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Cities and towns all over the world are rapidly growing. Population increase and economic booming is one of the leading factors of urbanization in Nigeria. Zaria is among the major Nigerian cities which have been experiencing rapid structural and functional changes which need to be understood, studied and measured for development control and proper planning for the growth. The study examined the spatio-temporal pattern of urban sprawl in Zaria Metropolis. LandSat ETM Satellite imageries of 1980,1990,2000 and 2013, as well as Questionnaire and field observation were used. The results of this study shows that within the periods of 33years, Zaria built-up area gradually expanded from 123.72km2 in 1980 to about 260.79 km2 in 2013 representing 29.10 percent. The growth of Zaria is associated with some socio-economic, environmental and planning problems. The result of the findings shows that, if the current rates of population increase and physical expansion continued, Zaria metropolis is likely to double its size in spatial extent in 50years. The researcher recommended that the Planning of infrastructure and Urban Services Delivery, Growth Management and Stakeholders Mobilization for Development through Advocacy should be maintained.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – -i
Declaration — – – – – – – – – -ii
Certification – – – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – – -iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – -vi
List of Tables – – – – – – – – – -vii
List of Figures- – – – – – – – – viii
List of Appendix – – – – – – – – -ix
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study- – – – – – – – -1
1.2 The Statement of the Research Problem- – – – – – -5
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study- – – – – – – -7
1.4 Scope of the study- – – – – – – – -7
1.5 Justification of the Study- – – – – – – – -8
CHAPTER TWO: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – – -9
2.2 Conceptual Framework – – – – – – – -9
2.2.1 Urban Sprawl – – – – – – – – -9
220.127.116.11 Definition of urban sprawl – – – – – – -9
18.104.22.168 The Evolution of Urban Sprawl – – – – – -10
22.214.171.124 Characteristics of Sprawl – – – – – – – -13
126.96.36.199 Spatial Concept of Urban Sprawl – – – – – -15
188.8.131.52 Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Urban Sprawl – – – – -16
2.2.2 GIS and Remote Sensing Techniques in Urban Sprawl Studies – -17
2.3 Literature Review – – – – – – – – -19
2.3.1 Strategies for the Containment of Sprawl – – – – -20
2.3.1..1 The Compact City – – – – – – – -20
184.108.40.206 The Growth Management – – – – – – -26
220.127.116.11 The Smart Growth – – – – – – -27
2.3.2 The Effect of Sprawl: Sustainability and Sprawl – – – -29
2.2.6 Insight and Conclusion – – – – – – – -37
CHAPTER THREE: STUDY AREA AND METHODOLOGY
3.1. Introduction – – – – – – – – -39
3.2 The study area – – – – – – – – 39
3.2.1 Location and Extent – – – – – – – -39
3.2.2. Weather and climate – – – – – – – -41
3.2.3. Vegetation – – – – – – – – -41
3.2.4. Drainage – – – – – – – – -42
3.2.5 Human Background of Zaria Metropolis – – – – -42
18.104.22.168 Economic Development of Zaria Metropolis – – – -42
22.214.171.124 Population of Zaria Metropolis – – – – – -43
126.96.36.199 Social Development – – – – – – – -43
3.3 Methodology – – – – – – – – -43
3.3.1. Reconnaissance Survey – – – – – – – -43
3.3.2. Data Needs and Sources – – – – – – -44
188.8.131.52 Types of Data Required – – – – – – -44
184.108.40.206 Sources of Data for the Study – – – – – – -44
3.3.3 Sampling Technique and Size – – – – – – -45
3.3.4 Data Processing – – – – – – – – -45
3.3.5 Data Analysis – – – – – – – – -46
3.3.6 The Method of Analysing Sprawl – – – – – -47
220.127.116.11The Impervious Metric – – – – – – -47
18.104.22.168 The permit Metric – – – – – – – -47
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1. Introduction – – – – – – – – -48
4.2 Pattern of Urban Sprawl – – – – – – – -48
4.2.1 Sprawl Pattern 1970-1980 – – – – – – -49
4.2.2. Sprawl Pattern 1980-1990 – – – – – – -51
4.2.3 Sprawl Pattern 1990-2000 – – – – – – -53
4.2.4 Sprawl Pattern 2000-2010 – – – – – – -54
4.3 Factors Responsible for the Emergence of Urban Sprawl Pattern in Zaria
Metropolis – – – – – – – – – -56
4.4 The Socio-Economic Effect of Urban Sprawl in Zaria – – – -58
4.5. Urban Sprawl and Its Implications in Zaria Urban Growth – – -61
4.5.1 Respondents view on rate of urban sprawl and its implications in the study area. – – – – – – – – – – – – 61
4.6 Insight and Conclusion – – – – – – – -67
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Summary of Findings – – – – – – – -68
5.2. General Recommendations – – – – – – -71
5.3. Recommendations for Zaria Metropolis – – – – – -71
5.4. Conclusion – – – – – – – – -74
References – – – – – – – – – -75
Appendices – – – – – – – – – -80
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Urban sprawl may be defined as the scattering of new development on isolated tracts, separated from other areas by vacant land (Lata, 2001). It has also been described as leapfrog development (Jothimani, 1997; Torrens and Albert, 2000). The need for monitoring urban development has become imperative to help curb the problems of this type of growth. Monitoring urban development is mainly to find the type, amount and the location of land conversion for future planning (Shekhar, 2001). Urban sprawl varies in degrees between the developed and the developing world and subsequently they have differing consequences. In a developing country such as Nigeria, development in urban areas and miscellaneous land use types are isolated in the fringe areas followed by gradual filling of intervening spaces with similar uses. This is mainly due to rapid growth in population size which is usually uncontrolled.
The world‟s population is put at about 6.572 billion people out of whom the United Nations data indicated that about 3 billion people (50 percent) live in urban areas (UNCHS, 2007) , where as about 66 percent of the entire world‟s population lived in the countryside in the early 1950‟s (World Bank, 2000; IMF, 2006). Current estimates show that by 2030, about 61 percent of the total population of the world will be living in cities; and that all the world‟ increase in populations in the next three decades will occur in low and middle income countries (Peters, 2002 and 2007).
Glaeser, Kahn and Chu (2001) have analysed the impacts of sprawl in form of traffic congestion, environmental consequences, infrastructure costs and social consequences. They concluded that cars are producing externalities in form of congestion and pollution. However, because of the decentralisation of jobs, the pollution problem is reduced. As people move to edge cities, or is it commuting are getting shorter. Sprawl uses up formerly undeveloped land. But, on the other hand only a small portion of US landscape is built- up land, implying that there is no scarcity of land. Glaeser et.al further argues that externalities decreased over time per miles travelled. Moreover urban agglomeration economies may be reduced by sprawl and deter overall productivity.
In view of the implications of the increasing urban population for sustainable development in low and middle income countries, the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) called on all governments to address the overwhelming challenge of provision of urban basic services especially decent housing, water and sanitation for the teeming population in slums, where the quality of life is appalling. While continents like Europe and the America have stabilized their population growth and economy to a large extent, most countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America have in the last decades not been able to deliver on their promises of alleviating the precarious state of living environment of their citizens (UNHABITAT, 2003).
Generally speaking, growth in urban population worldwide is considered as the factor directly responsible for the unprecedented rate of urban sprawl being witnessed across the world. This is because as the population of an urban centre increases, its need for infrastructure such as transportation, water, sewage, etc. and facilities such as housing, commerce, health, schools,
recreation, etc. increases, consequently resulting to the phenomenon known as urban sprawl. Settlements represent the most profound human alteration of the natural environment through a spectrum of urban land use activities (Ifatimehin and Musa, 2008) which include farming, fishing, wildlife etc, but are not restricted to, transportation, commercial, industrial, residential, institutional, and recreational land uses. The expansion that ensues as a result of increase in the demand for these land uses explains the underlying and fundamental causes of urban sprawl.
The modern concept of urban sprawl in environmental management only really began to evolve in Britain during the second half of the nineteenth century as a reaction against industrialization which had created such great inequalities in living conditions by exploring for profit whatever did not have to be paid for directly, such as housing, air, water and workers health (Relph,1987:49). An urban form building process that transforms a former monocentric compact structure into a discontinuous, polycentric and disperse settlement structure (Galster, Hanson, Ratcliffe, Wolman, and Coleman, 2001, Torrens and Alberti, 2000). However, low-density, single-use, automobile dependent type of development has come to dominate the urban environment in the past fifty years, and was brought about by a combination of regulatory, economic, social and cultural factors (Arbury, 2005).
Glaeser and Kahn (2003) have shown that cheaper land and housing costs in the suburbs has lured many to settle in these areas. In addition to that, there has been an increase in public spending in the United State of America (U.S.A) for the development of infrastructure like roads, water and electricity in the suburbs than existing urban centres, thus adding benefit to life in the sprawl. Again, there has been an increase in commercial lending practices that favour suburban development; Increase in family income of an average American raised his living
standard. Owning a car and paying for gas to transit from suburb to the city is affordable for many Americans.
The fact that Sprawls are characterized by low density population and less traffic congestion gives it advantage to some people. Therefore, even in the absence of any federal policies that would encourage growth of sprawls, these centres have proliferated due to the willingness of a growing number of people to live in sprawls where they find life more calm and peaceful than in the cities. Higher property and business taxes in the cities have pushed businesses to the suburbs where taxes are generally low. Talking about positive effects of sprawl there have to be considered increased satisfaction of housing preferences, the convenience of car travel, the filling in of leapfrogging land, lower crime rates and better public schools in suburban local governments (Feng ,2009).
According to Wassmer (2005) a lot of negative urban consequences can be attributed to sprawl. The car and its polluting effects, a lack of functional open space, air and water pollution, a loss of farmland, tax dollars spent on duplicative infrastructure, concentrated poverty, racial and economic segregation, a lack of employment accessibility etc. Glaeser et al. (2003) have analysed the impacts of sprawl in form of traffic congestion, environmental consequences, infrastructure costs and social consequences. They concluded that cars are producing externalities in form of congestion and pollution. However, because of the decentralisation of jobs, the pollution problem is reduced. Sprawl uses up formerly undeveloped land. But, on the other hand, only a small portion of U.S landscape is built- up land, implying that there is no scarcity of land. He further argues that externalities decreased over time per miles travelled. Moreover, urban agglomerations economies may be reduced by sprawl and deter overall
productivity. However, this must not necessarily be the case. Sprawl cities differ substantially in productivity. The case of Detroit and Silicon Valley shows that the only true negative consequences of sprawl are social. The segregation processes that we have discussed above lead to a sharp social separation: Those who can afford cars live in the suburbs, those who can‟t in the inner city.
One other aspect of sprawl is the spatial configuration of built space in urban area. The spatial configuration gives more information than the size or geometry of cities. Euclidean geometry is not powerful enough to explain the highly complex spatial organization, whereas fractal analysis offers a different perspective on the urban landscape which takes into account urban spatial complexity (Batty and Longley, 1994; Batty and Xie, 1996; Bovill, 2000 Mehaffy and Salingaros, 2001). In these studies, it is argued that the urban development process is chaotic, it can be defined as complex structure, and such complex can be quantified through the spatial patterns which show the irregularity of their configuration.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Rapid urban growth especially in the last two decades has put enormous pressure on land in Nigerian cities. The number of people living in Nigeria‟s towns and cities is expected to double to 80 million in the next 13 years and reach 100 million by 2010 (World Bank, 1996).The consequences especially for urban development and land management are many. The Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN)( 2006) in a white paper observed that, “the uncontrolled nature of urban development is brought about by the tremendous difficulty experienced by individuals and corporate bodies in giving access to build” (FGN, 2002:45). Government has re-iterated that the main objective of its National Urban Development Policy is, “to ensure that land is
available for the purpose of controlled and orderly development in the urban areas (FGN, 2006:14).
There is no doubt that in recent times, sprawling activities have profoundly changed the pattern and environmental management in Zaria urban area. While comprehensive assessment and survey of urban sprawl and its management in the town and environs has yet been undertaken. Fragmentary information tends to suggest that a number of environmental problems such as congestion, pollution, sprawling along the adjoining country-side etc, within and around the city have increased in spatial extent and severity (Jaiyeoba, 2010).There is every indication that this trend would continue for a long time, if necessary actions are not taken. Zaria started as a nucleus settlement and gradually increased in to it multiple nucleus settlement. Presently, the rate of urban sprawl is increasing, more neighbourhood sub-settlement have emerged due to different factors.
In this regard, the assessment of the spatial pattern, factors responsible, rate of growth and management of urban sprawl remains unresolved over the years, particularly in the study area. The study explore these problems of urban sprawl in Zaria Metropolis, which is spurred on by population growth for proper environmental management, control and sustainability. Moreover, to the best of the researcher‟s knowledge, studies have not been carried out on this problem, hence this constitute the gap in knowledge that this study intends to fill. The search for solution to this problems has to begin with the examination of the causes, pattern and rate of urban sprawl in Zaria metropolis. Therefore, this research attempt to seek answers to the following research questions:
1. What is the pattern of urban sprawl in Zaria Metropolis?
2. What are the factors responsible for spatial pattern of urban sprawl?
3. What is the rate of urban sprawl in the study area?
4. What are the Challenges of urban sprawl in the study area?
1.3. AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this study is to analyze the spatio-temporal pattern of urban sprawl with a view to providing a basis for urban land management in Zaria Metropolis, Kaduna State Nigeria.
The specific objectives are to:
i. determine the pattern of urban sprawl in Zaria using GIS and remote sensing
ii. examine the factors responsible for the spatial pattern of urban sprawl in Zaria.,
iii. establish the rate of urban sprawl and its implications in Zaria Metropolis.,
iv. explain the socio-economic effects of the sprawl on the people of Zaria.
1.4. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The spatial scope of this research covers Zaria Metropolis. That is, it covers Sabon-Gari, Zaria city, Samaru, Tudun-Wada, Kwangila and Dan-Magaji axies. The temporal extent of the study covers the period of 32 years. That is, from 1980 to 2013. The knowledge extent of this study was to analyze and determine the pattern and factors of urban sprawl in Zaria metropolis as well as its rate of growth for the management of the city. Some 20km radius around the town has been arbitrarily demarcated for the study with Tudun-Wada being the centre point.
1.5. JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY AREA
The study is envisaged to assist Kaduna State Urban Planning Development Authority (KASUPDA) and the State Ministry of land Survey and country Planning who are responsible for the supervision, monitoring, management, planning and maintaining the development control and ensuring the rules and regulations of their Board and Ministry are followed. The study also focuses on Zaria because it is one of the fast growing towns in the country, due to so many activities carried out in the City. The research is undertaken to bridge the knowledge gap,
via the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing technique. The study shall analyzed and examine the spatial pattern, rate and extent of growth and management of urban sprawl in the study area. The study would serve as a useful reference material to researchers in the field of urban environmental studies.
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