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NWAFOR NWAMAKA LOVETH

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PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL ON THE KINETIC STUDY ON HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE (SAW-DUST)

The Project File Details

  • Name: THE KINETIC STUDY ON HYDROLYSIS OF CELLULOSE (SAW-DUST)
  • Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
  • Size: [656 KB]
  • Length: [59] Pages

 

ABSTRACT

This research project studied on the kinetics of hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose.
The steps employed to achieve this project involved extraction of cellulose from
sawdust and subsequently, hydrolysis of starch to simple sugar. This was followed
by glucose analysis. Different experiments were conducted during acid hydrolysis
to study the various acids on the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. The saw-dust
was extracted from the wood by grinding using saw. The process used in the
hydrolysis was acid hydrolysis in which two major inorganic acids (Hydrochloric
and Sulfuric) were used at constant temperature of 80oC. During this experiment, it
was observed that Hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed most, followed by Sulphuric acid.
Finally, sugar analysis was carried out to determine the acid with the highest yield
of glucose and the best acid for the hydrolysis. It was noticed that the yield of
glucose was relatively high from HCl at 1.280% concentration, followed by H2SO4
at 0.940%. It was also seen from the graph that the absorbance yield increases as
the glucose concentrations increases in terms of HCl. Therefore, the best acid for
acid for acid hydrolysis is HCl.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – I
Caritas logo – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – II
Dedication – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -III
Certification – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – IV
Acknowledgment – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -V
Approval page – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -VI
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -VII
Table of contents – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – VIII

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Sources of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 2
1.3 Hydrolysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3
1.4 Statement of the problem – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -4
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1.5 Relevance of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 5
1.6 Objective and scope of the study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -6
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Literature review – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 7
2.2 History of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 11
2.3 Occurences – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 12
2.4 Energy store of plants – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 13
2.5 Biosynthesis of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 14
2.6 Structures of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 15
2.7 Classifications of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 16
2.7.1 Cellulose Nitrate – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 17
2.7.2 Cellulose Acetate – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 18
2.7.3 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -19
2.7.4 Ethyl cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -20
2.7.5 Methyl cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 20
2.7.6 Carboxy Methyl cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 21
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2.8 Hemicellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 23
2.9 Breakdown (cellulolysis) – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 23
2.10 Functions of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 24
2.11 Uses of sugar – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 25
2.12 Functions of sugar – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 27
2.13 Properties of cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 28
2.14 Methods of producing glucose from cellulose – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -29

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 Methodology – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -30
3.1 Materials and Equipment – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 30
3.1.1 Apparatus – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -30
3.2 Reagents – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 31
3.2.1 Hydrolysis (Acid hydrolysis) – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -32
3.2.2 Calorimetric Analysis of Glucose (using Benedict‟s solution) – – – – – – 33
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CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Results – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -35
4.2 Tables – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -36
4.3 Discussions – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 39

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Conclusion – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 41
5.2 Recommendation – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 42
References – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43
Appendix I – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 45
Appendix II – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 47
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 49
List of figure – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 49

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 INTRODUCTION
Cellulose is a naturally occurring polymeric material containing thousands of glucose
like rings each of which contain three alcoholic OH groups. Its general formula is
represented as (C6H10O5 )n. The OH-groups present in cellulose can be esterified or
etherified, the most important cellulose derivatives are the esters. Cellulose is the name
given to a long chain of atoms consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged in a
particular manner. Cellulose is found in nature in almost all forms of plant life, and
especially in cotton and wood. A cellulose molecule is made up of large number of
glucose units linked together by oxygen atom. Each glucose unit contains three(3)
Hydroxyl groups, the hydroxyl groups present at carbon-6 is primary, while two other
hydroxyl are secondary. Cellulose is the most abundant organic chemical on Earth more
than 50% of the carbon in plants occurs in the cellulose of stems and leaves. Wood is
largely cellulose, and cotton is more than 90% cellulose. It is a major constituent of plant
cell walls that provides strength and rigidity and presents the swelling of the cell and
rupture of the plasma membrane that might result when osmotic conditions favor water
entry into the cell. Cellulose is a fibrous, tough, water-insoluble substances, it can be seen
in cell walls of plants, particularly in stalks, stems, trunks and all woody portions of the
plant.
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Cellulose is polymorphic, i.e there are a number of different crystalline forms that reflect
the history of the molecule. It is almost impossible to describe cellulose chemistry and
biochemistry without referring to those different forms. Cellulases are gotten from
cellulose, cellulose is also found in protozoa in the gut of insects such as termites. Very
strong acids can also degrade cellulose, the human digestive system has little effect on
cellulose. The word cellulose means β-1,4-D-glucan, regardless of source because of the
importance of cellulose and difficulty in unraveling its secrets regarding structure,
biosynthesis, chemistry, and other aspects, several societies are dedicated to cellulose,
lignin, and related molecules.

1.2 SOURCES OF CELLULOSE
Cellulose for industrial conversion comes from wood and scores of minor sources such as
kenaf paper and rayon are now made mostly from wood pulp. cotton rings were
historically important for paper making, and cotton linters (short fibres are used to spin
yams) are now used in high quality writing and currency papers.
Cellulose forms very tightly packed crystallites, these crystals are sometimes so tight that
neither water nor enzymes can penetrate them; cellulose consists of two cellulose
molecules;
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Crystalline and amorphous cellulose. The crystalline cellulose is insoluble because of the
inability of water to penetrate cellulose, On the other hand amorphous cellulose allows
the penetration of endogluconase, another subgroup of cellulose that catalyze the
hydrolysis of internal bonds. The natural consequences of this difference in the
crystalline structure is that the hydrolysis rate is much faster for amorphous cellulose than
crystalline cellulose.
Some cellulose comes from the hairs (trichomes) on seeds, example: cotton, kapo and
milk weed. A commercial bacterial cellulose product (cellulon) was introduced by
Weyerhaeuser(22) for use in foods, the product is called primacel and is available from
Nutrasweet kelco. Recently, cellulose from sugar belt pulp and from citrus pulp has
aroused interest for use as a fat substitute.

1.3 HYDROLYSIS
Hydrolysis of cellulose is the process of breaking the glucosidic bonds that holds the
glucose basic units together to form a large cellulose molecule, it is a term used to
describe the overall process where cellulose is converted into various sweeteners.
Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction during which one or more water molecules are split into
hydrogen and hydroxide ions, which may go to participate in further reactions.

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1.4 SUGAR
Sugars (also called saccharides) are compounds containing an aldehyde or ketone
group and two or more hydroxyl groups. Sugar can also a sweet crystalline substance
obtained from sugar-cane and sugar beet. It includes sucrose, glucose and fructose.

1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The clamour for the diversification of Nigerian economy through low quality products
has motivated researchers to explore the numerous domestic, industrial and economic
importance of one Nigeria`s major product (cellulose) which forms the bedrock of this
project.
Sugar is a commodity of high demand for both domestic and industrial applications on
daily basis in homes, small and medium scale industries e.t.c. this is why Nigeria
government spends huge sums of money on importation of sugar and sugar products to
meet the demand of citizens. Among the many processes of sugar production, is acid
hydrolysis of (cellulose) has proved to be a process which encourages the production of
high quality with minimum skill and materials. This work is therefore an effort to
encourage industrialists, researchers, and students to carry out more intensive studies on
production of sugar from cellulose for production of sugar and enhanced economic
resources for the nation.
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1.6 RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is the largest producer of cellulose for which paper wood is made. A large
percentage of produced cellulose is consumed as paper, textiles, newspaper and
containers in form of writing, reading e.t.c.
The method of acid hydrolysis of cellulose:
 It creates job opportunities, hence, reducing unemployment in the country.
 It helps to know the best acid for the hydrolysis of cellulose.
 It establishes the industries for government to contribute immersely towards the
country economy.
 With the methods of glucose and cellulose production, the cost of glucose and
cellulose will reduce.
 It produces research workdone on the digestion of cellulose into glucose which I
will engage on it after my graduation.

1.7 OBJECTIVES.
The research project covers the processes, operations and pathways involved in the Acid
hydrolysis of cellulose to produce (glucose) sugar. The research study aims at:
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 Quantifying and calculating the yield of glucose from the hydrolysis of cellulose
using two different acids.
 The hydrolysis of cellulose into sugar using different concentration of hydrochloric
acid and sulphuric acid.

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