The Project File Details
- Name: THE ROLE OF CONSULTANT BUILDER IN MINIMIZING CHANGE ORDER IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS A CASE STUDY OF PUBLIC BUILDING PROJECT)
- Type: PDF and MS Word (DOC)
- Size: [254 KB]
- Length:  Pages
Changes to original design occur during construction to most projects, such changes leads
to increased cost, and delays as it affects time of completions, these changes are due to
design errors, omission and discrepancies that are found in construction documents. Such
errors, omission and discrepancies sometimes occurred as a result of inconsistent
dimensions, improper setting-out, poor coordination and communication lacuna amongst
the numerous parties involved in the design process.
Reoccurrence of this errors, omission and discrepancies is on the increase and therefore
deserve timely intervention. The objective of the study is to highlight cases of change order
and its implication in projects, hence the specific role of consultant’s builders ‘in
minimizing change order in construction projects. The objective with which to achieve the
aim is to sensitize and create awareness of the dangers of change orders in construction
projects and also to create awareness that the engagement of consultant builders is
imperative in minimizing change order in projects .This research discovered that change
order resulting from errors , omissions and discrepancies in the design , poor coordination,
communication lacuna among parties can be minimized or eliminated by the use of new
design software , the 3D parametric building software amongst others and this would
guarantee flexible and effective design . Minimizing the factors that causes errors ,
omission and discrepancies should start from inception of the project through the design
and construction stage to the end of the project .All parties to the contract : Architects,
Civil /structural Engineers ,Mechanical/Electrical Engineers, Quantity surveyors and the
Builders as a case study in this project must be involved to alleviate the incessant cases
of change orders to ensure that the client gets the best value for his money .
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
List of table v
List of figures vii
Table of contents x
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 3
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 4
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY 4
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTION 4
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS 5
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 CHANGE ORDER: THE BANE OF ALL CONSTRUCTION
2.2 CHANGE ORDER DISPUTE 8
2.3 THE ROLE OF A CONSULTANT BUILDER 10
2.4 BUILDABILITY 12
2.4.1 BUILDABILITY AND MAINTANABILITY ANALYSIS 14
2.4.2 BUILDABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY ANALYSIS REPORT 15
2.5 MODELLING (SOLUTION TO CONSTRUCTABILITY) 22
2.5.1 WORKFLOW MODEL 23
2.5.2 EXAMPLES OF WORKFLOW MODELS ARE 24
22.214.171.124 LINEAR APPROACH 24
126.96.36.199CIRCLE INTERACTION APPROACH 26
188.8.131.52 CONCURRENT ENGINEERING 27
2.5.3 SHARED PROJECT MODEL (SPM) 28
2.6 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY COMMUNICATION 30
2.6.1 KNOWLEDGE BASED SYSTEM 31
2.6.2 INTEROPERABILITY 32
2.6.3 LEVEL OF DESIGN AUTOMATED 33
2.6.4 CAD TECHNOLOGY 34
2.6.5 CAD SYSTEM 35
2.6.6 TWO DIMENSIONAL CAD 36
2.6.7 THREE DIMENSIONAL CAD MODELING 37
2.6.8 3D INTELLIGENT CAD (PARAMETRIC BUILDING) 37
2.6.9 AUTO DESK REVIT 39
2.6.10 ARCHI CARD 39
2.7 CHANGE ORDER IMPACT EVALUATION 40
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 42
3.1 POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE 42
3.2 SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION 42
3.3 QUESTIONNAIRE PREPARATION 43
3.4 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 43
4.0 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 44
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATION 67
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDING 67
5.2 CONCLUSION 68
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 68
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Kerezner (2003) change order is a process whereby changes in the
scope of work agreed to by the owner, contractor and Architect are
A change order is work that is added to or deleted from the original
scope of work of a contract, which alters the original contract amount or
completion period or date.
Change orders are common to most projects and very common with
large project (public projects). After the original scope for the contract has
been defined with the contract sum and completion period agreed by both
parties, the client may decide that the original concept do not best represent
his definition for the finished project. Accordingly, the client will suggest an
Common causes for change orders to be created are:-
1 Sudden change in client taste
2 Wrong initial estimate
3 Discrepancies in contract documents
4 Faulty design i.e. correction of design errors
5 The project teams are inefficient or incapable of completing their required
deliverable within budget and additional money, time or resources must be
added to the project.
6 Addition or omission from the original scope.
7 During the course of the project, additional features or options are perceived
and requested by both parties to the contract.
A project manager as the case may be, will generates a change order that
describes the new work to be done (or not done in some cases), and the price to
be paid for this new work.
Once this change order is submitted and approved, after a thorough cost
analysis by a cost expert in the construction industry to ensure that whatever
differential in terms of cost can be paid for by the client, it generally serves to
alter the original contract scope and sum such that the change order now
becomes part of the contract.
Bamisile (2004) a Builder is to study the production information from
production point of view and suggest ways by which the design could be more
production friendly for the direct benefit of client/developer. The
consultants/professional input of a builder is to complement the effort of the
design team with the singular objective of giving clients the best value for their
money and enhancement of the usage of the construction industry.
Thus reducing or immunizing change order which must have followed
without the professional advice of the consultant builder on buildability and
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Banisile (2004) the consultant Builder’s role in building development
process starts from the planning/design stage. In project construction, a
builder performs the following roles.
1 Carry out buildability and maintainability analysis.
2 Prepare production management documents.
3 Manage the production process on site
In discharging these functions; he would be able to capture and offer
advice on design changes during construction, to ensure that the project meets
builder’s requirements as highlighted above.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to apprise the roles consultant builders play in
minimizing change order in construction project – public building.
Also to established or investigate cause of change order in project
The objectives with which to achieve the aim are as follows
1 To sensitize and create awareness of the dangers of change orders
2 Create awareness that the engagement of consultant builder will minimize
change order in projects
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study focuses on design related change orders, especially those
resulting from errors, omission and discrepancies between contract
drawings. The scope will be restricted to Abuja and Kano state of Nigeria.
The study was limited to analysis the questionnaires using descriptive,
explanatory research and samplings techniques.
1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The significant of this study is to create an awareness that would
reduce, alleviate or minimize or totally eliminate factors that might result in
errors, omission and discrepancies in design that intimately lead to change
order in construction project in Nigeria.
This study is important to professionals, students in the building/
construction industry, the government and society in general so as to assist
in solving the change order problem associated with increased cost, loss of
productivity, and delays in the completion of projects in the constructions
industry, which in turn may generate claims and even costly litigations.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research project is unique as it attempts to provide answers to the
following questions which were formulated by the research in order to address
1 What are the factors responsible for error, omission, additions and
discrepancies in construction projects?
2 What are the implications of errors, omission, additions and discrepancies in
3 Is constructability analysis widely implemented in building construction
4 What are the roles played by different professional bodies in the
construction industry particularly, the consultant builder.
1.7 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis shall be subjected to empirical evidence
based on data collected.
H1: There is no significant effect of design on change order in the building
Ho1: There is significant effect of design on change order in the building
H2: There is no significant effect of poor coordination and communication on
errors, omission, addition and discrepancies.
Ho2: There is significant effect of poor coordination and communication on
errors, omission, addition and discrepancies
H3: The concept of 3D parametric build model is widely implemented in
the building construction industry.
Ho3: The concept of 3D parametric build model is not widely implemented
in the building construction industry.
It is pertinent to note, that the concept of 3D parametric build model is clearly
detailed in page 21, 22, 36 and37of this project work.
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