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  • Name: THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF THE BOKO HARAM INSURGENCE IN NIGERIA: 2009-2013
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ABSTRACT

Book Haram figuratively implies that western for nonIslamic education is a sin, is a very controversial Nigeria militant group that seeks for the imposition of sharia law in the entire northern states of Nigeria. The hierarchical structure of the group is not presently well defined. The official name of the group id jamaiatu Ahlis sunna lidda ―awai waljihad, which in Arabic translate to ―people committed to the propagation of the prophet‘s teaching and jhad‖ literally therefore the group means ―Association of sunn‘s for the propagation of Islamic and for Holy war (jihad) and Islamized northern stats of Nigeria and probably conquer the entire country through jihad. So far, the group has been waging the war successfully in it area of stronghold. Book Haram made its presence known in 2004, in Yobe states, and by 2011, it made its presence known to the global community by bombing the United Nations Headquarters in Abuja, especially in the last two years, it has willfully attacked hundreds of buildings and killing many innocent Nigerians. In spite of the calamity the group has caused the government seems not to know how to clip the group‘s wings. In this research work, therefore, effort will be made to philosophically and legally appraise the group activities and its implications on Nigerian National integration. We will look at the socio-economic implication of the group in Nigeria economic development also the drive of the Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria and possible suggest solutions that will assist in curtailing their activities in Nigeria

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page—————————————————-i
Approval Page———————————————–ii
Dedication————————————————iii-iv
Acknowledgement—————————————-v-ix
Abstract——————————————————-x
Table of Contents—————————————xi-xii
Chapter One: General Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study—————————
1.2 Statement of the Problem————————-
1.3 Objective of the Study——————————-
1.4 Literature Review ———————————
1.5 Significance of the Study————————-
1.6 Theoretical Framework—————————–
1.7 Hypotheses——————————————
1.8 Methods of Data collection and Analysis————1.9
1.9 Scope and Limitations of the Study——————-
1.10 Operationalization of Concepts——————
10

Chapter Two: the Driving Force of the Boko Haram
Insurgence
2.1 Historical Analysis of the Boko Haram Insurgence.
2.2 The Drive of Poverty.
2.3 The Drive of Unemployment
Chapter Three: Implication of the Boko Haram
Insurgence
3.1 Implication on Economic Development
3.2 Implication on National Integration
3.3 Implication on Nigeria‘s Foreign Relations
Chapter Four: Strategies for Addressing the Menace
of the Boko Haram Insurgence
4.1 The Strategy of Coercion
4.2 The Strategy of Legal Response
4.3. The Strategy of Dialogue and Negotiation
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and
Recommendations
11
5.1 Summary———————————-
5.2 Conclusion——————————–
5.3. Recommendations———————–
Bibliography—————————–

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigeria as a nation-state is under a sever internal
socio-economic and security threat. As a more general
level, the threat has social, economic, political and
environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions has
greatly affected the nation‘s stability, and can be traced
to the ethnic militia armies, ethnic and religious conflicts,
poverty, terrorism, armed robbery, corruption, economic
sabotage, and environmental degradation (Ilufoye, 2009).
Boko Haram insurgence becomes the major problem
facing Nigerians in the recent time. These groups have
perpetrated several bombing that have killed millions of
12
innocent citizens of this country Nigeria and also caused
the destruction of both private and public properties
worth of billion of naira. This derives from their bid to
make people in the north east geo-political zone of
Nigeria to embrace their view on Islamic Nigeria code and
western education.
The predominant threat and security challenges in
the area are emendating from un-abating attacks on
Nigerian citizens, individuals, public and governmental
installations, kidnapping and destruction of properties.
All these effect of Boko Haram activities are serious crime
against the Nigeria state, which has threatened its
national security and socio-economic activities. This has
posed a great challenges to the ground strategy for
national security of which the primary aim is ―to
strengthen the federal republic of Nigeria to advance her
interest and objectives, to contain instability, control
13
crime, quality of life of every citizens, improve the well
fare and the eliminate corruption‖ (Damba-zau 2007:51)
Boko Haram activities, has destabilized socio
economic activities. Increased crime and destruction of
both life and property of Nigerian citizens. This can be
attested to by the mass movement of people living in
northern part of the country most especially maiduguri,
which is the capital of Borno State. This situation has
made it impossible for the citizens in that part ―Northren‖
of Nigeria to carry on their legitimate businesses. It is
also scaring foreign investors out of the country.
Students have been forced to flee their schools. The
gravity of the crisis has made some government to vow
never to allow Nigerians students from their state to go to
the Northern part of Nigeria for anything. Boko Haram
activities also effected the posting of students of southern
and eastern extradition on national youth service corps
(NYSC) to the north, to the extent that parents are
14
strongly resisting the posting of their children as copper
to the north.
Boko Haram itself, is a fatal blow to the noble
objective of the scheme as a unifying strategy, the unity
of Nigerian is seriously threatened by Boko Haram
fundamentalist sect and therefore, considered to be a
major potential terrorist threat affecting Nigerian mostly
on the part of socio-economic activities of the country.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Boko Haram activities was described by us
intelligence agents in November 2011 ―as a local salafist
group attacking Christians and local police stations with
matchet and poison tipped arrows in Nigeria‘s
northeastern Borno state. According to him:
Boko Haram is a way of thinking, it is politically driven, they are loosely organized grassroots insurrection against not only the Abuja government but the traditional
15
Muslim establishment as well. (Campbell, 2011).

After nearly a decade of violence, Nigeria
government still does not have an effective strategy for
dismantling the group. The terrorist organization preys
on the disillusioned Muslims of the north, who are fed up
with corruption. And have few economic opportunities,
Nigeria is a heterogeneous country divided by two
religious beliefs aside traditional religion. The northern
half of the country is almost completely Muslim (50 per
cent of the total Nigerians population) and the southern
half is mostly dominated by Christians (40 per cent of the
total Nigerians population). Originating in the Muslim
dominated northern region of the country, the movement
other rejected everything deemed western. The activities
of these groups ―Boko Haram‖ grew its ranks by taking
advantages of the widespread anger in the north over the
country‘s gap. In the north, 72 percent of the population
16
live below the poverty line, compared to only 22 percent
in the southern part Christopher (Bartolta, 2011)
The political goal of Boko Haram sect is to create an
Islamic nation in the twelve northern states of Nigerians,
eventually, spreading to the rest of the country. From its
inception Boko Haram viewed Nigeria as a state or a
country running by non-believers and made the
government its main target, ever when the country had a
Muslim president.
Therefore, this research work seeks to find the
following:
1. Is poverty inducing the Boko Haram insurgency in
Nigeria?
2. Does the ―Boko Haram‖ insurgence have any socio
economic implication on Nigerians development?
3. Is dialogue a desideration to the Boko Haram
menace in Nigeria?

17
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objectives of the study are to examine the
activities of the Boko Haram and its socio- economic
implication on Nigeria‘s development. Using Boko
Haram terrorism in Nigeria as a case study. To achieve

this, specifically, this research work is designed to
examine the following:
1. To determine if poverty is inducing the Boko Haram
insurgency in Nigeria
2. To assess the socio-economic implication of Boko
Haram insurgence on the nation.(Nigeria)
3. To determine if dialogue is a desideration to the
Boko Haram menace in Nigeria

1.4 Literature Review
Literature review has to do with what other scholars
and authors have contributed to this study so far. The
18
term ―terrorism‖ refers to the systematic use of threat of
violence to communicate to political massage rather than
defeat an opponent, military force. Thus, the targets of
terrorism are symbolic and the victims of terrorism
represent a wider audience. To achieve a maximum
shock effective, terrorist violence is usually dramatic and
provocative.
Typically, small number of extremists who otherwise
lack the capacity to challenge those in power resort to
terrorism. A defining characteristics of terrorism is that
its users expects rewards that are of proportionate to
both the resources. They posses and the risk they
assume:
Terrorism is furthermore strategies that are not restricted to any particular ideology (smlter and Beltes, 2001).

According to Reich 1998, as a strategy of resistance
to the modem state, terrorism emerged some half century
19
after the French revolution, when the term originated as
a description of the state regime of terror. Russia
revolutionaries and anarchist in French, Spain, Italy and
German established terrorism as a central mechanism in
attempt to over throw the established regimes, most of
which were autocratic in the submission of Lain mclean
terrorism as a pejorative term, also applies to the deeds
of government of sovereign state. According to Lain
Mclean, an term ―state sponsored terrorism‖, is often
used to described the conduct of various government
indirectly organizing or indirectly assisting perpetration
of violence acts in other state. Lain Mclean argued that in
recent time, many countries of divergent ideological
persuasion have engaged in this kind of activities while in
some cases strictly condemning others forms practices
(Lain Mclean, 1996). Meanwhile, terrorism is a contested
concept that resist precise definition. Since the term is
both elastic and emotionally powerful, it lend itself to
20
subjective interpretation driven by political rather than
analytical purposes, it is also difficult to distinguish
terrorism from other forms of violence. Such as, for
example querilla warfare or criminal activities, if
terrorism is defined in terms of the intension behind the
action, is it possible to know those intension? What is
the relationship between religion and terrorism, be non
combatants for example?. If so are attacks on security
target act of terrorism?
Though, there is no official definition of terrorism
agreed on through out the world, and definitions tend to
rely heavily on who is doing the definition and for what
purpose. Some definition focus on terrorist tactics to
defined the term, while others focus on the actor. Ethnic
separatist, violence in the 1930‘s provoked the League of
Nations formed after world war 1 to encourage world
stability and peace to defined terrorism for the first time
as:
21
All criminal acts directed against a state and intended or calculated to create a state of terror in the mind of particular persons or group of persons or the general public. (League of Nation convection definition of terrorism, 1937).

Therefore, bringing to our understanding that Boko
Haram sect is pre-occupied with carrying out various
degree of attacks on civilians, usually used by the
powerless against powerful;
International terrorism interludes terrorists attacking a foreign targets other than within own country or abroad (Rurke 2008:316).

This means that September 11, 2011 attack was an
international terrorism while one of the attacks by the
Boko Haram sect such as the police stations attacks is a
domestic terrorism. But it becomes complicated if the
Boko Haram sect is still a domestic terrorism group
despites it seeming connection with other international
sect such as Hamas and Alqueda.
22
According to Claver (2002:302), he stated that
terrorism is the use of force to impact fear with a view to
bring about political, economic or social change‖
Recently, terrorism has been endemic in all parts of the
countries in the world. Cleavert went on to explain that:
It is true, as is often repeated that man‘s terrorist is another is an extreme example of an essential contested concept and its preacher‘s finds to polarize at extent that renders it extremely difficult to return to normal politics (Claver, 2002:303).

Drawing from the above assertion, indicated how
terrorism can lead to socio-economic underdevelopment
of a country, though he was not elaborate, but it is
worthy to appreciate his view that the practice of
terrorism group makes the society difficult to return to
normal politics. This can be deduced from the activities
of the Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria which has been
23
destabilizing socio-economic activities in the northern
part of the country.
Also terrorism are viewed from a complete different
angel by many authors among also includes Heywood. In
his own view, he explained three (3) dimensions of
terrorism. According to him:
The term is highly controversial first the distinction or warfare is burred by the fact that the later may also aim to stake fear in to wider population, secondly, as the term is highly prerogative, it stands to be used selectively (one person‘s terrorist is another person‘s freedom fighter) thirdly, although terrorism is usually conceived as an antigovernmental activities, government can employ terror against their own or other population, as in the case of terrorism in the state (Heywood, 2007:382)

This assertion of Heywood brings to out mind that
interregional terrorism can take different and many forms
whatever means these activities are perpetrated, the
contention of this research is that it directly leads to
24
underdevelopment. This is especially in the areas of these
states still batting with the problem of development.
Remarkable a very distant variant of terrorism is
that of Mbah (2008:139) stated that:
Terrorism as a deialedt necessity as well as the product of globalization and the expression of it, and because this relations is a class relation, the relevant division is an antagonistic one, which creates contradictory class intersection.

This is a very sharp contribution to the issue of
terrorism. But the fact is still that none of this authors
have been able to point out or suggest that terrorism
either domestic or international, direct or indirectly lead
to underdevelopment:
Goldia et al 92005:201) stated that:
Government appeals hind to portray terrorism simply as criminal violence assaults on society that can not be justified as serving a political cause.

25
Terrorism, typically, it has a political objective that
makes it a pervasive form of political conflict partied by
indefinable modes of political leadership and
participation. The above assertion tries to example the
structures of the Boko Haram insurgence in Nigeria. This
is because, if it is believed that the group shuns the
politics of the northern part of Nigeria and agitating for
imposition of sharia law. Hence, while this version partly
discuss the common modes of terrorist operation that
occurs in democratic politics, we should be aware of the
violence that can occur when democratic system breaks
down

1.5 Significance of the Study
All individual lives in a world prone to crisis. No
nation is free from crisis. Violence is now endemic in
human relations. The global threat of terrorism respect
no boundaries or borders. Nigeria is not free from these
26
threat, emanating from Boko Haram activities. Therefore,
the debating questions are:
1. What is the nature of this threat?
2. Have the security agencies handled the
situation well?
3. What have gone wrong with the strategy
employed
4. How should government respond responding to
these recent terrist bombing?
5. Can militaristic approach without more work,
work?
6. Are there lessons to be leant in the ways of
other countries handles such threat‖
This research work will attempt to answer these
questions, and build up relevant literatures on Islamist
fundamental, and contributes to academic, professional
and security at large as it enlightens, develops and
inform citizens and government of the reoccurring
27
activities of domestic terrorists and making of possible for
policy makers to strategize measures to handle the
conflict in Nigeria.
Beyond serving as an addition to already existing
literature, it will serve as a practical guide for those in
the field of criminal investigation departments, anti-
terrorism or counter insurgence.
This study is thereby motivated by strong desire to
contribute to the ranging dissolution its socio-economic
implication on Nigeria‘s development. It is therefore,
hoped that this study will be relevant and of benefits to
the students and scholars of political science, history,
intelligent and security studies and the society at large.

1.6 Theoretical Framework
According to Ohara (2003:63), knowledge does not
exist in a vacuum. In every descriptive, there is a body of
theories that provides the explanation for observable
28
phenomena in that field. This section attempt to draw
analogy between established theories and the problem
being investigated where such analogies drawn even
support the importance of the study. The theoretical
requirement of this work is draw from frustration
aggression theory which I believe provided a detailed
explanation for the emergence of ―Boko Haram‖
insurgence in Nigeria. The theory was propounded and
developed by John Dollard and his research associates
initially developed in 1939 and has been expanded and
modified by school like Leonard Berlowitz (1962) and
Audrey Yales (1962). The theory properly created the
analogy used within this research to explain the
dynamics in Boko Haram terrorism.
According to John Dollard (1939) he explained that
it seems to be that most common explanation for violent
behaviour stemmed from inability to fulfill needs. In
attempts to explain aggression, scholars points to the
29
difference between what people feel they want or deserve
to what they actually gets the ―want get-ratio‖
(teocrabends 1969) and difference between ―expected
need satisfaction‖ and actual need satisfaction (Davies,
1960). When expectation does not meet attainment the
tendency is for people to confront those hold responsible
for frustrating their ambitions. Therefore, frustration
aggression provides that aggression is not just
undertaking as a natural reaction or instinct as realist
and biological theorist assumes but that is the outcome
of frustration and that is in a situation where the desire
of an individual is denied either directly or by the
indirectly consequence of the way the society is
structured, the feeling of disappointment may lead such
a person to express his anger through violence that will
be directed those he holds responsible or people who are
directly or indirect related to them (Akwen, 2011:52-53).
30
As described by John Dollard, that most common
explanation for violence behaviour is instability to fulfill
needs. According to Bishop Mathew Hassan Kukah,
states that ―Boko Haram terrorism is a product of bad
government and corruption and therefore, fueled by
politics (Mayor 2011). In Nigeria, approximately 76
percent of northern on less than one dollar per day.
School are un- finance and the standard of education is
so poor that graduate are often unfit for employment. The
worst of it all is the Nigerian government poor responses
to the northern desire on economic and security
conditions which has fueled resentment, making many
young men vulnerable to Boko Haram recrulters. People
in the north are significantly marginalized and are not
provided the same economic opportunities and benefits
that the rest of the country enjoy (Ibid). The founder and
also the leader of the group, Mohammad Yusuf argued
that ―Western education or ―Boko‖ had brought nothing
31
but poverty and suffering to the region and was therefore,
―forbidden or Haram‖ in Islam (Reutrs, 2012).
This is the central government argument that led
Robert Gurr‘s (1970) relative deprivation these addressed
in saying that:
The greater the discrepancy, however marginal between what is sought and what seems attainable, the greater will be the chances that anger and violence will result (Ted, 1970).

A part from Nigeria government being corrupt in the
year 1999, the police claimed down on Boko Haram
members who were ignoring a law requiring motorcyclist
to wear helmets. That sparked a furious back lash. Police
stations and government offices in Borno state were
burned to ground hundreds of citizens released in prison
break, innocent citizens died on bomb explosion, public
and private properties destroyed etc. as the violence
spread across northern Nigeria.
32
The last stroke that broke the camel‘s back was the
government and its army reacting with force, the leader
of the Boko Haram group ‗Mohammed Yusuf‖ was
captured and shot dead in police custody. Five days of
fighting left more than 800 people dead (Morgan, 2011).
In other words, the group remains fiercely anti
government and anti-authority, and resentful of the
decades of corrupt, poor government that have improvise
it home region (Ibid).

1.7 Hypotheses
For the purpose of this study, this hypotheses were
formulated:
1. Poverty and unemployment seem to be the
driving force of the Boko Haram insurgence
2. Boko Haram insurgence has led to lose of
revenue and seeming disunity in Nigeria
33
3. Dialogue appears to be desideration to the Boko
Haram Menace in Nigeria.

1.8 Method of Data Collection
By method of data collection, we are referring to the
various means through which appropriate information
needed for this study was sourced, for the purpose of this
work. The method used in the gathering of the data
collection is mainly secondary source of data collection
This research is a topical issue, the secondary
method of sourcing was adequate, this include gathering
materials or information from text books journals,
magazines, newspapers, internet material seminars,
debates and seminars publications. Etc.

1.9 Scope and Limitations of the Study
The scope of this research work is quite broad that
it encompasses the investigation ―the effect of Boko
34
Haram insurgence on the socio-economic development of
Nigerian‖.
The limitation of this study, various factors
contributed in affecting in researchers
comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out the study.
Among these factors are scarcity of relevant materials on
the issue due to its continuous evolving nature and
virginity experienced its apex in the course of the
research interval.
Despite, the financial problem, hindrance and
shortcoming the research work will defiantly come to
accomplished.

1.10 Definition of Terms
According to Janct (2004:107), definition of terms
used in a research is operation. Works are defined as
they are used by the researcher. This means that
researcher uses certain words in the way they fit to the
35
study, which may be different from the ordinary
dictionary meaning. For an operational understanding of
the term used within this study, the definitions are as
follows:
Boko Haram:- The term Boko Haram is a derivation of
Hausa world ―Boko‖ meaning ―Animist‖ western or
otherwise non-Islamic education‖, while Haram is a word
with Arabic origin that figuratively means ―sin‖ but
literally, forbidden‘. In order words, Boko Harm means
―western education is forbidden or is a sin‖ (Wkipedia,
Boko Haram‖, 21/03/2013:1) Boko Haram is very
controversial Nigeria militant Islamic group that seeks for
the imposition of sharia law in the entire northern states
of Nigeria. The name officially of the group is jama‘atu
Alis-sunna Lidda‘awth wal jihad‖, which in Arabic
translated to people committed to the propagation of the
teaching of prophet and jihad‖ literally therefore, the
36
group means ―Association of sunnis for the propagation
of Islam and for Holy war.
Insurgence:- This is defined as a political battle waged
among a cooperative or acquiescence populace in order
for a group of outsiders to take over (or at lest
undermine) the government of a nation.
Crime:- On the definition of crime, the united Nation
Research institution. Observed that
Crime in the sense of branch of a legal prohibition, is a universal concepts, out what actually constitutes a crime and how seriously it should be regarded, varies enormously from one society to another perception of crime are not determined by any objective indictor of the degree of injury or damage, but by culture values and power relations (UN Research institute for social development, (1995).

In a strict legal definition, however, a crime is a violation
of the criminal law, which is subsequently followed by
legal punishment (Dambazau, 2007).
37
Violence:- Violence is defined by the World Health
Organization (WHO) as the international use of physical
force of power, threatened or actual against oneself,
another person, or against a group or community, that
either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in
injuries, death psychological harm, mal development or
deprivation. (Wikipedia, WHO).
Sect:- Sect can be seen as a body of persons
distinguished by pecularities of faith and practice form
other bodies adhering to the same general system.
Specially, the adherents collectively of a particular creed
or confession a demonation or older form of faith or
believe (Britanic world language dictionary).
Peace:- Peace is generally defined as the absence of war,
conflict, anxiety, suffering and violence and absolute
peaceful co-existence. However, peace connotes more
than a mere absence of war hostilities because an
absence of conflict is inevitable. Therefore, peace could be
38
defined as a political condition that ensure justice and
social stability through formal or informal institutions,
practices and norms (Howard, 1987).
Security:- Security can be defined to mean ― the total
sum of action and measures, including legislative and
operational procedures, adopted to ensure peace,
stability and the general well being of a nation and its
citizens (Shinikaiye, 2004:2).
Terrorism:- Terrorism is perhaps the most controversial
problematic concept to define in the world to day. This is
made more problematic blurred distinction between
legitimate act of resistance and criminal act of terrorism.
Despite these difficulties, however, terrorism could
conceptualized as the politically motivated acts of
violation perpetrated against civilian targets with the aim
of inflicting mass causalities, instilling fear and a sense
of insecurity and affecting a change in the policies and
action of the victims (Nolan, 1998).
39
National Security:- National security is best described
as a capacity to control those domestic and foreign
conditions that the public opinion of a given community
believes necessary to enjoy its own self-determination or
autonomy, prosperity and well being (Maier (2000:5).
Islamic Fundamentalism:- Islamic Fundamentalism is a
term used to describe religious ideologies seen as
advocating a return to the fundamentals of Islam, the
Quran and the Summah, it is deemed problematic by
those who suggest that Islamic belief requires all
Muslims to be fundamentalists (Bernard, 1993). Islamic
fundamentalist oppose the infiltration of secular and
westernizing influences and seek to institute Islamic law
including in Muslim and strict code of behaviour.
Domestic Terrorism:- Domestic Terrorism is the
commission of terrorist attacks in a state by forces inside
or originating from the state, as opposed to terrorist
attacks by forces external to the state. In other words,
40
domestic terrorism is a terrorist act practice in one‘s own
country against her own people (online dictionary).

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