 82 postgraduate programmers.
The University celebrated its 50th anniversary in October 2010.
A law to establish a university in the Eastern Region of Nigeria
was passed on may 18, 1955 while that date marks the formal
beginning of the history of the university of Nigeria, the enactment
of this legislation by several Nigeria leaders, and inspired
particularly by then premier of the Eastern Region, Dr. Nnamdi
Azikwe. One of the first steps taken by Eastern Nigeria Government
towards the implementation of its commitment was an invitation to
both the United States of American and the United Kingdom to send
advisers to help in the planning of physical structures and
educational aspects of the proposed university.
Under the joint auspices of the inter overseas and the
international Education Administration (now the United States
Agency for international the Development). J.W. Cook, Vice
Chancellor of the University of Exacter, Dr. John A Hannah,
President of Michigan state university and Dr. Glen L. Taggart,
Dean of International programmers at the same university came to
Nigeria in 1958. The team surveyed the site at Nsukka, and
extensively investigated a great variety of factors pertinent to the
establishment of a new university.
The result of their efforts were contained in a while paper
issued by the Eastern Nigeria Government on 30 November 1958.
They had recommended “that the development of the University of
Nigeria based upon the concept of service to problems and needs of
Nigeria is a desirable project and one that should receive support
from any source which could help to make it a sound Endeavour”.
They further recommended that a provisional council be
established to “draw upon the technical and consultative
Resource available throughout the world to help in planning the
institution” the provisional council authorized by the Eastern
Nigeria legislature, was appointed by the Governor in council in
April 1959, and given necessary financial and administrative
powers to build a sound university. it reflected the spirit of
international co-operation which has given birth to the institution.
it consisted of Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe. Dr. T. Olawale Elias and Dr.
Okechukw Ikejiani from the federation of Nigeria, J.S. Fulton from
the United Kingdom, Dr. Marguertu Cartwright and Dr. Eldon Lee
Jonson from the United State of American.
The university was formally opened on 7th October 1960, as
the Celebrations in the Eastern Region. her Royal Highness
Princess Alexandra of Kent, represent HER Majesty Queen
Elizabeth 11 at the Nigeria independence celebrations performed
the opening ceremonies and laid the foundation stone of one of the
university`s early buildings.
Classes began on 17 October 1960 with an enrollment off 220
students and 13 members of the academic staff other opening
convocation addresses were delivered by the chairman of the
provisional council, Dr. Nnamdi Azikwe, the first president of the
federation of Nigeria and by Dr. John A. Hannah, president of
Michigan State University, U.S.A.
The university was fully autonomous, with the power to grant
its own degree technology speaking, therefore, it become the first
fully-fledge university in Nigeria since Ibadan was still at that time a
university. It also became the first university established by a
Nigeria Regional Government.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The Influence of strike action on employee`s performance and
productivity poses serious problems both on management and
lecturer and those problems sought to be solved by the end of this
research study and they include, the causes of strike action, how
workers performance and productivity could be increased, ways in
which strike actions could be eradicated and dose strike action
demoralize workers or motivate them.
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.
The issue of strike by organization has been so rampant that the
government will have to do something urgently about this situation,
so as not Jeopardize the existence of the organization.
Therefore, the objective of this study includes:-
1. To find out whether strike influence the employee performance
in an organization.
2. To find out whether delay in payment employees salaries is the
major cause of strike in an organization.
3. To find out how government reach towards the cause of strike
in an organization.
4. To find out how the organization, employers and employees
respond either positively or negatively to strikes.
5. To prefer practical solution to the problems.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This empirical study will be important to be researcher since it is a
partial requirement for the award of Bachelor of Science in
Industrial Relations and personnel Management. Also this research
work will be the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. it will also be
beneficial to other universities within Nigeria and potential and
future researchers on the issue of strike action in employee`s
productivity and performance.
The study will identify how to make management have a re-think or
reconsider their plea. How strike action is carried out so as to
increase the welfare or pay of workers and how employed embark
on strike so as to gain grounds in the organization.
1.6. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study focuses on the influence of strike
action on employee‟s performance and productivity, the cause of
strike action and the necessary measure to reduce or avoid strike
action. In this scope we will be able to search and find out how the
strike action affect the performance and productively of workers in
university of Nigeria Nsukka.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The research was also limited by time and financial
constraints, as the researcher also affected by restriction of
movement by the institution authority. The researcher did not also
make use of so many books that are meant to be the library
because there are no enough books related to any topic in the
1.8 REASEACH QUESTIONS
This research questions is based on the influence of strike
action on employee‟s performance and productivity.
1. To what extent dose strike action influence employee
performance and productivity in an organization.
2. To what extend does delay on the payment of workers salaries
cause strike in am organization.
3. To what extend does the management employer and employee
respond to strike action.
4. To what extend does the government respond to the demands
5. What is the practical solution to the problem of strikes in the
University of Nigeria Nsukka?
1.9 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1. There is significant influence of strike action on employee
Productivity and in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka
2. Strike action erupts as a result of delay in payment of workers
salaries and other entitlement.
3. There is significant Influence of strike action on the reactions of
1.10 THORITICAL FRAMWORK
Strike generally could be defined as the refusal to work by employee
of an establishment to protect for certain inadequacies in their
conditions of services. Strike usually takes place in response to
employee‟s grievance. We have different theories in strike and they
are unitary perspectives, classical perspective, integrationist
perspective and pluralistic perspective all those are involutes in the
strike theories but the pluralistic perspective it say “if one however
accepts the views of social writer and the idea of a pluralistic
approach to work organization, then conflict among competing
subgroups will be seen as an inherent feature of structure of the
organization. The pluralistic manager is more likely to accept that
conflict in organization requires careful handling and attempts to
reconcile rival interest
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
STRIKE: An organized refusal to work by employees of a company.
INFLUENCE: The power to produce effects, especially Indirectly or
through an intermediary, the condition of being affected power to
change a person`s way of life.
JOB SATISFACTION: Remuneration is a reward. It is better
payment and fringe benefits. The chief characteristics of workers
were that economic self interest. Michael white (1980) discovered
that remuneration (money) is a good and an incentive.
Remuneration is a source of satisfaction, is a standard companion.
so remuneration is a source of material goods stimulus to greater
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